Rub el Hizb
The Rub-el-Hizb (۞) (Arabic: ربع الحزب rubʿ al-ḥizb), also known as the Islamic Star, is the Islamic symbol. It is in the shape of an octagram, represented as two overlapping squares. It is has been found on a number of emblems and flags. The main purpose of this dividing system is to facilitate the recitation of the Quran.
In Arabic, Rubʻ means "one-fourth" or "quarter," while Hizb translates to "a group." Initially, it was used in the Quran, which is divided into 60 Hizbs (groups of roughly equal length); Rub el Hizb further divides each Hizb in four. A Hizb is one half of a juz'.
Islamic archeologists investigations have shown that the Rub el Hizb symbol possibly originated from ancient petroglyphs in the Arabian desert. The symbol in question, consisting of two concentric circles with a defined punctual center, connected by eight radial sectors, is similar to the Islamic symbol when the two lines of the East-West orientation are combined, thus resulting in a hexagon with a circular symmetry.
The first country to use the Rub-el-Hizb was Morocco in 1258.