Sara Jane Moore
|Sara Jane Moore|
|Born||Sara Jane Kahn|
February 15, 1930
Charleston, West Virginia, U.S.
|Criminal charge||Attempted assassination of U.S. president Gerald Ford|
Sara Jane Moore (née Kahn; born February 15, 1930) is an American citizen best known for attempting to assassinate US President Gerald Ford in 1975. She was given a life sentence for the attempted assassination and was released from prison on December 31, 2007, after serving 32 years. Moore and Lynette "Squeaky" Fromme are the only two women to have attempted to assassinate an American president; both of their attempts were on Gerald Ford and both took place in California within three weeks of one another.
Moore was born in Charleston, West Virginia, the daughter of Ruth (née Moore) and Olaf Kahn. Her paternal grandparents were German immigrants. Moore had been a nursing school student, Women's Army Corps recruit, and accountant. Divorced five times, she had four children before she turned to revolutionary politics in 1975. Moore comes from a Christian background. She later began practicing Judaism.
Moore's friends said that she had a fascination and an obsession with Patricia Hearst. After Hearst was kidnapped by the Symbionese Liberation Army (SLA), her father Randolph Hearst created the organization People In Need (PIN) to feed the poor as a response to the SLA's claims that the elder Hearst was "committing 'crimes' against 'the people'". Moore, a volunteer bookkeeper for PIN, also functioned as an FBI informant when she attempted to assassinate Ford.
Attempted assassination of Gerald Ford
Moore had been evaluated by the Secret Service earlier in 1975, but agents decided that she posed no danger to the president. She had been picked up by police on an illegal handgun charge the day before the Ford incident, but was released. The police confiscated her .44 caliber revolver and 113 rounds of ammunition.
Moore's assassination attempt took place in San Francisco on September 22, 1975, just 17 days after Lynette "Squeaky" Fromme's attempted assassination of Ford. She was standing in the crowd across the street from the St. Francis Hotel, and was about 40 feet (12 m) away from Ford when she fired a single shot at him with a .38 caliber revolver. She was using a gun she bought in haste that same morning and did not know the sights were six inches off the point-of-impact at that distance, and she narrowly missed.
After realizing she had missed, she raised her arm again, and Oliver Sipple, a former Marine, dived towards her and grabbed her arm, possibly saving Ford's life. Sipple said at the time: "I saw [her gun] pointed out there and I grabbed for it. [...] I lunged and grabbed the woman's arm and the gun went off." The bullet from the second shot ricocheted and hit John Ludwig, a 42-year-old taxi driver. Ludwig survived. U.S. District Judge Samuel Conti, still on the bench in 2010, spoke on the record, saying that Moore would have killed Ford had she had her own gun, and it was only "because her gun was faulty" that the president's life was spared.
Trial and imprisonment
Moore pleaded guilty to attempted assassination and was sentenced to life in prison. At her sentencing hearing Moore stated: "Am I sorry I tried? Yes and no. Yes, because it accomplished little except to throw away the rest of my life. And, no, I'm not sorry I tried, because at the time it seemed a correct expression of my anger." In 1979, Moore escaped from the Alderson Federal Prison Camp in Alderson, West Virginia, but was captured hours later. After her return, she was transferred to a more secure facility, and she served the remainder of her term at the federal women's prison in Dublin, California, where she worked in the UNICOR prison labor program for $1.25 per hour as the Lead Inmate Operating Accountant. Moore had the Federal Bureau of Prisons register number 04851-180.
In an interview in 2004, former President Ford described Moore as "off her mind" and said that he continued making public appearances, even after two attempts on his life within such a short time, because "a president has to be aggressive, has to meet the people."
On December 31, 2007, at age 77, Moore was released from prison on parole after serving 32 years of her life sentence. Ford had died from natural causes on December 26, 2006, one year and five days before her release. Moore has stated that she regrets the assassination attempt, saying she was "blinded by her radical political views". Moore was released under a federal law that makes parole mandatory for inmates who have served at least 30 years of a life sentence and have maintained a satisfactory disciplinary record. When asked about her crime in an interview, Moore stated, "I am very glad I did not succeed. I know now that I was wrong to try."
Moore also discussed her 1979 escape from prison. She revealed that an inmate told her, "when jumping the fence just put your hand on the barbed wire, you'll only have a few puncture wounds." She went on to say, "If I knew that I was going to be captured several hours later, I would have stopped at the local bar just to get a drink and a burger."
Excerpts from an interview with Moore by Latif Nasser appear on an episode of the radio program Radiolab titled "Oliver Sipple", which was released on September 22, 2017. In the interview, Moore discusses the scene from the day she attempted to assassinate President Ford and her perspective of being stopped by Oliver Sipple.
- "I do regret I didn't succeed, and allow the winds of change to start. I wish I had killed him. I did it to create chaos." (1975)
- "I didn't want to kill anybody, but there comes a point when the only way you can make a statement is to pick up a gun."
- "The government had declared war on the left. Nixon's appointment of Ford as Vice President and his resignation making Ford President seemed to be a continuing assault on America."
- "I know now that I was wrong to try. Thank God I didn't succeed. People kept saying he would have to die before I could be released, and I did not want my release from prison to be dependent on somebody, on something happening to somebody else, so I wanted him to live to be 100." (2007)
- "CBS Evening News for Thursday, September 25, 1975". Vanderbilt Television News Archive. Vanderbilt University. Retrieved 2007-01-03.
