Prostitution in Europe
The legality of prostitution in Europe varies by country.
Some countries outlaw the act of engaging in sexual activity in exchange for money, while others allow prostitution itself, but not most forms of procuring (such as operating brothels, facilitating the prostitution of another, deriving financial gain from the prostitution of another, soliciting/loitering).
In eight European countries (The Netherlands, Germany, Austria, Switzerland, Greece, Turkey, Hungary, and Latvia), prostitution is legal and regulated.
The degree of enforcement of the anti-prostitution laws vary by country, by region and by city. In many places, there is a big discrepancy between the laws which exist on the books and what happens in practice.
Depending on the country, various prostitution related activities may be prohibited (where a specific law forbids such activity), decriminalized (where there is no specific law either forbidding or allowing and regulating the activity), or regulated (where a specific law explicitly allows and regulates the activity if certain conditions are met). Activities which are subject to the prostitution laws include: selling and buying sexual services, soliciting in public places, running brothels, deriving financial gain from the prostitution of another, offering premises to be used for prostitution etc. Often, the prostitution laws are not clear-cut, and are subject to interpretation, leading to many legal loopholes. While the policy regarding adult prostitution differs by country, child prostitution is illegal throughout Europe. Similarly, human trafficking, forced prostitution, and other abusive activities are also prohibited.
The legal and social treatment of prostitution differs widely by country. Very permissive prostitution policies exist in the Netherlands and Germany, and these countries are major destinations for international sex tourism. Amsterdam's prostitution windows are famous all over the world. In Sweden, Norway, Iceland, Northern Ireland, France, and the Republic of Ireland, it is illegal to pay for sex, but not to be a prostitute (the client commits a crime, but not the prostitute). In parts of Central and Eastern Europe, the anti-prostitution laws target the prostitutes, because in these countries, prostitution is condemned from a moral or conservative viewpoint. Other countries which have restrictive prostitution policies and officially affirm an anti-prostitution stance are Great Britain, Ireland, and Italy. In countries such as Spain, Belgium, and the Czech Republic, attitudes are more laissez-faire and tolerant, but prostitution is not officially recognized as a job, and not officially and legally regulated, and pimping is forbidden.
- 1 Table
- 2 Central Europe
- 3 Eastern Europe
- 4 Northern Europe
- 5 Southern Europe
- 6 Western Europe
- 7 See also
- 8 References
|Country/Territory||Prostitution||Legal Age for acquisition||Brothels||Pimping||Notes|
|Albania||Illegal||not allowed||Illegal||Illegal||Human trafficking is a major problem. Most foreign prostitutes are trafficked into Albania from former Soviet Union countries, Serbia, Macedonia, Montenegro and Greece.|
|Bosnia and Herzegovina||Illegal||not allowed||Illegal||Illegal|
|Bulgaria||Prostitution isn't specifically addressed in the law||age uncertain||Illegal||Illegal||Human trafficking remains a major problem|
|Croatia||Illegal||not allowed||Illegal||Illegal||Despite Croatia's harsh punishments for prostitution, it remains a major problem.|
|Finland||Legal, but illegal in public and illegal to solicit from a victim of trafficking||Legal, but illegal in public and illegal to solicit from a victim of trafficking; 18||Illegal||Illegal|
|France||Legal to sell sexual services, illegal to pay for sexual services||18||Illegal||Illegal|
|Germany||Legal||18||Legal||Legal||Human trafficking is a major problem, most foreign prostitutes are trafficked into Germany, mainly from Central and Eastern Europe.|
|Iceland||Legal to sell sexual services, illegal to pay for sexual services||Unknown||Illegal||Illegal|
|Ireland||Legal to sell sexual services, illegal to pay for sexual services||18||Illegal||Illegal|
|Italy||Legal||18||Illegal||Illegal||Prostitution is not recognised, prostitutes are not able to pay taxes and pension contributions and the successful ones are at risk of being prosecuted for tax evasion.|
|Liechtenstein||Illegal, but tolerated||not allowed, but tolerated||Illegal||Illegal|
|Moldova||Illegal||not allowed||Illegal||Illegal||Prostitution and human trafficking is a major problem due to poverty. Many Moldovan prostitutes are trafficked into other European countries, the U.A.E., and Israel|
|Netherlands||Legal||For prostitutes 18
(21 in Amsterdam);
16 for clients (nationwide)
|Legal||Legal||Clients must be at least 16 years old, the age of consent in the Netherlands.
