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Available structures
PDB Ortholog search: PDBe RCSB
Aliases SPINT2, DIAR3, HAI-2, HAI2, Kop, PB, serine peptidase inhibitor, Kunitz type, 2
External IDs MGI: 1338031 HomoloGene: 7955 GeneCards: SPINT2
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE SPINT2 210715 s at fs.png
More reference expression data
Species Human Mouse
RefSeq (mRNA)



RefSeq (protein)



Location (UCSC) Chr 19: 38.24 – 38.29 Mb Chr 7: 29.26 – 29.28 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]
View/Edit Human View/Edit Mouse

Kunitz-type protease inhibitor 2 is an enzyme inhibitor that in humans is encoded by the SPINT2 gene.[3][4][5]


  1. ^ "Human PubMed Reference:". 
  2. ^ "Mouse PubMed Reference:". 
  3. ^ Marlor CW, Delaria KA, Davis G, Muller DK, Greve JM, Tamburini PP (May 1997). "Identification and cloning of human placental bikunin, a novel serine protease inhibitor containing two Kunitz domains". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 272 (18): 12202–8. doi:10.1074/jbc.272.18.12202. PMID 9115294. 
  4. ^ Kawaguchi T, Qin L, Shimomura T, Kondo J, Matsumoto K, Denda K, Kitamura N (Oct 1997). "Purification and cloning of hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor type 2, a Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitor". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 272 (44): 27558–64. doi:10.1074/jbc.272.44.27558. PMID 9346890. 
  5. ^ "Entrez Gene: SPINT2 serine peptidase inhibitor, Kunitz type, 2". 

Further reading[edit]