- "President Ford survives second assassination attempt". This Day In History. The History Channel. Archived from the original on 2013-01-03. Retrieved 2007-01-03.
- "Kentucky New Era - Google News Archive Search". news.google.com. Retrieved 2015-07-23.
- Spieler, G. (2008). Taking Aim at the President: The Remarkable Story of the Woman Who Shot at Gerald Ford. St. Martin's Press. p. 20. ISBN 9780230621848. Retrieved 2015-07-23.
- "Making of a Misfit". Time Magazine. 1975-10-06.
- Hernandez, Ernio (2004-04-05). "Assassins Shooting Gallery, Part III: Garrison as Fromme and Baker as Moore". Playbill. Playbill. Archived from the original on 2007-09-30. Retrieved 2007-01-03.
- "Sara Jane Moore". nndb.com. Retrieved 2015-07-23.
- "Timeline: Guerrilla: The Taking of Patty Hearst". American Experience. Public Broadcasting Service. 2005-02-16. Retrieved 2007-01-03.
- United States Secret Service. "Public Report of the White House Security Review". United States Department of the Treasury. Retrieved 2007-01-03.
Just seventeen days after the Fromme incident, Sara Jane Moore fired a bullet at President Ford in San Francisco. As President Ford exited a downtown hotel, Moore, standing in a crowd of onlookers across the street, pointed her pistol at him. Just before she fired, a civilian grabbed at the gun and deflected the shot. The bullet missed Ford but slightly injured a bystander. Moore was a known radical and a former FBI informant.
- Carney, James (1998-08-03). "How To Make The Secret Service's "Unwanted" List". Time Magazine. Time Warner. Retrieved 2007-01-03.
- Tucker, Jill (2006-10-29). "Kenneth Iacovoni -- special agent". San Francisco Chronicle. p. B-7. Retrieved 2007-01-03.
- "'Taking Aim at the President', by Geri Spieler".
- Evans, Harold (1998). "The Imperial Presidency: 1972-1980". The American Century. Random House. Retrieved 2007-01-03.
- "Remember... Oliver Sipple (1941-1989)". Archived from the original on 2006-11-03. Retrieved 2007-01-03.
- Seattle Times. "Ford 'won't cower' after shooting." September 23, 1975.
- Caught in Fate's Trajectory, Along With Gerald Ford, Lynne Duke, The Washington Post, December 30, 2006, p. D01.
- "December 12, 1975 in History". BrainyHistory. Retrieved 2007-01-03.
- Nevas, Steve (news anchor) (1976). Ten O'Clock News broadcast (Television news). Boston, MA: WGBH.
- "January 15, 1976 in History". BrainyHistory. Retrieved 2007-01-03.
- Geri Spieler (23 December 2008). Taking Aim at the President: The Remarkable Story of the Woman Who Shot at Gerald Ford. St. Martin's Press. p. 177. ISBN 978-0-230-62184-8.
- McQuiston, John T. (1987-12-24). "'Squeaky' Fromme Sought After an Apparent Escape". New York Times.
- "Ford Assailant Blocks Prison Key Crackdown". San Francisco Chronicle. 2000-08-12. p. A-21. Retrieved 2007-01-03.
- "Sara Jane Moore." Federal Bureau of Prisons. Retrieved on January 9, 2010.
- King, Larry (2004-06-08). "Interview with former President Gerald Ford and former first lady Betty Ford". Larry King Live. CNN. Retrieved 2007-01-03.
- "Would-be Ford assassin freed from prison on parole". CNN.com. 2007-12-31.
- "Woman Who Tried to Assassinate President Ford Released From Prison". FOX News. 2007-12-31.
- Taylor, Michael (2008-01-01). "Sara Jane Moore, who tried to kill Ford in '75, freed on parole". San Francisco Chronicle. Archived from the original on 2008-02-02. Retrieved 2008-10-01.
- http://today.msnbc.msn.com/id/30978026/ns/today-today_people/ msnbc.com
- "Video: Sara Jane Moore on the 'Today' show". theweek.com. Retrieved 2015-07-23.
- Radiolab (September 22, 2017). "Oliver Sipple". Radiolab. WYNC. Retrieved September 22, 2017.
- Spieler, Geri (2009). Taking Aim at the President: The Remarkable Story of the Woman Who Shot at Gerald Ford. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 9780230610231. OCLC 226357171.
- "Taking Aim at the President". gerispieler.com. Archived from the original on 2015-07-23. Retrieved 2015-07-23.
- Keerdoja, Eileen (1976-11-08). "Squeaky and Sara Jane". Newsweek. Archived from the original on 2007-01-18. Retrieved 2007-01-03.
- "Putting the Ass Back in Assassin". Suck. Com. 2001-02-12. Retrieved 2007-01-03.
- Lee, Vic (2007-01-02). "Interview: Woman Who Tried To Assassinate Ford". ABC-7 News. KGO-TV. Retrieved 2007-01-03.
- "Former President Ford lauded, laid to rest". CNN. 2007-01-04. Archived from the original on 2007-03-20. Retrieved 2007-03-22.