Québécois people

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Quebecers or Quebeckers[1][2][3] (Québécois in French, and sometimes also in English) are people living in the province of Quebec in Canada. The term is most often used in reference to French-Canadian descendants of the first settlers of Canada, though it may also be used to describe Quebec residents of other origins, especially if they are French-speaking.[4]

Self-identification as Québécois became dominant in the 1960s; prior to this, the Francophone people of Quebec identified themselves as French Canadians.[5] A majority in the House of Commons of Canada in 2006 approved a motion tabled by Prime Minister Stephen Harper, which stated that the Québécois are a nation within a united Canada.[4] Harper later elaborated that the motion's definition of Québécois relies on personal decisions to self-identify as Québécois, and therefore is a personal choice.[6] However, Gilles Duceppe, the leader of the Bloc Québécois, a sovereigntist party which then held the majority of seats in Quebec, disputed this view, stating that the Bloc considered the term "Québécois" to include all inhabitants of Quebec and accusing the Conservatives of wishing to ascribe an ethnic meaning to it.[7]

Québécois as an ethnicity[edit]

As shown by the 2016 Statistics Canada census, 58.3% of residents of Quebec identify their ethnicity as Canadien, 23.5% as French and 0.4% as Acadian.[8] Roughly 2.3% of residents, or 184,005 people, describe their ethnicity as Québécois.[9]

Number[10] Language Beliefs[11] Related Groups
184,005 French, English Roman Catholicism, Atheism, Agnosticism, Protestantism (Huguenot) Canadien, Acadian, French

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Quebec's voters will decide tuition conflict; Education Minister Michelle Courchesne (with video)".
  2. ^ Andy Radia (1 August 2012). "It's official: Quebecers are going to the polls September 4". Retrieved 2014-06-18.
  3. ^ "With Canada's four medals all won by Quebeckers, Parti Quebecois leader says province could shine as independent country". The Globe and Mail. Toronto. 2012-07-31.
  4. ^ a b Michael M. Brescia, John C. Super. North America: an introduction. Toronto, Ontario, Canada: University of Toronto Press, 2009. Pp. 72.
  5. ^ Berberoglu, Berch (1995). The National Question: Nationalism, Ethnic Conflict, and Self-Determination in the Twentieth Century. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. p. 208. ISBN 1-56639-342-6.
  6. ^ "Who's a Québécois? Harper isn't sure". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. 2006-12-19. Archived from the original on 2007-01-26. Retrieved 2014-06-18.
  7. ^ Richard Fidler A “Québécois Nation”? Harper Fuels an Important Debate, The B u l l e t, Socialist Project • E-Bulletin No. 40 December 18, 2006
  8. ^ "2016 Census Ethnic Origin" (consulted April 2021)
  9. ^ Matthew Lange (2017). Killing Others: A Natural History of Ethnic Violence. Cornell University Press. p. 18. ISBN 978-1-5017-0776-6.
  10. ^ https://www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/2016/dp-pd/prof/details/page.cfm?
  11. ^ "National Household Survey: Data tables" (August 10, 2019)