Simeon Dyankov at World Economic Forum, Tianjin, China, September 13, 2010
|Deputy Prime Minister of Bulgaria|
July 27, 2009 – March 13, 2013
|Prime Minister||Boyko Borisov|
|Minister of Finance|
July 27, 2009 – March 13, 2013
|Preceded by||Plamen Oresharski|
|Succeeded by||Kalin Hristov|
|Born||July 13, 1970|
|Alma mater||University of Michigan |
University of National and World Economy
Simeon Dyankov (Bulgarian: Симеон Дянков, also Djankov; born July 13, 1970) is a Bulgarian economist and Senior Fellow at the Peterson Institute for International Economics. From 2009 to 2013, he was the Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Finance of Bulgaria in the government of Boyko Borisov. Prior to his cabinet appointment, Simeon Dyankov was a Chief economist of the finance and private sector vice-presidency of the World Bank. He was an associate editor of the Journal of Comparative Economics from 2004 to 2009. Dyankov was a chairman of the board of the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development. In 2013, he was appointed rector of the New Economic School in Moscow, a title he held until July 2015. Since November 2015, Dyankov was research fellow of the Financial Markets Group at the London School of Economics.
Dyankov is listed as the most-published Bulgarian economist. In 2017–2018, he directed the World Development Report at the World Bank. In 2019, Simeon Dyankov was Director, Development Economics at the World Bank. Since April 2020, Dyankov is policy director at the Financial Markets Group at the London School of Economics.
Dyankov was born in Lovech, Bulgaria on July 13, 1970, Dyankov attended high school "Ekzarh Yosif I" in Lovech (1984–89). In 1989, he passed the entrance exam to the formerly named "Karl Marx Institute of Economics" (today University of National and World Economy) . Simeon Dyankov also holds a 1997 doctorate from the University of Michigan, on the topic "Three Essays on the Economics of Transition." His main thesis advisor was Alan Deardorff. During his tenure at the University of Michigan and the World Bank, Dyankov published over 70 articles in professional journals. Journals include the American Economic Review, the Quarterly Journal of Economics, the Journal of Political Economy, the Journal of Finance, the Journal of Financial Economics. His co-authors include Nobel Prize winner Oliver Hart (economist), John Bates Clark Medal winner Andrei Shleifer, and MacArthur Fellows Program winner Sendhil Mullainathan. He has also co-edited the book "The Resolution of Financial Distress" with Stijn Claessens and Ashoka Mody. The book focuses on the principles of and practical approaches to addressing the public policy trade-off involved in systemic corporate and financial sector crises and the lessons learned from the changes taking place in bankruptcy frameworks around the world. It includes research on recent public policy initiatives for distress resolution or market-based restructuring. Nobel Prize winner Joseph Stiglitz was a contributing author.
In 2016, Dyankov was asked to chair the 25th Anniversary event of EBRD in London and conference in Budapest. The anniversary event involved also Vaira Vike-Freiberga, former President of Latvia and Minister Imad Najib Fakhoury, EBRD Governor for Jordan. The conference on Reinvigorating Growth featured a debate with Bulgarian President Rosen Plevneliev, EU Commissioner Valdis Dombrovskis and EBRD President Sir Suma Chakrabarti.
Harvard Kennedy School
After leaving the government of Boyko Borisov, Simeon Dyankov joined the Harvard Kennedy School as visiting faculty. His teaching is focused on the politics of development. During his time at Harvard, Dyankov edited a special issue of the Journal of Comparative Economics on the 25th anniversary from the start of transition in Eastern Europe. Jointly with Anders Aslund at the Atlantic Council, he also co-authored a book on the transformation from communism. The book contains chapters by Leszek Balcerowicz on Poland, Vaclav Klaus on the Czech Republic, Lajos Bokros on Hungary, Ivan Miklos on Slovakia, and Mart Laar on Estonia.
New Economic School
On October 2, 2013 it was announced that the board of directors of private Moscow-based university New Economic School (NES) also known as the Russian Economic School had approved Simeon Dyankov as its rector. The New Economic School has Russia's premier economics graduate program, which had produced over 350 PhD economists since 1993. It is privately funded, and was established by Harvard economics professors Zvi Griliches and Nobel Prize winner Eric Maskin. During the tenure of Dyankov as Rector, the New Economic School was relocated to a new campus in the Skolkovo Innovation Center.
