Richard John Neuhaus
Richard John Neuhaus (May 14, 1936 – January 8, 2009) was a prominent Christian cleric (first as a Lutheran pastor and later as a Roman Catholic priest) and writer. Born in Canada, Neuhaus moved to the United States where he became a naturalized United States citizen. He was the founder and editor of the monthly journal First Things and the author of several books, including The Naked Public Square: Religion and Democracy in America (1984), The Catholic Moment: The Paradox of the Church in the Postmodern World (1987), and Catholic Matters: Confusion, Controversy, and the Splendor of Truth (2006). A staunch defender of the Roman Catholic Church's teachings on abortion and other life issues, he served as an unofficial adviser to President George W. Bush on bioethical issues.
Early life and education
Born in Pembroke, Ontario in 1936, Neuhaus was one of eight children of a Lutheran minister and his wife. Although he had dropped out of high school at 16 to operate a gas station in Texas, he returned to school. He moved to St. Louis, Missouri where he earned his BA and MDiv from Concordia Seminary in 1960.
Neuhaus was an ordained minister in the Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod. After being excluded from the Missouri Synod, Neuhaus was affiliated to the Association of Evangelical Lutheran Churches, the American Lutheran Church, and finally the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America.
From 1961 to 1978 he served as pastor of St. John the Evangelist Church, a poor, predominantly black and Hispanic congregation in Williamsburg, Brooklyn. From the pulpit he addressed civil rights and social justice concerns and spoke against the Vietnam War. In the late 1960s he gained national prominence when, together with Jesuit priest Daniel Berrigan and Rabbi Abraham Joshua Heschel, he founded Clergy and Laymen Concerned About Vietnam.
He was active in the Lutheran "Evangelical Catholic" movement and spent time at Saint Augustine's House, the Lutheran Benedictine monastery, in Oxford, Michigan. He was active in liberal politics until the ruling on Roe v. Wade (1973) by the US Supreme Court, which he opposed and his perspective changed. He became a member of the growing neoconservative movement and an outspoken advocate of "democratic capitalism". He also advocated faith-based policy initiatives by the federal government based upon Judeo-Christian values. He is the originator of "Neuhaus's Law", which states, "Where orthodoxy is optional, orthodoxy will sooner or later be proscribed."
Neuhaus helped to found the Institute on Religion and Democracy in 1981 and remained on its board until his death. He wrote its founding document, "Christianity and Democracy". In 1984, he established the Center for Religion and Society as part of the Rockford Institute, which also publishes Chronicles. He and the center were "forcibly evicted" from the Institute's eastern offices in New York City in 1989 under disputed circumstances.
In March 1990 Neuhaus founded the Institute on Religion and Public Life and its journal, First Things. This is an ecumenical journal "whose purpose is to advance a religiously informed public philosophy for the ordering of society."
Reception and ordination as Roman Catholic priest
Neuhaus was received into the Roman Catholic Church on September 8, 1990. A year after becoming a Roman Catholic, he was ordained by John Cardinal O'Connor as a priest of the Archdiocese of New York. He served as a commentator for the Catholic television network Eternal Word Television (EWTN) during the funeral of Pope John Paul II and the election of Pope Benedict XVI.
As a Catholic priest, Neuhaus continued to edit First Things. He was a sought-after public speaker and wrote several books, both scholarly and popular genres. He appeared in the film, The Human Experience (2010), which was released after his death. In addition, Neuhaus' voice is featured in the narration of the film and in the film's trailer.
In later years, Neuhaus compared the pro-life struggle to the civil rights movement of the 1960s. During the 2004 Presidential campaign, he was a leading advocate for denying communion to Catholic politicians who supported abortion and voted against the church's teaching on life issues. It was a mistake, he declared, to isolate abortion "from other issues of the sacredness of life."
Neuhaus promoted ecumenical dialogue and social conservatism. Along with Charles Colson, he edited Evangelicals and Catholics Together: Toward a Common Mission (1995). This ecumenical manifesto sparked much debate.
A close, yet unofficial, adviser of President George W. Bush, Neuhaus advised Bush on a range of religious and ethical matters, including abortion, stem-cell research, cloning, and the Federal Marriage Amendment. In 2005, under the heading of "Bushism Made Catholic," Neuhaus was named one of the "25 Most Influential Evangelicals in America" by Time Magazine:
"Bushism Made Catholic:" When Bush met with journalists from religious publications last year, the living authority he cited most often was not a fellow Evangelical but a man he calls Father Richard, who, he explained, "helps me articulate these [religious] things." A senior Administration official confirms that Neuhaus "does have a fair amount of under-the-radar influence" on such policies as abortion, stem-cell research, cloning and the defense-of-marriage amendment. -- Time Magazine, Feb. 5, 2005
"a reflective, intelligent, self-possessed, generous, and principled man," "is opinionated (definitely), but not at all spiteful or resentful towards those who disagree with him; words like “absolutist” are vacuous abstractions when applied to him. His magazine publishes articles that argue (sometimes quite forcibly) views contrary to his own, and he seems quite pleased that it should do so."