Prostitutes must be at least 18 throughout the Netherlands.
A new law, not yet in effect, will require the prostitutes to be at least 21. Nonetheless, since July 2013, the prostitutes must already be 21 in the City of Amsterdam.
|Norway||Legal to sell sexual services, illegal to pay for sexual services||18||Illegal||Illegal|
|Romania||Decriminalized||not allowed||Illegal||Illegal||Human trafficking remains a major problem|
|Russia||Illegal||not allowed||Illegal||Illegal||Prostitution and human trafficking is a major problem due to police corruption. Many foreign prostitutes trafficked into Russia are from other former Soviet republics, China, and North Korea and many Russian prostitutes are trafficked into China, Germany, South Korea, and the United States|
|Spain||Uncertain, but prostitution itself isn't a crime||age uncertain||Uncertain (Brothels allowed to charge prostitutes for the room and other services)||Illegal|
|Sweden||Legal to sell sexual services, illegal to pay for sexual services||18||Illegal||Illegal|
|Turkey||Legal||18||Legal; All brothels are government owned||Illegal|
|Ukraine||Illegal, but tolerated||not allowed, but tolerated||Illegal||Illegal||Laws on prostitution are largely unenforced by the government.|
|United Kingdom||Legal, but acquisition in public and kerb-crawling are illegal - except Northern Ireland, where it is illegal to pay for sex||18||Illegal||Illegal|
|Vatican City||Illegal||not allowed||Illegal||Illegal|
In the Czech Republic, prostitution is legal, but brothels and other forms of procuring are prohibited. The enforcement of these laws is lax, and prostitution and other activities which surround it are very common in the country.
Ever since the Velvet Revolution in Czechoslovakia in 1989 led to the creation of the two independent states Czech Republic and Slovakia, prostitution has been flourishing, and has contributed its share to the region's booming tourist economy. It is widespread in Prague and areas near the Republic's borders with Germany and Austria. In 2002, the Czech Statistical Bureau estimated the trade to be worth six billion Czech koruna ($217 million) a year.
Prostitution is legal and regulated in Germany. In 2002, the government changed the law in an effort to improve the legal situation of prostitutes. Germany is listed by the UNODC as one of the most common destinations for victims of human trafficking.
Prostitution is legal and regulated in Hungary. (It has been legalized and regulated by the government since 1999.) Under the law, prostitutes are professionals who engage in sexual activities in exchange for money. The government allows this activity as long as they pay taxes and keep legal documents.
In Poland prostitution is legal, but operating brothels or other forms of pimping or coercive prostitution and prostitution of minors are prohibited.
Prostitution itself is legal, but operating brothels and other activities related to prostitution are prohibited.
Full service sex work in Switzerland is legal and regulated; it has been legal since 1942. Licensed brothels, typically with a reception and leading to several studio apartments, are available. Street prostitution is illegal, except in specially designated areas in the major cities.
In Armenia, prostitution itself is legal. Pimping, however, is punished by a prison term. Operating a brothel and engaging in other forms of pimping are crimes punishable by one to 10 years' imprisonment.
Prostitution in Moldova is illegal, but because it is Europe's poorest country, it is a major exporter of human trafficking for the purpose of the sex trade. Human traffickers primarily recruit women from poor villages. Women and children are trafficked for sexual exploitation to Turkey, Israel, the United Arab Emirates, Ukraine, Russia, Cyprus, Greece, Albania, Romania, Hungary, Slovakia, the Czech Republic, Austria, France, Italy, and Portugal. The authorities have tried to lead awareness among the population about the extent of this problem, and during the early 2000s the authorities launched numerous information campaigns. One consisted of billboards in the streets of the capital Chişinău depicting a girl gripped in a huge clenched fist and being exchanged for dollars. The caption read: "You are not for sale".
