Incense in India

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Incense being sold in an Indian market in Bangalore

India is the world's main incense producing country,[1] and is a healthy exporter to other countries (though export sales have been troubled by increasing costs of the raw materials, and by other factors, such as Western countries buying unperfumed sticks, and by Indian companies producing fakes or imitations).[2] Incense burning has taken place in India for thousands of years, and India exported the idea to China and Japan, and other Asian countries.

The main method of burning incense in India is the incense stick or agarbathi. The basic ingredients of an incense stick are bamboo sticks, paste (generally made of charcoal dust or sawdust and joss/jiggit/gum/tabu powder – an adhesive made from the bark of litsea glutinosa and other trees),[3] and the perfume ingredients – which traditionally would be a masala (powder of ground ingredients),[3] though more commonly is a solvent of perfumes and/or essential oils.[4] After the base paste has been applied to the bamboo stick, it is either, in the traditional method, while still moist, immediately rolled into the masala, or, more commonly, left for several days to dry, and then dipped into the scented solvent. Various resins, such as amber, myrrh, frankincense, and halmaddi are used in traditional masala incense,[5] usually as a fragrant binding ingredient,[6] and these will add their distinctive fragrance to the finished incense. Some resins, such as gum Arabic,[7] may be used where it is desirable for the binding agent to have no fragrance of its own. Halmaddi has a particular interest to Western consumers,[8] possibly through its association with the popular Satya Nag Champa.[9] It is an earth coloured liquid resin drawn from the Ailanthus triphysa tree; as with other resins, it is a viscous semi-liquid when fresh, it hardens to a brittle solid as it evaporates and ages.[10] Some incense makers mix it with honey in order to keep it pliable. Due to crude extraction methods which resulted in trees dying, by the 1990s the Forest Department in India had banned resin extraction;[11] this forced up the price of halmaddi, so its usage in incense making declined. In 2011, extraction was allowed under leasing agreements,[12] which increased in 2013, though production is still sufficiently limited for the resin to sometimes be stolen via improper extraction to be sold on the black market.[13]

The bamboo method of incense making originated in India, and is distinct from the Nepal/Tibet and Japanese methods of stick making in which a bamboo stick is not used. Though the method is also used in the west, particularly in America, it is strongly associated with India. Other main forms of incense are cones and logs and Benzoin resin ( In Sanskrit Saambraani), which are incense paste formed into pyramid shapes or log shapes, and then dried.

A uniform and codified system of incense-making first began in India. Although Vedic texts mention the use of incense for masking odors and creating a pleasurable smell, the modern system of organized incense-making was likely created by the medicinal priests of the time. Thus, modern, organized incense-making is intrinsically linked to the Ayurvedic medical system in which it is rooted.[14]

History[edit]

Ancient pot with holes used for burning incense

The oldest source on incense is the Vedas, specifically, the Atharva-veda and the Rigveda. Incense-burning was used both to create pleasing aromas and a medicinal tool. Its use in medicine is considered the first phase of Ayurveda, which uses incense as an approach to healing. Incense-making was thus almost exclusively done by monks.[14]

The specific knowledge of incense as a healing tool was assimilated into the religious practices of the time – early Hinduism. As Hinduism matured and Buddhism was founded in India, incense became an integral part of Buddhism as well. Around 200 CE, a group of wandering Buddhist monks introduced incense stick making to China.[14][15]

Hinduism[edit]

Agarbatti are an integral part of any Hindu ritual. During rituals, an incense stick is lighted to remove unpleasant odors in the air. It creates the perfect setting for an auspicious ritual by filling the air with a pleasant smell. As they release smoke, they also act as organic disinfectants that drive away insects.[16]

It has some psychological benefits. The aroma of the incense stick has healing power that has a soothing effect on the mind. The calming effect relaxes the mind and helps in performing rituals with better concentration. Prayer offered with a calm mind acts like a meditation process.[17]

Incense has its own spiritual significance. The incense stick burns itself completely into ashes and yet fills the air with a pleasant smell. This ritual basically denotes human virtue of sacrificing oneself for society.[18] The sticks are used as air fresheners during normal days as well and integral part of every Hindu ceremonies.[19]

Ingredients[edit]

Various flavorants used in incense

The basic ingredients of an incense stick are bamboo sticks,[20] paste (generally made of cow dung, and charcoal dust or sawdust and joss/jiggit/gum/tabu powder – an adhesive made from the bark of litsea glutinosa and other trees),[21] and the perfume ingredients – which traditionally would be a powder of mixed ground ingredients, though more commonly is a solvent of perfumes and/or essential oils. After the base paste has been applied to the bamboo stick, it is either, in the traditional method, while still moist, immediately rolled into the flavourant, or, more commonly, left in the sun for several days to dry, and then dipped into the scented solvent.

