Salam (newspaper)

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Type Daily newspaper
Publisher Mohammad Mousavi Khoeiniha
Founded 9 February 1991
Political alignment Reformist
Language Persian
Ceased publication July 1999
Headquarters Tehran

Salam (in Persian سلام lit. Salute) was a Persian newspaper published in Iran. It was very influential publication in the country during its brief existence from 1991 to 1999.

History and profile[edit]

Salam was established by a group of reformist people attached to the Association of Combatant Clerics on 9 February 1991.[1][2] The name of the paper was given by Ahmad Khomeini, Ayatollah Khomeini's son.[2] It was the first reformist daily published following the Islamic revolution in Iran.[2] The paper, based in Tehran,[3] became one of the most read dailies in the country soon after its launch.[1][4]

The publisher of Salam was Mohammad Mousavi Khoeiniha[5][6] and remained in the post until 1999 when it was disestablished.[7]

In addition to quality editorials, it provided investigative articles about financial scandals.[1] In fact, it was among the first newspapers in the country dealing with injustice and corruption.[4] The paper also included a special section, in which readers wrote their comments or raised questions.[8]

The daily was anti-American and had social democrat[9] and liberal stances.[10] It criticized Ali Akbar Rafsanjani while he was serving as the President[9] and advocated the next President Mohammad Khatami during his election champaign.[11][12]

One of the editor-in-chiefs of the daily was Ibrahim Abedi.[13] Abbas Abdi also served in the post.[14][15]

Bans and closure[edit]

Abbas Abdi, editor-in-chief of Salam, was jailed for eight months in 1993 for his critical writings published in the paper.[16][17][18] On 7 July 1999 Salam was temporarily banned by the Special Court for the Clergy following its publication of a secret ministry report.[11][5] This incident led to six-day student demonstrations in Tehran.[19]

On 4 August the paper was banned for five years and its publisher, Mohammad Mousavi Khoeiniha, was banned from journalistic activity for three years.[20][21]

See also[edit]

List of newspapers in Iran


  1. ^ a b c Hossein Shahidi (11 May 2007). Journalism in Iran: From Mission to Profession. Routledge. p. 47. ISBN 978-1-134-09391-5. 
  2. ^ a b c Muhammad Sahimi (14 July 2013). "The Iranian Student Uprising of 1999: 14 Years Later". Muftah. Retrieved 12 September 2014. 
  3. ^ David Menashri (January 2001). Post-revolutionary Politics in Iran: Religion, Society, and Power. Psychology Press. p. 326. ISBN 978-0-7146-5074-6. Retrieved 23 September 2014. 
  4. ^ a b Hossein Shahidi (March 2006). "From Mission to Profession: Journalism in Iran, 1979–2004". Iranian Studies. 39 (1). doi:10.1080/00210860500470177. Retrieved 28 October 2014. 
  5. ^ a b "Assault on Independent Press in Iran Intensifies". The Iranian. 28 July 1999. Retrieved 12 October 2013. 
  6. ^ Peter Feuilherade (1 April 1994). "Iran: media and the message". The Middle East. Retrieved 27 January 2014. 
  7. ^ Güneş Murat Tezcür (2010). Muslim Reformers in Iran and Turkey: The Paradox of Moderation. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press. p. 120. Retrieved 23 November 2014.  – via Questia (subscription required)
  8. ^ David Menashri (22 March 2007). "Iran's regional policy: between radicalism and pragmatism". Journal of International Affairs. Retrieved 27 January 2014. 
  9. ^ a b Ray Takeyh (28 April 2009). Guardians of the Revolution: Iran and the World in the Age of the Ayatollahs. Oxford University Press. p. 121. ISBN 978-0-19-979313-6. 
  10. ^ Ray Takeyh (1 October 2000). "God's will. Iranian democracy and the Islamic context". Middle East Policy. Retrieved 27 January 2014. 
  11. ^ a b "Iran closes down newspaper". BBC. 7 July 1999. Retrieved 12 October 2013. 
  12. ^ Shahram Rafizadeh; Mahsa Alimardani. "The Political Affiliations of Iranian Newspapers" (PDF). ASL19. Retrieved 12 October 2013. 
  13. ^ Lamis Andoni (7 April 1995). "When Iran Hedges Closer, US Pushes Away". The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 12 October 2013. 
  14. ^ A. W. Samii (December 1999). "The Contemporary Iranian News Media, 1998-1999+" (PDF). Middle East Review of International Affairs. 4 (4). Retrieved 11 October 2013. 
  15. ^ Gholam Khiabany; Annabelle Sreberny (2001). "The Iranian Press and the Continuing Struggle Over Civil Society 1998-2000". International Communication Gazette. 63 (2-3). Retrieved 27 December 2013. 
  16. ^ Mehrzad Boroujerdi; Kourosh Rahimkhani. "Iran's Political Elite". United States Institute of Peace. Retrieved 12 October 2013. 
  17. ^ Reza Aslan (3 August 2009). "Iran's Most Wanted". The Daily Beast. Retrieved 12 October 2013. 
  18. ^ "Human Rights Watch World Report 1995 [Iran-Human Rights Developments]". Bahai News. Retrieved 6 September 2014. 
  19. ^ Geneive Abdo (25 April 2000). "Iran Tightens Crackdown on Reformist Publications". The New York Times. Tehran. Retrieved 18 October 2013. 
  20. ^ Attacks on the Press 1999: Iran Committee to Protect Journalists March 2000
  21. ^ Ramin Karimian; Shabanali Bahrampour (Fall 1999). "Iranian Press Update". Middle East Research and Information Project. 29. Retrieved 12 October 2013.