List of Quercus species

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(Redirected from Quercus subg. Quercus)

The genus Quercus contains about 500 species,[1] some of which are listed here. The genus, as is the case with many large genera, is divided into subgenera and sections. Traditionally, the genus Quercus was divided into the two subgenera Cyclobalanopsis, the ring-cupped oaks, and Quercus, which included all the other sections. However, a comprehensive revision in 2017 identified different relationships.[2] Now the genus is commonly divided into a subgenus Quercus and a sugenus Cerris, with Cyclobalanopsis included in the latter. The sections of subgenus Quercus are mostly native to the New World, with the notable exception of the white oaks of sect. Quercus and the endemic Quercus pontica. In contrast, the sections of the subgenus Cerris are exclusively native to the Old World.

Legend[edit]

Species with evergreen foliage ("live oaks") are tagged '#'. Species in the genus have been recategorized between deciduous and evergreen on numerous occasions, although this does not necessarily mean that species in the two groups are closely related.

Subgenus Quercus[edit]

Section Quercus[edit]

Quercus hiholensis acorn in matrix

The white oaks (synonym sect. Lepidobalanus or Leucobalanus). Europe, Asia, north Africa, North America. Styles short; acorns mature in 6 months, sweet or slightly bitter, inside of acorn shell hairless.

Section Ponticae[edit]

Western Asia and Western North America, produces catkins up to 10cm long, acorns mature annually.[4]

Section Mesobalanus[edit]

Europe, Asia, north Africa. Styles long; acorns mature in 6 months, bitter, inside of acorn shell hairless (closely related to sect. Quercus and sometimes included in it).

Section Protobalanus[edit]

The intermediate oaks. Southwest USA and northwest Mexico. Styles short, acorns mature in 18 months, very bitter, inside of acorn shell woolly.

Section Lobatae[edit]

The red oaks (synonym sect. Erythrobalanus). North, Central and South America. Styles long, acorns mature in 18 months (in most species),[5] very bitter, inside of acorn shell woolly.

Subgenus Cerris[edit]

Section Cerris[edit]

Europe, Asia, north Africa. Styles long; acorns mature in 18 months, very bitter, inside of acorn shell hairless or slightly hairy.

Section Ilex[edit]

Eurasia and northern Africa. Styles medium-long; acorns mature in 12–24 months, appearing hairy on the inside. Evergreen leaves, with bristle-like extensions on the teeth. (Sister group to sect. Cerris and sometimes included in it)

Section Cyclobalanopsis[edit]

Illustration of Quercus lamellosa, showing acorns in clusters, with visible rings on their cups

The ring-cupped oaks (synonym genus Cyclobalanopsis). Eastern and southeastern Asia. Acorns with distinctive cups bearing concrescent rings of scales; they commonly also have densely clustered acorns, though this does not apply to all of the species. About 150 species.

Selected species

Sources[edit]

  • Ohwi, J. Flora of Japan, 1984. ISBN 978-0-87474-708-9
  • Soepadmo, E., Julia, S., & Rusea G. Fagaceae. In Tree Flora of Sabah and Sarawak, Volume 3, 2006. Soepadmo, E., Saw, L.G. eds. Government of Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. ISBN 983-2181-06-2

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Quercus L." Plants of the World Online. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 30 September 2020.
  2. ^ Denk, Thomas; Grimm, Guido W.; Manos, Paul S.; Deng, Min; Hipp, Andrew L. (2017), Gil-Pelegrín, Eustaquio; Peguero-Pina, José Javier; Sancho-Knapik, Domingo (eds.), "An Updated Infrageneric Classification of the Oaks: Review of Previous Taxonomic Schemes and Synthesis of Evolutionary Patterns", Oaks Physiological Ecology. Exploring the Functional Diversity of Genus Quercus L., Cham: Springer International Publishing, pp. 13–38, doi:10.1007/978-3-319-69099-5_2, ISBN 978-3-319-69099-5, retrieved 2022-11-16
  3. ^ Borgardt, S. J.; Pigg, K. B. (1999). "Anatomical and developmental study of petrified Quercus (Fagaceae) fruits from the Middle Miocene, Yakima Canyon, Washington, USA". American Journal of Botany. 86 (3): 307–325. doi:10.2307/2656753. JSTOR 2656753. PMID 10077494.
  4. ^ Denk, Thomas; Grimm, Guido W.; Manos, Paul S.; Deng, Min; Hipp, Andrew L. (2017), Gil-Pelegrín, Eustaquio; Peguero-Pina, José Javier; Sancho-Knapik, Domingo (eds.), "An Updated Infrageneric Classification of the Oaks: Review of Previous Taxonomic Schemes and Synthesis of Evolutionary Patterns", Oaks Physiological Ecology. Exploring the Functional Diversity of Genus Quercus L., Tree Physiology, Cham: Springer International Publishing, pp. 13–38, doi:10.1007/978-3-319-69099-5_2, ISBN 978-3-319-69099-5, retrieved 2021-11-16
  5. ^ Kershner, Bruce, and Craig Tufts. National Wildlife Federation Field Guide to Trees of North America. New York: Sterling Pub., 2008. Print.

External links[edit]