Many Indian incense makers follow Ayurvedic principles, in which the ingredients that go into incense-making are categorized into five classes: ether (fruits), for example star anise; water (stems and branches), for example sandalwood, aloeswood, cedar wood, cassia, frankincense, myrrh, and borneol; earth (roots), for example turmeric, vetiver, ginger, costus root, valerian, Indian spikenard; fire (flowers), for example clove; and air (leaves), for example patchouli.[14]

Halmaddi is a fragrant binding ingredient which is used in traditional masala incense.[22] It is an earth coloured liquid resin drawn from the Ailanthus triphysa tree; as with other resins, it is a viscous semi-liquid when fresh, it hardens to a brittle solid as it evaporates and ages.[23] Some incense makers mix it with honey in order to keep it pliable.[24] Due to crude extraction methods which resulted in trees dying, by the 1990s the Forest Department in India had banned resin extraction; this forced up the price of halmaddi, so its usage in incense making declined.[25][26] In 2011, extraction was allowed under leasing agreements, which increased in 2013,[27] though production is still sufficiently limited for the resin to sometimes be stolen via improper extraction to be sold on the black market.[28] Other tree resins or gums are also used as a binding agent, such as amber, myrrh, and frankincense, and these will add their distinctive fragrance to the finished incense; some resins, such as gum arabic, may be used where it is desirable for the binding agent to have no fragrance of its own.[29][30][31]

Production[edit]

Production may be partly or completely by hand, or partly or completely by machine. There are semi-automatic machine for applying paste, semi-automatic machine for perfume-dipping, semi-automatic machine for packing, or fully automated machines which apply paste and scent, though the bulk of production is done by hand-rolling at home. There are about 5,000 incense companies in India which take raw un-perfumed sticks hand-rolled by approximately 200,000 women working part-time at home, apply their own brand of perfume, and package the sticks for sale.[32] An experienced home-worker can produce 4,000 raw sticks a day.[33] There are about 25 main companies, who together account for up to 30% of the market, and around 500 of the companies, including a significant number of the main companies, are based in Bangalore.[34]

The state of Karnataka, referred to as the Capital of Agarbathi (Incense Sticks),[35] is the leading producer of the agarbathi in India, with Mysore and Bangalore being the main manufacturing centres.[36] The Mysore region is recognised as a pioneer in the activity of agarbathi manufacturing and this is one of the main cluster activities that exist in the city. The largest agarbathi company in India, Cycle Pure Agarbathies, is based in Mysore. This is because it has a natural reserve of forest products, especially sandalwood, which provide for the base material used in production.[37] In recent years, growth in the production of agarbathi (incense sticks), Dhoop-Deep[38] has been seen in every part of India. In central India some of the leading manufacturers are Zedblack, Indore[39], Tiranga Agarbatti [40]. While in the eastern India some of the famous incense brands are Madhukunj in Orissa [41] and Mangaldeep from the house of ITC Limited. There are plenty of manufacturers in Maharashtra and Gujrat and the western India agarbatti market is totally dominated by them.

Dhoops[edit]

Dhoops are an extruded incense, lacking a core bamboo stick. Many dhoops have very concentrated scents and put out a lot of smoke when burned. The most well-known dhoop is probably Chandan Dhoop. It contains a high percentage of sandalwood.

Dhupa[edit]

For most Indians, incense remains an important part of the daily puja ritual, which is a religious offering performed by all Hindus to their deities, especially during the beginning of a new venture, or to commemorate some special occasion. The aspect of the ritual known as dhupa involves the offering of incense before the picture of a deity, as a token of respect. The smoke is believed to ward off demons and cleanse the air around. They are fragmented.

