Primark store in Boston, Massachusetts opened in September 2015
|Subsidiary of Associated British Foods|
|Founded||June 1969 in Dublin, Ireland|
|Headquarters||45-47 Mary Street, Dublin 1, D01 NX45, Ireland |
Number of locations
|325 stores |
|United Kingdom, Ireland, Europe, and the United States |
|Paul Marchant, CEO
John Lyttle, COO
Steve Lawton, Trading Director
Jose Luis Martinez De Larramendi, Head of Spain and Portugal Division
Julian Kilmartin, Buying and Merchandising Director 
|Revenue||£5,347m (FY 2015)|
|£673m (FY 2015)|
Number of employees
|over 57,000 |
|Parent||Associated British Foods|
Primark (branded as Penneys in Ireland) is an Irish clothing retailer operating in Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Ireland, Portugal, Spain, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, the United States and Italy. It was founded and headquartered in Dublin, Ireland. The company's international headquarters is registered in Ireland. Its UK operations are registered in England and Wales. Primark is a subsidiary of international food, ingredients and retail group Associated British Foods.
Primark was first opened by Arthur Ryan in June 1969 in Mary Street, Dublin under the name Penneys. Further expansion and success in Ireland led to the move to the United Kingdom, and, in 1971, it opened a large store in Belfast City Centre before opening four out-of-town stores in England in 1973. In October 2011, Primark opened its first concession model. Primark is now stocked in Selfridges department stores in Trafford Centre, Manchester, The Bull Ring, Birmingham and Oxford Street, London.
In 1973, when it opened its first English store in Derby, the first store outside Ireland, it couldn't use the name "Penneys" because J. C. Penney had the name registered. The name "Primark" was then invented to use outside Ireland.
Primark offer a diverse range of products, including new born and kids clothing, women's wear, men's wear, home ware, accessories, footwear, beauty products and confectionery. The company sells clothes at the low cost end of the market below average prices. Along with retailers such as Zara and H&M, Primark contributes to the contemporary fast fashion trend. According to an article about Primark in The Economist, "For many shoppers, Primark has an irresistible offer: amazing trendy clothes at amazingly low prices. The result is a new and even faster kind of fast fashion, which forces consumers to buy heaps of items sometimes even the same ones to use when the first ones worn out, discard them after a few wears and then come back for another batch of new outfits."
Primark have created a new line called "PS Pro" which has been praised by many beauty bloggers for its high quality and low price. 
Primark expanded rapidly in the UK in the mid-2000s. Primark own over 290 stores across the UK,Europe, Ireland and the USA. In 2005 they bought the Littlewoods retail stores for £409m, retaining 40 of the 119 stores and selling the rest. They opened in the Meadowhall Centre in mid-2007. In May 2006, the first Primark store outside Ireland and the UK opened in Madrid, Spain. After 10 years of constructing a chain around 40 stores in Spain, Primark finally opened its second biggest store in the world in Madrid in October 2015. In December 2008, Primark opened its first stores in the Netherlands, followed in 2009 by its first stores in Portugal, Germany and Belgium. Primark opened its first store in Austria on 27 September 2012 in Innsbruck, this was followed by another store in Vienna which opened in October 2012. The world's largest Primark store is located on Market Street, Manchester, England, occupying 155,000 sq ft (14,400 m2) of retail space across three floors.
Primark expanded to the United States in 2015 when it opened its first store in Downtown Crossing, Boston in the location that was once the flagship store of Filene's. The other American store is located at the King of Prussia Mall, the nation's largest mall, near Philadelphia. The third location opened in the Danbury Fair Mall, Danbury, CT in June 2016. A fourth location opened on 16 July 2016 in the Freehold Raceway Mall, Freehold, NJ. They occupy the upper level that Sears abandoned. A fifth location opened in Willow Grove Park Mall, near Philadelphia shortly thereafter.
There will be a new Penneys store opening in Liffey Valley Shopping Centre in Dublin Ireland, on the 6th of December 2016
Primark operates stores in the following countries:
|Country||Number of stores|
In 2006, Primark joined the Ethical Trading Initiative, a collaborative organisation bringing together businesses, trades unions and NGOs to work on labour rights issues in their supply chains. ETI members commit to working towards the implementation of a code of conduct based on the International Labour Organisation's core conventions.
In December 2008, the UK charity War on Want launched a new report, Fashion Victims II, that showed conditions had not improved in Bangladeshi factories supplying Primark, two years after the charity first visited them.
