Post-racial America is a theoretical environment where the United States is devoid of racial preference, discrimination, and prejudice. Some Americans believed that the election of Barack Obama as President and wider acceptance of interracial marriage signified that the nation had become post-racial. In January 2010 the Pew Research Center conducted a poll in conjunction with National Public Radio that indicated that 39% of persons of African-American descent felt they were in a better position than they had been five years ago, an increase of 19% from the previous poll taken in 2008.  University of Melbourne academic Timothy Laurie argues that "post-racial" discourses "displace ‘racism’ onto ‘backward’ sectors of American society, often coded as Southern, rural or working class, while the long-term future is presented as a color-blind, cosmopolitan utopia". Actor and director Mario Van Peebles made a television documentary titled Fair Game that challenged the idea that the United States had become a post-racial society.