Prostitution was decriminalized in Romania on 1 February 2014. Prior to that date, it was considered a criminal offense (infracţiune) punishable by up to 3 years imprisonment; currently it is an administrative offense (contravenție) punishable by a fine of 500–1500 lei (approximately 110–330 euros as of 2016). Clients are not prosecuted, unless they knowingly use the services of a victim of human trafficking. The government had considered legalizing and regulating it (in 2007). The Association for the Promotion of Women in Romania opposes legalized prostitution, as they view prostitution as "another form of violence against women and girls". Also, the Romanian Orthodox Church often protests against prostitution.
Romania is among the 11 countries listed by the United Nations as the biggest sources of human trafficking, based on reported numbers of victims. Every year thousands of women and girls, some as young as 13, are kidnapped or lured by promises of well-paid jobs or marriage and sold to gangs who lock them up in night clubs and brothels or force them to work on the streets.
Prostitution is an administrative, but not criminal, offence in Russia (such as, for example, drinking beer in a public place or walking nude on the street). The maximum punishment is a fine up to 2000 rubles (~$65); however, organizing prostitution or engaging somebody into prostitution is punishable by a prison term.
Prostitution is illegal in Ukraine, but is nevertheless widespread and largely ignored by the government. Laws criminalizing organized prostitution and penalties for human trafficking have had little effect because many convicted traffickers often do not end up serving prison time.
Prostitution itself is legal, but organized prostitution is illegal.
Under Danish Jurisdiction, the legal status of prostitution remains lawful. However, there is no evidence of organised prostitution within the self-governing territory.
Prostitution itself is legal in Finland (soliciting in a public place is illegal), but organized prostitution, operating a brothel or a prostitution ring, and other forms of pimping) is illegal. In June 2006, parliament voted by 158 to 15 with four abstentions to approve a bill which outlaws the buying of sexual services from prostitutes if it is linked to human trafficking. According to a recent TAMPEP study, 69% of prostitutes are foreigners. As of 2009, there was little "visible" prostitution in Finland, as it was mostly limited to private residences and nightclubs in larger metropolitan areas.
Opinion polls have shown that up to 70% of the population supports banning the purchase of sexual services.
Prostitution itself is legal in the Republic of Ireland, but the law criminalises many activities associated with it (solicitation in a public place, operating a brothel, or other forms of pimping). However, female escort prostitution is widespread. Swedish-type legislation is being considered which would outlaw paying for sex, meaning that the client would commit a crime, but not the prostitute. Prostitution in Ireland is almost entirely indoor apartment-based girls advertising on the internet, of whom 99% are foreigners, from mixed nationalities, including a high number of East Europeans.
Prostitution is legal and regulated in Latvia. Prostitutes must register, must undergo monthly health checks, and must carry a health card; if they fail to do so, they can be penalized. Although prostitution is regulated in Latvia, brothels and other forms of procuring are illegal. According to the law, "Any activity of the third person which promotes prostitution is prohibited", and, "Persons are prohibited to join in groups in order to offer and provide sexual services".
Prostitution in Lithuania is illegal, but it is common. The penalty for prostitution is a fine of $120 to $200 (300 to 500 litas) for a single offense and up to $400 (1,000 litas) for repeat offenses.
Paying for sex is illegal (the client commits a crime, but the prostitute does not). This law prohibiting the buying of sexual services (sexkjøpsloven) came into effect on January 1, 2009, following the passing of new legislation by the Storting in November 2008.
Paying for sex is illegal (the client commits a crime, but not the prostitute). The Sex Purchase Act (Sexköpslagen), which makes it illegal to pay for sex, but not to be a prostitute, was adopted in 1999, and was then unique. Since then, similar laws have been passed in Norway and Iceland.
The rationale underpinning the law was the view that prostitution was a form of violence against women so the crime consists in the customer paying for sex, not in the prostitute selling sexual services. This 'rationale' sees the seller of sex as the exploited partner in the exchange.
The Policing and Crime Act 2009 makes it illegal to pay for sex with a prostitute who has been "subjected to force", and this is a strict liability offence (clients can be prosecuted even if they didn't know the prostitute was forced).
In Northern Ireland, which previously had similar laws to the rest of the United Kingdom, paying for sex became a crime when the Human Trafficking and Exploitation (Criminal Justice and Support for Victims) Act (Northern Ireland) 2015 was enacted in January 2015.
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Prostitution is illegal. The law treats procuring as a major crime. Under the law, trafficking is a state-level crime that carries a sentence of up to 10 years in prison.
