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Serbian–Montenegrin unionism is a political ideology which arose during Montenegro's affiliation with the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro. It advocates Montenegro being in a federal political union with Serbia and opposes Montenegrin independence and separation from Serbia. The relationship between Serbs and Montenegrins have been identified as being the closest of all the peoples of the former Yugoslavia.
Friendship between Montenegro and Serbia is long-standing. In 1878, Montenegro and Serbia achieved independence along with Romania from the Ottoman Empire. The two entities since shared all essential experiences; they fought as part of the Balkan League when it came to removing the Ottomans from Rumelia during the First Balkan War, and they fought alongside each other against Austria-Hungary and Germany during the First World War. Plans for the two kingdoms to merge had for some time been an issue when in 1918, the two countries found themselves existing as one state. However, the Kingdom of Montenegro had been absorbed by the Kingdom of Serbia and although the name of Montenegro remained, its status was reduced to ceremonial local administration within a wider Serbian kingdom. The Montenegrin monarchy was removed and has since remained exiled in France. These events led to the Christmas Uprising of 1919 in which smaller part the population of Montenegro demonstrated against the Serbian takeover.
When Yugoslavia reformed during World War II, Montenegro had been awarded republic status alongside a Serbian entity reduced in size. When in 1991 and 1992, the remaining outstanding Yugoslav republics voted for independence, Montenegro had chosen to continue a Pan-Slavic union by the name of Yugoslavia with Serbia. After 1996, Montenegro - led by rebel and former pro-unionist Milo Đukanović - reversed its direction and began taking measures to distance itself internally from Serbia and discontinue its role within the federation. This sentiment which grew popular among the Montenegrin nation eventually led to the referendum of 2006 in which Montenegrins voted to finally end the union. All through Montenegro's history as a federal unit however and to this day, a Montenegrin wing has existed in which certain parts of the population - represented by various political blocks - have supported a continued political union with Serbia.
Serbian–Montenegrin unionism is different from Greater Serbian nationalism. From the Serbian point of view, it fully recognises Montenegro as an equal partner (not an absorbed land), and Montenegrins as a nation equal to the Serbs. It professes the closeness of the Serb and Montenegrin people, the need for unity due to the presence of Serbs in Montenegro and to a lesser extent, Montenegrins in Serbia. Parties that advocate the political union of Montenegro with Serbia include the Socialist People's Party of Montenegro.
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- Montenegro–Serbia relations
- Serbia and Montenegro
- Greater Serbia
- Serbian nationalism
- Montenegrin nationalism