Russo-Persian Wars

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The Russo-Persian Wars were a series of wars fought between the Russian Empire and the Persian Empire between the 17th and 19th centuries. As Russia grew in power, it started to contest the hegemony of Ottoman Turkey and Safavid Iran (followed by Afsharid and Qajar Iran) in the Black Sea region, Caspian Sea region, and most importantly, the Caucasus. All the Russo-Persian Wars therefore concerned the Caucasus region. Throughout its history, Transcaucasia (comprising modern day Georgia, Azerbaijan and Armenia) and large parts of Dagestan were usually incorporated into the Iranian world.[1] During the course of the 19th century, the Russian Empire conquered the territory from Qajar Iran.[1] The most important of the Russo-Persian Wars were:

List of conflicts[edit]

Name Result
1 Russo-Persian War (1651–53) Persian strategic victory. Safavids gain more influence in the North Caucasus
2 Russo-Persian War (1722–23) Russian victory. Russia gains possession of Derbent, Baku, and the provinces of Shirvan, Gilan, Mazandaran, and Astrabad, but returns all territories to Persia about 10 years later.[2]
3 Russo-Persian War (1796) Russian withdrawal. Stalemate
4 Russo-Persian War (1804–13) Russian victory. Treaty of Gulistan[3] Persia cedes what is now Georgia, Dagestan, parts of northern Armenia, and most of what now comprises modern Azerbaijan to Russia.[4][5]
5 Russo-Persian War (1826–28) Russia loses and then retakes disputed areas. Treaty of Turkmenchay[6] Persia cedes all of what is now the Armenian Republic, Nakhchivan, Azerbaijan, and Iğdır to Russia.[7] Consolidation of the Gulistan treaty.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b Multiple Authors. "Caucasus and Iran". Encyclopædia Iranica. Retrieved 2012-09-03. 
  2. ^ Alexander Mikaberidze, Conflict and Conquest in the Islamic World: A Historical Encyclopedia, Vol. I, ed. Alexander Mikaberidze, (ABC-CLIO, 2011), 850.
  3. ^ Treaty of Gulistan, Wars and Peace Treaties: 1816 to 1891, (Routledge, 1992), 67.
  4. ^ Timothy C. Dowling Russia at War: From the Mongol Conquest to Afghanistan, Chechnya, and Beyond pp 728-729 ABC-CLIO, 2 dec. 2014. ISBN 978-1598849486
  5. ^ Mikaberidze, Alexander. Conflict and Conquest in the Islamic World: A Historical Encyclopedia 2 volumes: A Historical Encyclopedia ABC-CLIO, 22 jul. 2011 ISBN 978-1598843378 p 351
  6. ^ Zirisnky, M. "Reza Shah's abrogation of capitulation, 1927-1928" in The Making of Modern Iran: State and Society Under Riza Shah 1921–1941, Stephanie Cronin (ed.) London: Routledge, 2003, p. 81: "The context of this regime capitulations, of course, is that by the end of the reign of Fath Ali Shah (1798–1834), Iran could no longer defend its independence against the west. ... For Iran this was a time of weakness, humiliation and soul-searching as Iranians sought to assert their dignity against overwhelming pressure from the expansionist west."
  7. ^ Timothy C. Dowling Russia at War: From the Mongol Conquest to Afghanistan, Chechnya, and Beyond pp 729-730 ABC-CLIO, 2 dec. 2014. ISBN 978-1598849486
  • Бабулин И.Б. Русско-иранский военный конфликт 1651-1653 гг.//«Рейтар» № 31, 2006