Prostitution itself is legal, but organized prostitution (brothels, prostitution rings, or other forms of procuring) is prohibited. Because of poor socioeconomic conditions, a high number of Romani women are involved in prostitution.
The Bulgarian government has stepped up its efforts to eradicate human trafficking. The sex trade is a major money maker for Bulgarian criminals. In the past, the Bulgarian government considered fully legalizing and regulating prostitution.
There are 20,000 Bulgarian prostitutes abroad and this is source of foreign exchange earnings for Bulgaria.
Prostitution in Croatia is illegal. Forcible prostitution, any kind of brothels, or procuring are treated as felony, while voluntary prostitution is considered to be infraction against public order (for prostitutes only; clients are not in violation of law). Like in many other Southeast European countries, the problem of human trafficking for the purposes of sex is big in Croatia. However, according to the U.S. State Department, Croatia is a tier 1 country, actively working to prevent the sex trade.
Prostitution is legal at the age of 18. Persons engaged in prostitution must register at the local prefecture and carry a medical card that is updated every two weeks. Greek authorities decided to implement a 1999 law which stipulates that all brothels must have permits. It is estimated that fewer than 1,000 women are legally employed as prostitutes and approximately 20,000 women, most of foreign origin, are engaged in illegal prostitution. According to NGO estimates, there are 13,000-14,000 trafficking victims in the country at any given time. Major countries of origin for trafficking victims include Nigeria, Ukraine, Russia, Bulgaria, Moldova and Belarus.
In Italy, prostitution itself is legal, but the law prohibits organized prostitution (brothels, prostitution rings or similar commercial enterprises and other forms of pimping). In 2008, the Government approved a law proposal by one of its ministry to forbid street prostitution, but the proposal has never been converted into law; thus, street prostitution is still legal in Italy, and is very common. Italy is listed by the UNODC as a top destination for victims of human trafficking.
Prostitution is illegal, and can incur a prison sentence of between 5 and 10 years. However, the latest report adds that Prostitution has become a new organized crime in Kosovo.
Prostitution itself is legal, but certain activities connected with it, such as running a brothel and loitering, are not. Certain offences are punishable by sentences of up to two years in prison.
In March 2008, police and the Ministry for Social Policy signed a memorandum of understanding to formalize a screening process for all arrested persons engaged in prostitution to determine whether they were victims of trafficking or other abuses. The law provides punishments of up to 6 years for involving minors in prostitution.
In Portugal, prostitution itself is legal, but organized prostitution (brothels, prostitution rings, and other forms of pimping) are prohibited. Forced prostitution and human trafficking are also illegal. By the mid-2000s, the number of female prostitutes was estimated at 28,000, of which at least 50% were foreigners.
Republic of Macedonia
Prostitution in the Republic of Macedonia is illegal. The country is a major transit point for prostitution to the west. The Macedonian government is trying to clamp down on prostitution. The trafficking of women for sex is worth billions in Macedonia and is considered to be run primarily by Albanian gangsters.
Prostitution in Serbia is illegal, and can incur a prison sentence of between 5 and 10 years.
Prostitution itself is legal in Spain, but pimping is not. Owning an establishment where prostitution takes place is legal if the owner neither derives financial gain from prostitution nor hires any person for the purposes of selling sex, because prostitution is not considered a job, and has no legal recognition. Municipalities vary in their approach to regulating prostitution, both indoor and outdoor.
In Turkey, prostitution is legal and regulated. Prostitutes must register and acquire an ID card stating the dates of their health checks. Also, it is mandatory for registered prostitutes to have regular health checks for sexually transmitted diseases. The police are allowed to check the authenticity of registered prostitutes to determine whether they have been examined properly and to ensure they see the health authorities if they don't. Men cannot register under this regulation. Most sex workers, however, are unregistered, as local governments have made it policy not to issue new registrations. As a result, most sex workers in Turkey are not registered sex workers, working in violation of the law. Turkey is listed by the UNODC as a top destination for victims of human trafficking.