London School of Economics
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The Financial Markets Group was founded by Charles Goodhart and Mervyn King in 1986 to study the development of banking and non-bank financial institutions. Dyankov's appointment as director serves to expand the focus of research to emerging markets. His latest research is on the effects of Brexit on the City of London, as presented in "EU Attitudes towards Brexit" and written up in "The City of London after Brexit". His views on Brexit are that a soft exit of Great Britain from the European Union will be in the interest of all Europeans. The point of these statistics is to state the obvious: politicians in the UK and the rest of the EU should be constructive about Brexit. If financial service companies move out of London, it is unlikely that many would relocate to another EU city. Financial centers outside of the EU would be more likely to attract the business because other EU financial centers rank so much lower.
Dyankov argues that London will not lose its crown as Europe's financial capital. There are three reasons for this continued dominance over European financial services: The pre-eminence of the British court system in upholding the rule of law, including the protection of creditor and shareholder rights; The superiority of the UK's university education in economics and finance over its continental counterparts ; and the UK's tax and employment regulation that is conducive to the industry's health and profits. Still, Brexit's Effect on the City will be noticeable, reducing revenues by 12–18% and employment by 7–8%. Dyankov has proposed a Brexit readiness index to gauge progress towards eventual separation from the European Union. The Brexit Readiness Score is updated quarterly.
In June 2008, Dyankov established the think-tank Ideas42, jointly with Antoinette Schoar (MIT Sloan), Eldar Shafir (Princeton) and Sendhil Mullainathan (Harvard), a Harvard University-International Finance Corporation venture. The think tank applies the latest analysis to studying the economic lives of the poor, the development of small businesses, and access to finance. Several projects are co-sponsored with the Gates Foundation and the Institute for Financial Management and Research in India. A December 2007 paper studies corruption in obtaining driving licenses in Delhi. On the average, individuals pay about twice the official amount to obtain a license and very few take the legally required driving test, resulting in many unqualified but licensed drivers. The magnitude of distortions in the allocation of licenses increases with citizens' willing to pay for licenses. The results support the view that corruption does not only transfer from citizens to bureaucrats but also distorts allocation. The paper also shows that partial anti-corruption measures have only a limited impact because players in this system adapt to the new environment. Specifically, a ban on agents at one regional transport office is associated with a high percentage of unqualified drivers overcoming the residency requirement and obtaining licenses at other license offices.
Peterson Institute for International Economics
Dyankov joined the Peterson Institute for International Economics in 2013 and has written extensively on Brexit, Russia, Viktor Orbán, postcommunist economies, public procurement, and economic growth. His book on Inside the Euro Crisis details his days in office. Dyankov's views on whether Brexit Will Hurt the City of London have been extensively covered in the media. He also edited a book on China's New Silk Road Initiative. In 2017, Dyankov wrote a study on Trump's Corporate Tax Cut Proposal that casts doubt on the likelihood of such reform. Another study looks at The United States Unique Tax Structure.Greece's Eurozone woes have also been the subject of various editorials and media events.
Simeon Dyankov has had a long and distinguished career at the World Bank, starting in 1995. He has worked in over 100 countries, including Afghanistan, Azerbaijan, Brazil, Colombia, Egypt, Georgia, Kazakhstan, the Kyrgyz Republic, Macedonia, Moldova, Paraguay, Slovakia, Slovenia and Yemen.
Work in Georgia
In 1997, Simeon Dyankov participated in a World Bank enterprise restructuring project in Georgia. For the next year, the project surveyed most of the manufacturing enterprises in Georgia, identifying those with good export opportunities. Since 2004, after the Rose Revolution, Simeon Dyankov has visited Georgia frequently and worked with the government on reforming the business environment. Zurab Nogaideli, prime minister between 2005 and 2007, won a Reformer of the Year award in 2007. Dyankov worked closely with Kakha Bendukidze, the main architect of Georgia's economic reforms.
Doing Business project
Simeon Dyankov is the creator of the annual Doing Business report, the top-selling publication of the World Bank Group. The report came out of joint research work with Professor Andrei Shleifer at Harvard University, and was inspired by Dyankov's experience in overly-regulated socialist economies. The Regulation of Entry paper is one of the most-cited papers in all of economics, with 913 references in academic journals and 3,400 citations in working papers and official reports. Since its initial publication in November 2003, Doing Business has generated 9,750,000 media citations, and over 7 million copies sold or downloaded. The Doing Business report recently had its 17th annual book published. In a 2016 article for the Journal of Economic Perspectives Dyankov explains how Doing Business started. An example of his empirical research supporting the Doing Business report is a paper on business regulation and poverty, published in Economics Letters.
A November 2017 EconTalk explains the origins and influence of the Doing Business report. A summary of reforms during the 15-year anniversary lists the main achievements. The methodology in the Doing Business report has been used by teams managed by Simeon Dyankov to develop other World Bank indices, for example the Human Capital Index.
