Rumcherod (Russian: Румчерод) was a self-proclaimed, unrecognized, and short-lived organ of Soviet power in the South-Western part of Russian Empire that functioned during May 1917–May 1918. The name stands as the Russian language abbreviation for its full name Central Executive Committee of the Soviets of Romanian Front, Black Sea Fleet, and Odessa Oblast (Russian: Румынского фронта, Черноморского флота и Одесской области).
During that period of time the Russian Odessa Military District (Odessa MD) before being overrun by Soviets included the following guberniyas: Kherson Governorate, Bessarabia guberniya, Taurida Governorate, and parts of Podolia Governorate and Volyn Governorate.
Rumcherod was created at the 1st Congress of Front and District Soviets in Odessa (May 23–June 9, 1917). The majority in that first meeting consisted of Mensheviks and Esers, who supported the Russian Provisional Government and the continuation of the war to the very end. Their position was against Bolsheviks and their October Revolution. Therefore, by the order of the Chief Commander of Sovnarkom Nikolai Krylenko and Military Revolutionary Committee at Stavka, Rumcherod was dismissed as it did not reflect the will and mood of Bolshevised masses.
Local revolutionary forces were offered to create a new committee that would stand on the Soviet platform. The new Rumcherod consisting of 180 people was elected at the 2nd Congress of Front and District Soviets in Odessa (December 23, 1917–January 5, 1918). The composition of the second Rumcherod was 70 Bolsheviks, 55 left Esers, 23 representatives of peasant organizations, and 32 from other parties. The committee recognized the Soviet government and approved its policy. V.Volodarsky (Moisei Goldstein) attended the congress as the representative of the Soviet government and the Central Committee of Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (Bolsheviks) (RSDLP(b)). The former member of the Petrograd committee of RSDLP(b) Vladimir Yudovsky was elected the Chairman of Rumcherod which served as the highest authority for the Odessa Soviet Republic.
From January to March 1918 the Odessa Republic conducted a military campaign against the Moldavian Democratic Republic that was forced to seek protection from Romania. Later the Soviet republic was forced to comply with the conditions of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk and withdraw due to the advance German-Austrian military first to Nikolayev, then to Rostov-on-Don and Yeysk. In May 1918 it was dissolved while its chairman Yudovsky relocated to Moscow.
- Odessa Oblast in that instance meant the territory of the Odessa MD.
- Short overview (Russian)
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