Prostitution itself is legal in Belgium, but the law prohibits operating brothels and other forms of pimping or assisting immigration for the purpose of prostitution. However, in practice enforcement can be lax and "unofficial" brothels are tolerated (for example in Antwerp). Human trafficking or exploiting individuals for financial gain is punishable for a maximum prison sentence of 15 years. A recent report by RiskMonitor foundation states that 80% of the prostitutes who work as windows prostitutes in Belgium are from Bulgaria. Belgium is listed by the UNODC as a top destination for victims of human trafficking. Many sex workers organisations feel that the present grey area in which prostitution operates leaves sex workers vulnerable to exploitation.
A report commissioned by the National Bank of Belgium, estimated a turnover of 840 million Euro in 2015. The most important segments of the market seem to be escort and private prostitution, rather than the more visible forms of window or street prostitution.
Selling sexual services is legal in France, but organized prostitution (brothels, prostitution rings, and other forms of pimping) is prohibited. Paying for sex became illegal on 6 April 2016.
Prostitution itself is legal in Luxembourg, but activities associated with organized prostitution, such as profiting from (operating brothels and prostitution rings) or aiding prostitution, are illegal. Human trafficking incurs severe penalties. 
Prostitution itself is legal in Monaco, but organized prostitution (brothels, prostitution rings, and other forms of pimping) is prohibited.
Prostitution is legal and regulated in the Netherlands. The country has one of the most liberal prostitution policies in the world and attracts sex tourists from many European countries and from the US.
- Mark McDaid (8 March 2013). "Legal age for prostitution raised in Amsterdam". IamExpat. Retrieved 2 November 2015.
- "Red Light District – Age Limits for prostitutes and their clients". DutchAmsterdam.com. 4 August 2007. Retrieved 2 November 2015.
- Sozialistische Jugend Österreich. "Sozialistische Jugend Österreich". Sjoe.at. Archived from the original on 2010-10-09. Retrieved 2010-03-31.
- "Red Light District – Age Limits for prostitutes and their clients". DutchAmsterdam.com. 4 August 2007. Retrieved 2 November 2015.
- "Special Reports | UN highlights human trafficking". BBC News. 2007-03-26. Retrieved 2010-03-31.
- "Country Report on Human Rights Practices in Liechtenstein". U.S. Department of State. 11 March 2008. Retrieved 2 November 2015.
- (PDF) https://www.un.org/.../content/english/CONCLUDING_COMMENTS_ENGLISH/Liechtenstein/Liechtenstein%20-%20CO-1.pdf. Retrieved May 26, 2008. Missing or empty
- "Microsoft Word - LIECHTENSTEIN TEMPLATE START.doc" (PDF). Retrieved 2010-03-31.
- "Country Reports on Human Rights Practices in the Slovak Republic". State.gov. 2008-03-11. Retrieved 2010-03-31.
- "Slovenia". State.gov. 2004-02-25. Retrieved 2010-03-31.
- McDonald-Gibson, Charlotte (2011-08-02). "Swiss biggest fans of prostitution after Spanish". Independent. London. Retrieved 2011-12-29.
- "Swiss biggest fans of prostitution after Spanish". The Local. Archived from the original on 2011-12-17. Retrieved 2011-12-29.
- "Legislation: National Assembly of RA". Parliament.am. Retrieved 2014-02-03.
- "2009 Human Rights Report: Armenia". State.gov. 2010-03-11. Retrieved 2014-02-03.
- "Country Report on Human Rights Practices in Belarus". State.gov. 2008-03-11. Retrieved 2010-03-31.
- "Блуд пянежны (прастытуцыя)" (in Belarusian). Retrieved 30 May 2017.
- "Country Reports on Human Rights Practices in Moldova". U.S. Department of State. 11 March 2008. Retrieved 2 November 2015.
- "Moldova: the price of sex". pbs.org. Retrieved 2 November 2015.
- "Moldova: Lower prices behind sex slavery boom and child prostitution". Archived from the original on May 1, 2008.
- "In Struggling Moldova, Desperation Drives Decisions". Washington Post. Archived from the original on 30 May 2012. Retrieved 2 November 2015.
- Angus Roxburgh (7 November 2003). "Trafficking troubles poor Moldova". BBC News. Retrieved 2 November 2015.
- Moldovan sex slaves released in U.K. human trafficking raids
- Anthony Browne (2 December 2001). "Drugs push scarred land to the brink". the Guardian. Retrieved 2 November 2015.
- Roxburgh, Angus (2003-11-07). "Europe | Trafficking troubles poor Moldova". BBC News. Retrieved 2010-03-31.