A sādhu will regularly burn incense in this fashion, as a gesture to Agni, the God of Fire. For the sadhu, the world is alive with unseen forces that must be continually propitiated with offerings and cleansing rituals. Their sacred fireplaces, known as dhuni, perform the same function as incense, on a larger scale, which is to transform matter into aether. Burning incense is thus a reminder, of the sacred power of fire to transform, and the ultimate journey of all physical matter towards spirit.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Incense Sticks". techno-preneur.ne. September 2009. 
  2. ^ Raj Chengappa (September 15, 1981). "Incense sticks: The fading fragrance". indiatoday.intoday.in. 
  3. ^ a b Jonathan Mitchell, Christopher Coles (2011). Markets and Rural Poverty: Upgrading in Value Chains. IDRC. p. 50. 
  4. ^ "Patchouli in fragrances-incense stick production from patchouli spent charge powder" (PDF). cigrjournal.org. 15 (No 1): 187-189. March 2013. 
  5. ^ Niir Board (2000). Handbook On Herbal Products. National Institute Of Industrial Research. p. 174. 
  6. ^ NIIR Board of Consultants and Engineers (22 Feb 2016). Entrepreneur’s Start-Up Handbook: Manufacturing of Profitable Household (FMCG) Products with Process & Formulations. ASIA PACIFIC BUSINESS PRESS Inc. p. 184. 
  7. ^ Thomas Kinkele (30 Jun 2005). Incense and Incense Rituals. Lotus Press. p. 107. 
  8. ^ Karthik Bharadwaj (April 2012). "Consumer satisfaction level towards Cycle Pure Agarbattis" (pdf). Visvesvaraya Technological University. 
  9. ^ Margaret Ann Lembo (8 Mar 2016). The Essential Guide to Aromatherapy and Vibrational Healing. Llewellyn Worldwide. p. 41. 
  10. ^ "Resin". britannica.com. 
  11. ^ Jeffrey Y. Campbell (1991). Women's Role in Dynamic Forest-based Small Scale Enterprises: Case Studies on Uppage and Lacquerware from India. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 
  12. ^ Akshatha M (4 March 2011). "Doom staring dhoop trees in Dakshina Kannada". deccanherald.com. 
  13. ^ "29 kg halmaddi seized, two held". deccanherald.com. 24 Nov 2015. 
  14. ^ a b c d Oller, David. "Incense Making". Retrieved 2013-08-02. 
  15. ^ "History of Incense". Retrieved 2009-07-02. 
  16. ^ http://www.boldsky.com/yoga-spirituality/faith-mysticism/2012/light-incense-hindu-customs-030266.html
  17. ^ http://www.boldsky.com/yoga-spirituality/faith-mysticism/2012/light-incense-hindu-customs-030266.html
  18. ^ http://www.boldsky.com/yoga-spirituality/faith-mysticism/2012/light-incense-hindu-customs-030266.html
  19. ^ Bahadur, Om Lata (1996). The book of Hindu festivals and ceremonies (3rd ed.). New Delhi: UBS Publishers Distributors ltd. p. 167. ISBN 81-86112-23-5. 
  20. ^ "How To Make Agarbatti (Incense of India) at home?". 
  21. ^ Jonathan Mitchell, Christopher Coles (2011). Markets and Rural Poverty: Upgrading in Value Chains. IDRC. p. 50. Retrieved 5 August 2013. 
  22. ^ NIIR Board of Consultants and Engineers (22 Feb 2016). Entrepreneur’s Start-Up Handbook: Manufacturing of Profitable Household (FMCG) Products with Process & Formulations. Asia Pacific Business Press. p. 184. 
  23. ^ "Resin". britannica.com. 
  24. ^ [1], (taken from interview with Bhalendra Sunduram , during the 5th International Conference on Ayurveda. Bangalore, June 2012).
  25. ^ Devaki Jain (1991). Women's role in dynamic forest-based small scale enterprises. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. p. 27. Retrieved 9 September 2013. 
  26. ^ Myforest. Forest Department, Karnataka. 1992. p. 144. Retrieved 9 September 2013. 
  27. ^ Akshatha M, Mangalore (4 March 2011). "Doom staring dhoop trees in Dakshina Kannada". deccanherald.com. 
  28. ^ Bengaluru (24 Nov 2015). "29 kg halmaddi seized, two held". deccanherald.com. 
  29. ^ Niir Board (2000). Handbook On Herbal Products (Medicines, Cosmetics, Toiletries, Perfumes). National Institute Of Industrial Research. p. 174. 
  30. ^ Carl F. Neal (8 Mar 2012). Incense Magick. Llewellyn Worldwide. p. 122. 
  31. ^ Thomas Kinkele (30 Jun 2005). Incense and Incense Rituals. Lotus Press. p. 107. 
  32. ^ Malcolm Harper (2010). Inclusive Value Chains: A Pathway Out of Poverty. World Scientific. p. 249. Retrieved 4 August 2013. 
  33. ^ Mark Holmström (3 Dec 2007). South Indian Factory Workers: Their Life and Their World. Cambridge University Press. p. 16. Retrieved 5 August 2013. 
  34. ^ B. Sudhakara Reddy (1 Jan 1998). Urban Energy Systems. Concept Publishing Company. p. 84. Retrieved 5 August 2013. 
  35. ^ Chris Devonshire-Ellis (2012). Doing Business in India. Springer. p. 154. Retrieved 2 April 2013. 
  36. ^ "Agarbathi" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-04-09. 
  37. ^ "Diagnostic study artisan agarbathi (INCENSE STICK) cluster Mysore (Karnataka)" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on January 9, 2014. Retrieved 2012-04-09. 
  38. ^ Government of India. "Agarbathi Sticks". The office of Development Commissioner (MSME). Retrieved Jan 2, 2017. 
  39. ^ "Zedblack – Mysore Deep Perfumery House". Retrieved Jan 2, 2017. ,
  40. ^ "Tiranga Agarbatti". Retrieved Jan 2,2017.  Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  41. ^ "Madhukunj".  Text "url://http://www.balajiincense.com/ " ignored (help);

External links[edit]