  • Morelle W, Capon C, Balduyck M, Sautiere P, Kouach M, Michalski C, Fournet B, Mizon J (Apr 1994). "Chondroitin sulphate covalently cross-links the three polypeptide chains of inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor". European Journal of Biochemistry / FEBS. 221 (2): 881–8. doi:10.1111/j.1432-1033.1994.tb18803.x. PMID 7513643. 
  • Mizon C, Balduyck M, Albani D, Michalski C, Burnouf T, Mizon J (Mar 1996). "Development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for human plasma inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor (ITI) using specific antibodies against each of the H1 and H2 heavy chains". Journal of Immunological Methods. 190 (1): 61–70. doi:10.1016/0022-1759(95)00257-X. PMID 8601712. 
  • Gress TM, Müller-Pillasch F, Geng M, Zimmerhackl F, Zehetner G, Friess H, Büchler M, Adler G, Lehrach H (Oct 1996). "A pancreatic cancer-specific expression profile". Oncogene. 13 (8): 1819–30. PMID 8895530. 
  • Shimomura T, Denda K, Kitamura A, Kawaguchi T, Kito M, Kondo J, Kagaya S, Qin L, Takata H, Miyazawa K, Kitamura N (Mar 1997). "Hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor, a novel Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitor". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 272 (10): 6370–6. doi:10.1074/jbc.272.10.6370. PMID 9045658. 
  • Blom AM, Thuveson M, Fries E (Nov 1997). "Intracellular coupling of bikunin and the heavy chain of rat pre-alpha-inhibitor in COS-1 cells". The Biochemical Journal. 328 ( Pt 1) (Pt 1): 185–91. PMC 1218904Freely accessible. PMID 9359851. 
  • Müller-Pillasch F, Wallrapp C, Bartels K, Varga G, Friess H, Büchler M, Adler G, Gress TM (Jan 1998). "Cloning of a new Kunitz-type protease inhibitor with a putative transmembrane domain overexpressed in pancreatic cancer". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 1395 (1): 88–95. doi:10.1016/s0167-4781(97)00129-2. PMID 9434156. 
  • Kataoka H, Shimomura T, Kawaguchi T, Hamasuna R, Itoh H, Kitamura N, Miyazawa K, Koono M (Dec 2000). "Hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor type 1 is a specific cell surface binding protein of hepatocyte growth factor activator (HGFA) and regulates HGFA activity in the pericellular microenvironment". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 275 (51): 40453–62. doi:10.1074/jbc.M006412200. PMID 11013244. 
  • Itoh H, Kataoka H, Yamauchi M, Naganuma S, Akiyama Y, Nuki Y, Shimomura T, Miyazawa K, Kitamura N, Koono M (Oct 2001). "Identification of hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor type 2 (HAI-2)-related small peptide (H2RSP): its nuclear localization and generation of chimeric mRNA transcribed from both HAI-2 and H2RSP genes". Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 288 (2): 390–9. doi:10.1006/bbrc.2001.5767. PMID 11606055. 
  • Suzuki M, Kobayashi H, Fujie M, Nishida T, Takigawa M, Kanayama N, Terao T (Mar 2002). "Kunitz-type protease inhibitor bikunin disrupts phorbol ester-induced oligomerization of CD44 variant isoforms containing epitope v9 and subsequently suppresses expression of urokinase-type plasminogen activator in human chondrosarcoma cells". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 277 (10): 8022–32. doi:10.1074/jbc.M108545200. PMID 11777908. 
  • Kobayashi H, Suzuki M, Kanayama N, Nishida T, Takigawa M, Terao T (Aug 2002). "Suppression of urokinase receptor expression by bikunin is associated with inhibition of upstream targets of extracellular signal-regulated kinase-dependent cascade". European Journal of Biochemistry / FEBS. 269 (16): 3945–57. doi:10.1046/j.1432-1033.2002.03068.x. PMID 12180971. 
  • Mizon C, Piva F, Queyrel V, Balduyck M, Hachulla E, Mizon J (Jun 2002). "Urinary bikunin determination provides insight into proteinase/proteinase inhibitor imbalance in patients with inflammatory diseases". Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine. 40 (6): 579–86. doi:10.1515/CCLM.2002.100. PMID 12211652. 
  • Isogai R, Matsukura A, Aragane Y, Maeda A, Matsukura M, Yudate T, Sugihara K, Takahashi M, Aisu K, Tezuka T (Dec 2002). "Quantitative analysis of bikunin-laden mast cells in follicular eruptions and chronic skin lesions of atopic dermatitis". Archives of Dermatological Research. 294 (9): 387–92. doi:10.1007/s00403-002-0336-9. PMID 12522575. 
  • Yamauchi M, Itoh H, Naganuma S, Koono M, Hasui Y, Osada Y, Kataoka H (Dec 2002). "Expression of hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor type 2 (HAI-2) in human testis: identification of a distinct transcription start site for the HAI-2 gene in testis". Biological Chemistry. 383 (12): 1953–7. doi:10.1515/BC.2002.220. PMID 12553733. 
  • Suzuki M, Kobayashi H, Tanaka Y, Hirashima Y, Kanayama N, Takei Y, Saga Y, Suzuki M, Itoh H, Terao T (Apr 2003). "Suppression of invasion and peritoneal carcinomatosis of ovarian cancer cell line by overexpression of bikunin". International Journal of Cancer. Journal International Du Cancer. 104 (3): 289–302. doi:10.1002/ijc.10950. PMID 12569552. 
  • Suzuki M, Kobayashi H, Tanaka Y, Hirashima Y, Kanayama N, Takei Y, Saga Y, Suzuki M, Itoh H, Terao T (Apr 2003). "Bikunin target genes in ovarian cancer cells identified by microarray analysis". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 278 (17): 14640–6. doi:10.1074/jbc.M300239200. PMID 12571229. 
  • Schuster JM, Longo M, Nelson PS (Sep 2003). "Differential expression of bikunin (HAI-2/PB), a proposed mediator of glioma invasion, by demethylation treatment". Journal of Neuro-Oncology. 64 (3): 219–25. doi:10.1023/A:1025674227750. PMID 14558597. 
  • Fukai K, Yokosuka O, Chiba T, Hirasawa Y, Tada M, Imazeki F, Kataoka H, Saisho H (Dec 2003). "Hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor 2/placental bikunin (HAI-2/PB) gene is frequently hypermethylated in human hepatocellular carcinoma". Cancer Research. 63 (24): 8674–9. PMID 14695180.