- "2008 Human Rights Report: Moldova". State.gov. 2009-02-25. Retrieved 2010-03-31.
- "Prostituţia NU mai e INFRACŢIUNE în noul Cod Penal.". gandul.info. 14 December 2013. Retrieved 14 March 2014.
- Romanian Criminal Code of 2014, art. 216
- Paula. "APFR - APFR". apfr.ro. Asociatia pentru Promovarea Femeii din Romania (Association For The Promotion Of Women In Romania APFR). Archived from the original on 12 August 2014. Retrieved 2 November 2015.
APFR considera prostitutia o alta forma de violenta impotriva femeii, de aceea a luat pozitie ferma impotriva legalizarii acesteia. Atitutdinea organizatiei este sustinuta si de rezultatele unei cercetari efectuate in cadrul organizatie care arata situatia prostitutiei in diferite tari, atat in cele care au legalizat-o cat si in cele care au legi impotriva ei.
- "Romania minister plans to legalise prostitution | World | Reuters". Uk.reuters.com. 2007-02-28. Retrieved 2010-03-31.
- "CNN Presents: Romanian Sex Trade - CNN.com - Transcripts". CNN. Retrieved 2012-05-06.
- The Romanian who helps rebuild the lives of abused women, Denisa Marunteanu and Dan Alexe, January 29, 2010, EUobserver.com
- Iana Matei, against human trafficking, Adevarul, February 3, 2010, Presseurop
- Iana Matei est l'Européenne de l'année Archived 2012-11-20 at the Wayback Machine., Selection, Reader's Digest, (in French)
- Rescued from sex slavery, 48 Hours goes undercover into the international sex slave trade, Rebecca Leung, July 22, 2005, CBS News 48 Hours.
- "Country Report on Human Rights Practices in Denmark". State.gov. 2008-03-11. Retrieved 2010-03-31.
- "Jafnréttisstofa". Jafnretti.is. 2009-04-21. Retrieved 2010-03-31.
- "Call for reform of prostitution laws". The Irish Times. 2011-02-02.
- Regulations Regarding Restriction of Prostitution
- "Country Report on Human Rights Practices in Lithuania". State.gov. 2008-03-11. Retrieved 2010-03-31.
- Jean-Michel. "Sweden Treating Prostitution as Violence Against Women". Sisyphe.org. Retrieved 2010-03-31.
- "Chapter 6 of the Swedish Penal Code 1962:700". Sweden.gov.se. Retrieved 2012-08-15.
- Casciani, Dominic (2008-11-19). "Q&A: UK Prostitution Laws". BBC News. Retrieved 2010-05-22.
- "Policing and Crime Act 2009". Opsi.gov.uk. Retrieved 2012-08-15.
- "Policing and Crime | UK | Anti-trafficking | Exploitation | Sex Industry | The Naked Anthropologist". Nodo50.org. 2010-04-06. Retrieved 2012-08-15.
- "Human Trafficking Bill receives Royal Assent". BBC News. 14 January 2015. Retrieved 27 January 2015.
- "Country Report on Human Rights Practices in Albania". U.S. Department of State. 11 March 2008. Retrieved 2 November 2015.
- "Country Report on Human Rights Practices in Andorra". State.gov. 2008-03-11. Retrieved 2010-03-31.
- "Country Report on Human Rights Practices in Bosnia and Herzegovina". State.gov. 2008-03-11. Retrieved 2010-03-31.
- "Country Report on Human Rights in Bulgaria". State.gov. 2008-03-11. Retrieved 2010-03-31.
- Libby Gomersall (13 Aug 2007). "Reading Room: Bulgaria's working girls". The Sofia Echo. Retrieved 2011-10-07.
- "Country Report on Human Rights in Bulgaria". U.S. Department of State. 6 March 2007. Retrieved 2 November 2015.
- Elena Kodinova (4 September 2003). "Fighting the Sex Trade". sofiaecho.com. Retrieved 2 November 2015.
- David Binder. "Country report: Bulgaria". NBC News. Retrieved 2 November 2015.
- Madslien, Jorn (2005-05-12). "Sex trade's reliance on forced labour". BBC News. Retrieved 2010-05-22.
