Quercus georgiana

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Georgia oak
Georgia oak leaves
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Rosids
Order: Fagales
Family: Fagaceae
Genus: Quercus
Section: Lobatae
Species: Q. georgiana
Binomial name
Quercus georgiana
M.A.Curtis 1849
Quercus georgiana range map 1.png
Natural range

Quercus georgiana, the Georgia oak or Stone Mountain oak, is a rare deciduous red oak, native to the southeastern United States.


The Georgia oak is native to the southeastern United States, mainly in northern Georgia, but with additional populations in Alabama, North Carolina, and South Carolina.[2] It grows on dry granite and sandstone outcrops of slopes of hills at 50–500 meters (160–1,640 ft) altitude.[3][4]

The tree was first discovered in 1849 at Stone Mountain, Georgia, where several stands of pure specimens grow along the popular walk-up trail at around 1,300 feet (near the large chestnut oak in the middle of the trail and before the rest pavilion halfway up the trail).[5] Georgia oaks are also found at nearby monadnocks, including Panola Mountain and Arabia Mountain in Georgia.


Quercus georgiana is a small tree, often shrubby in the wild, growing to 8–15 meters (26–49 ft) tall. It is classified in the red oak section Quercus sect. Lobatae.


Quercus georgiana leaves
Quercus georgiana leaves
Brown winter leaves on Georgia oak
Brown winter leaves on Georgia oak

The shiny green leaves are 4–13 cm (1.5–5 in) long and 2–9 cm (1–3.5 in) wide, with a 0.6–2.3 cm (0–1 in) petiole, and five irregular, pointed, bristle-tipped lobes; they are glabrous (hairless), except for small but conspicuous tufts of hairs in the vein axils on the underside. The leaves turn dark red to brown in the autumn, stay on the tree throughout the winter, and fall as the new leaves bud in the spring.

Flowering and fruiting[edit]

Like all oaks, flowering and leaf-out occur in late spring when all frost danger has passed. The flowers are monoecious catkins which, being self-incompatible, require the presence of another oak for pollination.

Catkins on a Georgia oak
Catkins on a Georgia oak

The acorns are round, 9–14 mm long, maturing about 18 months after pollination.[4]

Twigs and buds[edit]

Twigs are deep red, 1–2 mm in diameter and glabrous. Terminal buds are red-brown, ovoid to subconic, 2.5–5 mm, and glabrous or with scales somewhat ciliate.[6]


Bark is gray to light brown, scaly.

Georgia oak twig and buds
Georgia oak twig and buds


It is occasionally cultivated as a specimen or garden tree in USDA plant hardiness zones 5-8. Besides landscape horticulture, the Georgia oak has no commercial uses.


  1. ^ Wenzell, K. & Kenny, L. (2015). "Quercus georgiana". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2015: e.T34011A2840268. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2015-4.RLTS.T34011A2840268.en. Retrieved 8 November 2017. 
  2. ^ Biota of North America Program 2014 county distribution map
  3. ^ Nixon, K.; et al. (1998). "Quercus georgiana". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2006. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 11 May 2006.  Listed as Endangered (EN B1+2ce v2.3)
  4. ^ a b Flora of North America - Quercus georgiana
  5. ^ "Quercus georgiana M.A. Curtis". International Oak Society. 2014-11-18. Retrieved 2017-05-04. 
  6. ^ "Quercus georgiana in Flora of North America @ efloras.org". www.efloras.org. Retrieved 2017-05-04. 

External links[edit]

Bark on a Georgia oak
Bark on a Georgia oak