1911 Russian invasion of Tabriz

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Russian invasion of Tabriz (1911)
First Series of executions, Russian Occupation of Tabriz, 1911.png
First round of execution of revolutionaries and Tabrizi people by Russian forces. The gibbet is colored in the Russian Tsar's flag colors.
DateDecember 1911

Russian victory

Russian occupation of Tabriz until 1917
Russian Empire Russian Empire Constitutionalists
Commanders and leaders
Russian Empire Nicholas II Seqat-ol-Eslam Tabrizi Executed

Russian invasion of Tabriz (1911) (Persian: اشغال تبریز بدست قوای روس (۱۲۹۰ خورشیدی)‎) refers to the attack and invasion of the city of Tabriz in the north western part of Iran in December 1911 by Imperial Russia. The Russian invasion began an occupation which continued into the course of World War I. This occupation was in retaliation for the Iranian Parliament's refusal to accept the Russian ultimatum. The Russian Ultimatum had three major demands for the Iranian government, amongst which the most important was to fire the newly employed American lawyer Morgan Shuster. Shuster had been hired by the Parliament of Iran to organise the country's financial affairs. Upon the Iranian parliament's refusal to fire Shuster, the Iranian government[who?] dissolved the parliament and agreed to the Russian ultimatum. Nevertheless, the Russian Imperial Army invaded northwestern Iran. Its aim was to occupy three major cities: Tabriz, Anzali and Rasht. The most fierce battle of the Russian invasion occurred in Tabriz, where the constitutionalists resisted. After about three days, the defense of the city's residents broke. The Russians shelled Tabriz with artillery and entered the city.

The Russians executed the constitutional revolutionaries of Tabriz and their relatives en masse and many civilians of Tabriz as well. The total number of executions is estimated to have been about 1,200. Russians also destroyed part of the Arg of Tabriz by shelling it. Fire broke out in the Arg while it was held by Russian troops.[1][2]

As a result of the campaign, Tabriz was re-occupied by the Russians.[3] The Russian forces remained in the city until 1917.[3]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Hasan Javadi; Edward Granville Browne (2008). Letters from Tabriz: The Russian Suppression of the Iranian Constitutional Movement. Mage Publishers. ISBN 978-1-933823-25-6.
  2. ^ "Cossacks on Persian Raid Slaughter 2500; Martial Law Proclaimed at Teheran and Soldiers Prevent National Council Meeting; Shuster, Ex-treasurer, Ready to Flee; American Is Promised Safe Conduct and Will Try to Reach Caspian Sea; Russians Massacre 1500 in 3 Days at Resht [Rasht]; Hundreds Are Butchered at Anzili [Anzali] Is Report Carried to Capital by Courier". Los Angeles Evening Herald. 26 December 1911. p. 1. Retrieved 1 November 2018.
  3. ^ a b Cronin 2013, p. 323.


  • Cronin, Stephanie, ed. (2013). Iranian-Russian Encounters: Empires and Revolutions Since 1800. Routledge. ISBN 978-0415624336.