- "Crime gangs make billions from Bulgaria sex slaves". Reuters. 2007-12-12.
- Nicholas Kulish (October 5, 2007). "Bulgaria moves away from legalising prostitution". International Herald Tribune. Vancouver Rape Relief and Women's Shelter. Retrieved 28 November 2015.
- "Thank God For Bulgarians Abroad". novinite.com. 26 March 2014. Retrieved 2 November 2015.
- "Country Report on Human Rights Practices in Croatia". United States Department of State. 2007-03-06. Retrieved 2008-10-10.
- Leviev-Sawyer, Clive (2008-06-17). "Mixed results against people trafficking in South-Eastern Europe". SofiaEcho.com. Retrieved 2008-10-10.
- "Greece: Country Reports on Human Rights Practices". U.S. Department of State. 31 March 2003. Retrieved 2 November 2015.
- "2008 Human Rights Report: Greece". State.gov. 2009-02-25. Retrieved 2010-03-31.
- "Albanians muscling in on Greek prostitutes". CNN. Retrieved 2010-05-22.
- "Country Report on Human Rights Practices in Italy". State.gov. 2008-03-11. Retrieved 2010-03-31.
- "Kosovo: Prostitution As A New Organized Crime Sideline". 21 June 2013.
- "2008 Human Rights Reports: Malta". State.gov. 2009-02-25. Retrieved 2010-03-31.
- "Sexual Offences Laws - Malta". interpol.int. Archived from the original on 27 September 2001. Retrieved 2 November 2015.
- "Country Report on Human Rights Practices in Portugal". State.gov. 2008-03-11. Retrieved 2010-03-31.
- (in Portuguese) João Saramago, Estrangeiras dominam prazer, Correio da Manhã (17 March 2005)
- "Sex work and Sexual Exploitation in the European Union - The Situation in Portugal". ex.ac.uk. Retrieved 2 November 2015.
- "Country Report on Human Rights Practices in Macedonia". U.S. Department of State. 6 March 2007. Retrieved 2 November 2015.
- Gall, Carlotta (2001-07-28). "Macedonia Village Is Center Of Europe Web in Sex Trade - NYTimes.com". New York Times. Retrieved 2010-03-31.
- Sex Slave Racket Clampdown in Macedonia
- David Binder; Preston Mendenhall (2013). "Sex, drugs and guns in the Balkans". NBC News. Retrieved 2 November 2015.
- "Turkey: Country Reports on Human Rights Practices". U.S. Department of State. 31 March 2003. Retrieved 2 November 2015.
- Craig S. Smith (27 June 2005). "Turkey's sex trade entraps Slavic women". International Herald Tribune. Archived from the original on 4 June 2008.
- "Country Report on Human Rights Practices in Belgium". State.gov. 2008-03-11. Retrieved 2010-03-31.
- "Belgium". Retrieved 2008-05-26.
- Petrunov, Georgi (2009). Sex trafficking and money laundering: the case of Bulgaria (PDF). Risk Monitor. p. 16.
- "Life In Belgium". Retrieved 2008-05-26.
- Murphy, Clare (2003-07-17). "Making Sex Pay". BBC News. Retrieved 2008-05-26.
- Osborn, Andrew (2001-06-24). "Squalid road that leads to Belgium". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 2010-05-22.
- Knox, Noelle (2003-11-04). "In Belgium, brothels are big business". USA Today. Retrieved 2010-05-22.
- "Belgian Experiment: Make Prostitution Legal to Fight Its Ills". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2012-04-11.
- National Bank of Belgium. "A new measure of the economic importance of prostitution in Belgium" (PDF). Retrieved 3 December 2015.
- "A direct measure of output in prostitution in Belgium". doi:10.13140/rg.2.1.4868.6807.
- "Country Report on Human Rights Practices in Luxembourg". State.gov. 2008-03-11. Retrieved 2010-03-31.
- "A summary of the prostitution regulations in the EU member states" (PDF). www.europarl.europa.eu. European Parliament. Retrieved 13 September 2015.
Luxembourg: Procuring is prohibited, and the keeping of brothels. Buying sex from children under 18 is illegal, but prostitution in itself is not criminal.
- "Country Report on Human Rights Practices in Luxembourg". U.S. Department of State. 6 March 2007. Retrieved 2 November 2015.