From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Temporal range: BarstovianHemphillian
~15.97–5.3 Ma
Pseudohipparion retrusus.JPG
Pseudhipparion retrusum skull, Museo di Paleontologia di Firenze
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Perissodactyla
Family: Equidae
Subfamily: Equinae
Tribe: Hipparionini
Genus: Pseudhipparion
Ameghino, 1904
  • P. curtivallum (Quinn, 1955)
  • P. gratum (Leidy, 1869)
  • P. hessei Webb and Hulbert, Jr., 1986
  • P. retrusum (Cope, 1889) (type)
  • P. simpsoni Webb and Hulbert, Jr., 1986
  • P. skinneri Webb and Hulbert, Jr., 1986

Pseudhipparion is an extinct genus of three-toed horse endemic to North America during the Miocene.[1][2][3][4] They were herding animals whose diet consisted of C3 plants.[5][6][7] Fossils found in Georgia and Florida indicate that it was a lightweight horse, weighing up to 90 pounds (40 kilograms).[8] In 2005, fossils were unearthed in Oklahoma.[9] Seven species of Pseudhipparion are known from the fossil record which were very small, following the trend of Bergmann's rule.[10]


  1. ^ Hulbert, R. C.; Czaplewski, N. J.; Webb, S. D. (2005). "New records of Pseudhipparion simpsoni (Mammalia, Equidae) from the late Hemphillian of Oklahoma and Florida". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 25 (3): 737. doi:10.1671/0272-4634(2005)025[0737:NROPSM]2.0.CO;2.
  2. ^ S.D. Webb, Richard C. Hulbert; Hulbert (Jan 1986). "Systematics and evolution of Pseudhipparion (Mammalia, Equidae) from the late Neogene of the Gulf Coastal Plain and the Great Plains". Rocky Mountain Geology. 24: 237–272. doi:10.2113/gsrocky.24.special_paper_3.237. ISBN 0941570029.
  3. ^ Baskin, Jon A. (1991). "Early Pliocene Horses from Late Pleistocene Fluvial Deposits, Gulf Coastal Plain, South Texas". Journal of Paleontology. 65 (6): 995–1006. doi:10.1017/S0022336000033308. ISSN 0022-3360. JSTOR 1305832.
  4. ^ Hulbert, Richard C. (1987). "Late Neogene Neohipparion (Mammalia, Equidae) from the Gulf Coastal Plain of Florida and Texas". Journal of Paleontology. 61 (4): 809–830. doi:10.1017/S0022336000029152. ISSN 0022-3360. JSTOR 1305291.
  5. ^ Feranec, Robert S.; MacFadden, Bruce J. (2006). "Isotopic Discrimination of Resource Partitioning among Ungulates in C3-Dominated Communities from the Miocene of Florida and California". Paleobiology. 32 (2): 191–205. doi:10.1666/05006.1. ISSN 0094-8373. JSTOR 4096995. S2CID 86226812.
  6. ^ MacFadden, Bruce J.; Solounias, Nikos; Cerling, Thure E. (1999). "Ancient Diets, Ecology, and Extinction of 5-Million-Year-Old Horses from Florida". Science. 283 (5403): 824–827. doi:10.1126/science.283.5403.824. ISSN 0036-8075. JSTOR 2897243. PMID 9933161.
  7. ^ MacFadden, Bruce J. (2000). "Cenozoic Mammalian Herbivores from the Americas: Reconstructing Ancient Diets and Terrestrial Communities". Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics. 31: 33–59. doi:10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.31.1.33. ISSN 0066-4162. JSTOR 221724.
  8. ^ "19A; Two Small Primitive Horses from Taylor County". Exploring Georgia's Fossil Record & Our History of Paleontology. Retrieved 2021-06-27.
  9. ^ Hulbert, Richard C.; Czaplewski, Nicholas J.; Webb, S. David (2005-09-30). "New records ofPseudhipparion simpsoni(Mammalia, Equidae) from the late Hemphillian of Oklahoma and Florida". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 25 (3): 737–740. doi:10.1671/0272-4634(2005)025[0737:nropsm];2. ISSN 0272-4634.
  10. ^ David Webb, S.; Hulbert, Richard C., "Systematics and evolution ofPseudhipparion(Mammalia, Equidae) from the late Neogene of the Gulf Coastal Plain and the Great Plains", Vertebrates, Phylogeny, and Philosophy, Laramie, WY: University of Wyoming, pp. 237–272, retrieved 2022-09-01