|Prince Abbas Mirza
شاهزاده عباس ميرزا
Prince Abbas Mirza, 1821
|Crown prince of Persia|
|Father||Fat'h Ali Shah|
|Born||26 August 1789
|Died||25 October 1833 (aged 44)
Abbas Mirza (Persian: عباس میرزا) born in Nava village of Mazandaran (August 26, 1789 – October 25, 1833), was a Qajar crown prince of Persia. He developed a reputation as a military commander during wars with Russia and the Ottoman Empire, as an early modernizer of Persia's armed forces and institutions, and for his death before his father, Fath Ali Shah. Abbas was an intelligent prince, possessed some literary taste, and is noteworthy on account of the comparative simplicity of his life.
He was a younger son of Fath Ali Shah, but on account of his mother's royal birth was destined by his father to succeed him. Considered the favorite son by his father, he was named governor of the Azerbaijan region of Persia, in approximately 1798. Persia was soon at war with Russia (Russo-Persian War (1804–13)), and he was made commander of the expeditionary force of 30,000 men. His aid was eagerly solicited by both England and Napoleon, anxious to checkmate one another in the East. Preferring the friendship of France, Abbas Mirza continued the war against Russia's General Kotlyarevsky, but his new ally could give him very little assistance. Commanding the southernmost Russian divisions during the long war, Kotlyarevsky defeated the numerically superior  Persian army in the Battle of Aslanduz and in early 1813 took stormed and took Lankaran. In October, 1813, with Abbas Mirza still commander-in-chief, Persia was compelled to make a severely disadvantageous peace, ceding swaths of its territory in the Caucasus (present-day Georgia, Dagestan, and most of the what most recently became the Republic of Azerbaijan conform the Treaty of Gulistan).
The drastic losses suffered by his forces made him realize that he needed to train Persia's military in the European style of war, and he started sending his students to Europe for military training. In 1811 and 1815, two groups were sent to Britain, and in 1812 a printing press was finished in Tabriz as a means to reproduce European military handbooks. Tabriz also saw a gunpowder factory and a munitions depot. The training continued with constant drilling by British advisers, with a focus on the infantry and artillery.
He received his opportunity to test his newly reformed military when the Ottoman–Persian War (1821–1823) began, and they proved themselves adept with several victories. This resulted in a peace treaty signed in 1823 after the Battle of Erzurum. The war was a victory for Persia, especially considering they were outnumbered, and this gave much needed confidence to his forces. His second war with Russia, which began in 1826, started off on a good note as he won back most of the territory lost in the Russo-Persian War (1804–13); however it ended in a string of costly defeats after which Persia was forced to cede all of its Armenian territories, Nakhchivan, and the rest of the remainder of the contemporary Azerbaijani Republic that was still in Iranian hands, all conform the 1828 Treaty of Turkmenchay. The eventual loss was due less to his and his armies skill and more to do with lack of reinforcements and overwhelming superiority in numbers. The irrevocable losses, which in total amounted up for all of Qajar Iran's territories in the North Caucasus and the South Caucasus, affected Abbas Mirza severely and his health began to suffer. He also lost enthusiasm for any more military reform. In 1833, he sought to restore order in the province of Khorasan, which was nominally under Persian supremacy, and while engaged in the task died at Mashhad in 1833. In 1834 his eldest son, Mohammed Mirza, succeeded Fath Ali Shah as the next king. R. G. Watson (History of Persia, 128-9) describes him as “the noblest of the Qajar race”.
He is most remembered for his valor in battle and his failed attempts to modernize the Persian army. He was not successful in part due to the lack of government centralization in Iran during the era. Furthermore, it was Abbas Mirza who first dispatched Iranian students to Europe for a western education. He was unable to prove successful in the long run in his wars with Russia as he ended up losing more territory than he gained.
- Prince Mohammed Mirza, to become Mohammad Shah Qajar
- Prince Bahram Mirza Mo'ez ed-Dowleh
- Prince Djahangir Mirza
- Prince Bahman Mirza
- Prince Fereydoun Mirza Nayeb-ol-Eyaleh
- Prince Eskandar Mirza
- Prince Khosrow Mirza
- Prince Ghahreman Mirza
- Prince Ardeshir Mirza Rokn ed-Dowleh
- Prince Ahmad Mirza Mo'in ed-Dowleh
- Prince Ja'far Gholi Mirza
- Prince Mostafa Gholi Mirza
- Prince Soltan Morad Mirza Hessam-al-Saltaneh
- Prince Manouchehr Mirza
- Prince Farhad Mirza Mo'tamed ed-Dowleh
- Prince Firouz Mirza Nosrat ed-Dowleh
- Prince Khanlar Mirza Ehtesham ed-Dowleh
- Prince Bahador Mirza
- Prince Mohammad Rahim Mirza
- Prince Mehdi Gholi Mirza
- Prince Hamzeh Mirza Heshmat ed-Dowleh
- Prince Ildirim Bayazid Mirza
- Prince Lotfollah Mirza Shoa'a ed-Dowleh
- Prince Mohammad Karim Mirza
- Prince Ja'ffar Mirza
- Prince Abdollah Mirza
- Clawson, Patrick; Rubin, Michael (2005). Eternal Iran: Continuity and Chaos. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 1-4039-6276-6. LCCN 2005045941.
- Farrokh, Kaveh (2011). Iran at War: 1500-1988. Oxford, UK: Osprey Publishing. ISBN 1-8460-3491-4. LCCN 2011281478.
- Hoiberg, Dale H., ed. (2010). "'Abbās Mīrzā". Encyclopædia Britannica. I: A-Ak - Bayes (15th ed.). Chicago, IL: Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. ISBN 978-1-59339-837-8.
- Hambly, Gavin R.G (1991). "Agha Muhammad Khan and the establishment of the Qajar dynasty". The Cambridge History of Iran, Vol. 7: From Nadir Shah to the Islamic Republic. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 104–144. ISBN 9780521200950.
- Keddie, Nikki R.; Bonine, Michael E., eds. (1981). Modern Iran: The Dialectics of Continuity and Change. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press. ISBN 0-8739-5465-3. LCCN 80019463.
- Lockhart, L (2007). "Abbas Mirza". In Bearman, P.; Bianquis, Th; Bosworth, C. E.; van Donzel, E.; Heinrichs, W. P. Encyclopaedia of Islam. Leiden, Netherlands: Brill.
- Magnusson, Magnus; Goring, Rosemary, eds. (1990). "Abbas Mirza". Cambridge Biographical Dictionary. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-39518-6. LCCN 90001542.
- Rockwood, Camilla, ed. (2007). "Aaron". Chambers Biographical Dictionary (8th ed.). Edinburgh, UK: Chambers Harrap Publishers Ltd. ISBN 978-0550-10200-3.
- This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Abbas Mirza". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
- The Persian Encyclopedia, articles on Abbas Mirza, Persia-Russia Wars, Persia-Ottoman wars, Golestan Treaty, and Torkaman-Chay Treaty
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