A rump state is the remnant of a once much larger state, left with a reduced territory in the wake of secession, annexation, occupation, decolonization, or a successful coup d'état or revolution on part of its former territory. In the latter case, a government stops short of going into exile because it still controls part of its former territory.
- Seleucid Empire after losing most of its territory to the Parthian Empire.
- After the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in Gaul, the Kingdom of Soissons survived as a rump state under Aegidius and Syagrius until conquered by the Franks under Clovis I in 486.
- Sultanate of Rum, a rump state to Great Seljuq Empire.
- After the Jin dynasty assumed control over northern China, the Southern Song existed as a rump state of the Northern Song.
- After the Madurai Sultanate assumed control over most of Pandya Nadu, and which was later captured by Vijayanagara Empire, the Southern Pandyas formed a rump state from 1330 to 1422 ruling over modern day Tirunelveli and Thuthukudi districts along with certain regions of Western Ghats. They further lost their territory and ruled from Tenkasi region as Tenkasi Pandyas formed a rump state there until 1623.
- After the Ming dynasty established control over China proper, the Yuan dynasty retreated to the Mongolian Plateau and survived as a rump state called the Northern Yuan.
- After the Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire in 1532, the Neo-Inca State based at Vilcabamba survived as a rump state until 1572.
- After the Qing dynasty assumed control over most of China proper, the Ming dynasty survived as a rump state called the Southern Ming.
- The Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth was left as a rump state after the First Partition of Poland by Russia, Prussia, and Austria in 1772. The resulting rump state was partitioned again in 1793 and annexed outright in 1795. After Napoleon's victory in the War of the Fourth Coalition in 1807, he created a new Polish rump state, the Duchy of Warsaw. After Napoleon's defeat, the Congress of Vienna created a state, Congress Poland in 1815; it is unclear whether this should be seen as a rump state or a puppet state.
- The Hungarian Soviet Republic was proclaimed in March 1919 after the resignation of the government of the First Hungarian Republic when, following their absorption of the Social Democrats, the Communists took control of the country. Though sometimes controlling only around 23% of the territory of the Hungarian state, after some initial military successes, in the end the army was defeated and the government fell in August 1919.
- The Republic of German-Austria was created in 1918 as the initial rump state for areas with a predominantly German-speaking population within what had been the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
- The rump Republic of Salò (Repubblica Sociale Italiana, 1943–1945), led by Benito Mussolini, claimed to be the legitimate successor of the Kingdom of Italy; it was in fact a puppet state of Nazi Germany.
- At the height of the Chinese Civil War in 1949, the Republic of China (ROC) retreated to the island territory of Taiwan (marking the establishment of the modern de facto state of Taiwan). Meanwhile, the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) took control of mainland China and established the People's Republic of China (PRC) following the Chinese Communist Revolution in 1949. The political status of Taiwan prior to 1949 was already complex; strictly speaking, it was not part of China despite being under Chinese occupation (the ROC unilaterally annexed Taiwan from the Empire of Japan in 1945 during the aftermath of WWII), though it also wasn't an independent country nor was it actively claimed by any other country. Since 1949, some sources have regarded the ROC on Taiwan as a rump state,[failed verification] based on the premise that Taiwan is part of China, whereas other sources have regarded the ROC on Taiwan as a government in exile,[failed verification] based on the premise that Taiwan is not part of China.
- Pakistan was left a rump state by the secession of Bangladesh in 1971 after the Bangladeshi War of Independence (where about 55% of the Pakistani population living in East Pakistan seceded from the remaining 45% who were West Pakistanis).
- The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, that is, the name the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro used from 1992 to 2003, was often viewed as the rump state left behind by the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (1945–1992) when it broke up. This view of it was held not only by its founders, but also by many people antagonistic to them.
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For some time the Truman administration had been hoping to distance itself from the rump state on Taiwan and to establish at least a minimal relationship with the newly founded PRC.
- "TIMELINE: Milestones in China-Taiwan relations since 1949". Reuters. Retrieved March 4, 2015.
1949: Chiang Kai-shek's Nationalists lose civil war to Mao Zedong's Communist forces, sets up government-in-exile on Taiwan.
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