- Movement and Revolution (co-authored with Peter Berger, 1970)
- In Defense of People: Ecology and the Seduction of Radicalism (1971)
- Time Toward Home: The American Experiment as Revelation (1975)
- Against the World for the World: The Hartford Appeal and the Future of American Religion (co-authored with Peter Berger, 1976)
- Freedom for Ministry" (1979)
- Unsecular America (1986)
- The Naked Public Square: Religion and Democracy in America (1986; ISBN 0-8028-3588-0)
- Confession, Conflict, and Community (co-edited with Peter Berger, 1986)
- Dispensations: The Future of South Africa As South Africans See It (1986)
- Piety and Politics: Evangelicals and Fundamentalists Confront the World (co-editor with Michael Cromartie, 1987)
- Democracy and the Renewal of Public Education (editor with author Richard Baer, 1987)
- Jews in Unsecular America (1987)
- The Catholic Moment: The Paradox of the Church in the Postmodern World (1987; ISBN 0-06-066096-1)
- Believing Today: Jew and Christian in Conversation (co-authored with Leon Klinicki, 1989)
- Reinhold Niebuhr Today (1989)
- Guaranteeing the Good Life: Medicine and the Return of Eugenics (editor, 1990)
- Doing Well & Doing Good: The Challenge to the Christian Capitalist (1992)
- America Against Itself: Moral Vision and the Public Order (1992; ISBN 0-268-00633-4)
- Freedom for Ministry: A Guide for the Perplexed Who are Called to Serve (1992; ISBN 0-06-066095-3)
- To Empower People: From State to Civil Society (co-authored with Peter Berger, 1996)
- The End of Democracy?: The Celebrated First Things Debate, With Arguments Pro and Con and "the Anatomy of a Controversy" (co-edited with Mitchell Muncy, 1997)
- The Best of the Public Square (1997)
- Appointment In Rome: The Church in America Awakening (1999)
- The Eternal Pity: Reflections on Dying (editor, 2000; ISBN 0-268-02757-9)
- A Free Society Reader: Principles for the New Millennium (2000; ISBN 0-7391-0144-7)
- There We Stood, Here We Stand: Eleven Lutherans Rediscover Their Catholic Roots (co-authored with Timothy Drake, 2001)
- The Second One Thousand Years: Ten People Who Defined a Millennium (editor, 2001)
- The Best of the Public Square: Book 2 (2001)
- Death on a Friday Afternoon: Meditations on the Last Words of Jesus from the Cross (2001; ISBN 0-465-04933-8)
- As I Lay Dying: Meditations Upon Returning (2002; ISBN 0-465-04930-3)
- The Chosen People in an Almost Chosen Nation: Jews and Judaism in America (editor, 2002)
- Your Word Is Truth: A Project of Evangelicals and Catholics Together (co-edited with Charles Colson; 2002; ISBN 0-8028-0508-6)
- As I Lay Dying: Meditations Upon Returning (2003)
- The Best of the Public Square: Book 3 (2007)
- Catholic Matters: Confusion, Controversy, and the Splendor of Truth (2007; ISBN 0-465-04935-4)
- American Babylon: Notes of a Christian Exile (2009)
- "We Shall Not Weary, We Shall Not Rest" First Things – On the Square blog (Jul 11, 2008), retrieved December 31, 2008.
- George, Robert P. (March 20, 2009). "He Threw It All Away". First Things. Retrieved July 20, 2009.
- Nuechterlein, James (April 2009). "Day By Day". First Things. Retrieved July 26, 2015.
- Dennis Sadowski, "Fr. Neuhaus, adviser to George Bush, dies aged 72.", The Catholic Herald, London, January 16, 2009, p. 6.
- George Weigel: "An Honorable Christian Soldier", Newsweek, January 19, 2009
- Neuhaus, Richard John (2007), The Best of the Public Square, 3, Grand Rapids, MI: Wm B Eerdmans Publishing, ISBN 0-8028-2720-9.
- "Rev. R. J. Neuhaus, Political Theologian, Dies at 72", New York Times, January 8, 2009
- First Things. "The Unhappy Fate of Optional Orthodoxy", First Things, February 2009
- "Mission Statement", First Things
- Neuhaus, Richard John (April 2002), "How I Became the Catholic I Was", First Things
- Evangelicals and Catholics Together: Toward a Common Mission, Thomas Nelson, 1995, ISBN 0-8499-3860-0.
- Time Magazine. The 25 Most Influential Evangelicals in America – Richard John Neuhaus 2005
- Linker, Damon (2007). The Theocons: Secular America Under Siege. New York: Anchor Books. Retrieved 22 July 2014.
- Wooldridge, Adrian (September 24, 2006). "Church as State". The New York Times. Retrieved 22 July 2014.
- Hart, David Bentley. "Con man". www.newcriterion.com. The New Criterion. Retrieved 22 July 2014.
- Richard John Neuhaus, 1936–2009.
- "News of Fr. Neuhaus' death", First Things, January 2009.
- Neuhaus online archive
- Neuhaus discusses his conversion to Catholicism in a June 1991 interview for 2000AD
- Appearances on C-SPAN
- A Strange New Regime: The Naked Public Square and the Passing of the American Constitutional Order, by Richard John Neuhaus, Heritage Foundation.
- Newsweek obituary by George Weigel