On 9 January 2009, a supplier was forced by ETI to remove its branding from Primark stores and websites following a BBC/The Observer investigation into the employment practices. The investigation alleged use of illegal immigrant labour and argued that the workers were paid less than the UK legal minimum wage.
On 16 June 2011, the BBC Trust's Editorial Standards Committee (ESC) published its findings into a Panorama programme 'Primark: On the Rack', broadcast in June 2008. The programme was an undercover investigative documentary examining poor working conditions in Indian factories supplying Primark. Although Primark subsequently stopped doing business with the Indian supplier, the ESC concluded that footage in the programme was 'more likely than not' to have been fabricated. The ESC directed the BBC to make an on-air apology and to ensure that the programme was not repeated or sold to other broadcasters. Primark created a specific website to deal with the issues around the programme.
Building collapse at Savar
On 24 April 2013, the eight-story Rana Plaza commercial building collapsed in Savar, a sub-district near Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh. At least 1,127 people died and over 2,438 were injured. The factory housed a number of separate garment factories employing around 5,000 people, several shops, and a bank, and manufactured apparel for brands including the Benetton Group, Joe Fresh, The Children's Place, Primark, Monsoon, and DressBarn. Primark paid compensation and emergency aid to the victims of the collapse, a move which was welcomed by Oxfam, and committed to review the structural integrity of buildings making its clothes.
Of the 29 brands identified as having sourced products from the Rana Plaza factories, only 9 attended meetings held in November 2013 to agree a proposal on compensation to the victims. Several companies refused to sign, including Walmart, Carrefour, Mango, Auchan and Kik. The agreement was signed by Primark, Loblaw, Bonmarché and El Corte Inglés.
Also in June 2014, a customer from Ireland found an SOS note wrapped in a prison ID card in the pocket of trousers purchased from a Primark store several years earlier. The letter was written in Chinese and alleged that prisoners were forced to work "like oxen" making fashion clothes for export for 15 hours per day, and the food they were given wouldn't be fit for dogs or pigs.
A year and a half later an SOS note from an alleged Chinese torture victim was found in socks purchased from Primark.
- Birmingham-Relocating To The Former Pavilions
- Merry Hill-Formerly Cargo Home, MK One, Index And WH Smith
- Wolverhampton-Formerly Littlewoods
- Hammersmith-Formerly Littlewoods
- Poole-Formerly Littlewoods
- Bournemouth-Formerly BHS
- Worcester-Formerly BHS
- Winchester-Formerly BHS
- Kings Lynn-Formerly BHS
- Canterbury-Formerly BHS
- Bath Spa-Formerly BHS
- Cardiff-Formerly BHS
- White City-(Opening Soon)
- Liverpool-Formerly Littlewoods
- Portsmouth-Formerly Littlewoods
- Southampton-Formerly Marks & Spencer
- Northampton-Formerly House Of Fraser Originally Beatties
- Southport-Formerly Littlewoods
- Stratford City
- Redditch-Formerly Allders
- Coventry-Formerly Allders
- Fort Shopping Park-Formerly WH Smith
- Gloucester-Formerly Littlewoods
- Bristol-Formerly House Of Fraser Originally Lewiss
- Croydon-Formerly Littlewoods
- Lakeside-Formerly Allders
- Romford-Formerly Littlewoods
- West Bromwich
- Lancaster-(Opening Soon)
- Truro - (Opening Soon)
- Wilton Cork
- Munster Arcade Cork
- Galway SC Galway
- Galway Eyre Sq, Galway
- Mary Street Dublin
- O'Connell StreetDublin
- Swords Dublin
- Newbridge Kildare
- O'Connell Street Limerick
- Crescent Shopping Centre Limerick
- Athlone Westmeath
- Ballina Mayo
- Dundrum Town Centre Dublin
- Blanchardstown Dublin
- Liffey Valley Dublin (Opening)
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- Clare O'Connor (30 April 2013). "'Extreme Pricing' At What Cost? Retailer Joe Fresh Sends Reps To Bangladesh As Death Toll Rises". Forbes.
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- Shafiul Alam, Rabiul Alam, Manirul Islam, Amin Salek (16 May 2016). "Report from the Field: Pattern of Injuries and Treatment Given to Victims of Rana Plaza Tragedy in a Level II Armed Forces Medical Facility in Bangladesh". Journal of Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness. Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/dmp.2016.82.
- "Concerned shoppers speak out as Primark investigates 'sweatshop' labels". South Wales Evening Post.
- "Primark claims 'cry for help labels' are a hoax carried out in the UK following investigation". The Independent.
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Media related to Primark at Wikimedia Commons