Pronator teres muscle
|Pronator teres muscle|
Anterior view of the left forearm. Superficial muscles. (Pronator teres colored at center.)
|Latin||Musculus pronator teres|
|Origin||humeral head: medial supracondylar ridge of humerus (common flexor tendon)
ulnar head: coronoid process of ulna
|Insertion||Middle of the lateral surface of the body of the radius|
|ulnar artery and radial artery|
|Actions||pronation of forearm, flexes elbow|
|Anatomical terms of muscle|
The pronator teres is a muscle of the human body (located mainly in the forearm) that, along with the Pronator quadratus, serves to pronate the forearm (turning it so that the palm faces posteriorly when from the anatomical position).
The word pronator comes from the Latin pronus, which means “inclined forward or lying face downward”, and has to do with the muscle's action being pronation of the forearm. The Latin term teres, which means "round or cylindrical shaped" or "long and round", refers to the shape of the muscle. The indirect English translation of pronator teres is therefore: cylindrical muscle that pronates (the forearm).
The pronator teres has two heads—humeral and ulnar.
The humeral head, the larger and more superficial, arises from the medial supracondylar ridge immediately superior to the medial epicondyle of the humerus, and from the common flexor tendon (which arises from the medial epicondyle).
The ulnar head is a thin fasciculus, which arises from the medial side of the coronoid process of the ulna, and joins the preceding at an acute angle.
The muscle passes obliquely across the forearm, and ends in a flat tendon, which is inserted into a rough impression at the middle of the lateral surface of the body of the radius, just distal to the insertion of the supinator.
The pronator teres is innervated by the median nerve.
Pronator teres pronates the forearm, turning the hand posteriorly. If the elbow is flexed to a right angle, then pronator teres will turn the hand so that the palm faces inferiorly. It is assisted in this action by pronator quadratus.
It also weakly flexes the elbow, or assists in flexion at the elbow when there is strong resistance.
- patients with the pronaor teres syndrome have numbness in median nerve distribution with repetitive pronation/supination of the forearm, not flexion and extension of the elbow
- early fatigue of the forearm muscles is seen with repetitive stressful motion, especially pronation
- EMG may show only mildly reduced conduction velocities
- despite their anatomic proximity, patients with pronator teres syndrome do not have a higher incidence of AIN syndrome;
- other sites of compression:
- ligament of Struthers
- lacertus fibrosis
- pronator teres muscle
- proximal arch of the FDS
- rare causes such as following tendon transfers for radial palsy
- dissimilarity to CTS:
- positive Tinel's in forearm rather than at wrist
- negative phalen's test
- dysesthesia of palmar triangle
- pain on resistance to pronation
- pain in forearm on resistance to isolated flexion of the PIP joint of long and ring fingers
- Illustration: upper-body/pronator-teres from The Department of Radiology at the University of Washington
- -234487749 at GPnotebook
- Pronator_teres at the Duke University Health System's Orthopedics program