Chief economist, finance and private sector
As Chief Economist, Dyankov initiated the work on subnational Doing Business analyses, gave the start of Women, Business and the Law series, and managed the Enterprise Surveys.
Women, business and the law
Together with Amanda Ellis, Dyankov established the Women, Business and the Law series in 2008, which published its sixth edition in January 2020. His research on gendered laws shows that equal opportunity laws increase labor force participation by women.
Director of the World Development Report
In 2018, Dyankov ran the World Development Report 2019, which became the most downloaded World Bank publication within a week of its launch. The study is the first World Bank product downloaded more than 1.5 million times, in six languages.
Minister of Finance of Bulgaria
On July 27, 2009, Simeon Dyankov became Minister of Finance of Bulgaria. Minister Dyankov reduced budget spending and managed to cut the budget deficit for 2009 to 4.4%. In 2010 it met the Maastricht criteria – 3%, falling to 2% in 2011 and 0.45% in 2012. On December 1, 2009, Standard&Poors upgraded Bulgaria's investment outlook from "negative" to "stable," the only country in the European Union to receive an upgrade that year. In January 2010 Moody's followed with an upgrade of its rating perspective from "stable" to "positive," and a year later upgraded it one notch – Bulgaria being the only European Union member with an upgrade during 2008–2012.
On numerous occasions, Minister Dyankov stated that two successive terms are needed to complete the reforms that would lead Bulgaria from poorest to middle-income country by Central European standards. Soon after, Parliament adopted the so-called Golden Rules in the organic budget law: the government cannot surpass a deficit of 2% of GDP and a debt-to-GDP ratio of 40% in any given year. Dyankov was a member of the GERB cabinet, but not a party member.
At the second GERB party congress Dyankov urged delegates to lead such policies that the party wins a second term with full majority in parliament. This is needed, he said, to complete the reforms that would lead Bulgaria from poorest to middle-income country by Central European standards. Soon after, Parliament adopted the so-called Golden Rules in the organic budget law: the government cannot surpass a deficit of 2% of GDP and a debt-to-GDP ratio of 40% in any given year. Dyankov believes in his role as an expert rather than a politician and even though he is a member of the GERB cabinet, he is not a member of the GERB party.
Dyankov was the second-youngest finance minister in the European Union, after the UK's George Osborne. He champions low taxes as a way to come out of the global economic crisis. In May 2012, he became Chair of the Supervisory Board of the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD). This is the first time the Chair is held by a finance minister from the former socialist bloc. In June 2012 Simeon Dyankov has been invited to join the World Bank Knowledge Advisory Council.
Dyankov championed low taxes as a way to come out of the global economic crisis. In May 2012, he became Chair of the Supervisory Board of the EBRD. This is the first time the Chair is held by a finance minister from the former socialist bloc. In June 2012 Simeon Dyankov has been invited to join the World Bank Knowledge Advisory Council.
On February 18, 2013 Dyankov resigned in protest of the decision by Prime Minister Boyko Borisov to advance subsidies to farmers. On February 20, 2013, PM Borisov announced the resignation of the government due to increasing levels of violence in the protests due to high electricity prices. Dyankov continued to serve as finance minister until a caretaker government was formed a month later.
Deputy Prime Minister
As Deputy Prime Minister, Dyankov was responsible for the reforms in the public administration, healthcare, higher education, and pensions.
In July 2010, the results of the first year of administrative reform were reported. The number of public officials was reduced by 11%, and the number of government institutions by 8%. This is the first time since the fall of communism that administrative reform has resulted in an actual optimization in government. In 2012 since the beginning of his term the number of public officials was reduced by 15%, and the number of government institutions by 9%. Also, the new Law on Public Officials (adopted by Parliament in April 2012) introduced a unified pay scale for all public servants, annulled 72 special laws that previously gave special treatment to some categories of public servants, and eliminated the annual bonus for seniority. Under the new law pay depends fully on merit. The latter change met stiff opposition by the labor unions who have repeatedly called for Dyankov's resignation. In 2012, another part of the administrative reform started: moving some government agencies from the capital city to other regional hubs. The first two government decrees moved the headquarters of the tourism directorates to Plovdiv, and the Agency for Fisheries to Burgas. The rationale for this decentralization is to spread the administrative capacity in Bulgaria more evenly, and to link university education with the needs of the administration.
Simeon Dyankov's main body of work is on post-communist transition. His 2014 book The Great Rebirth analyzes the experience of Eastern Europe and Russia in the quarter century since the fall of Communism. Dyankov is put alongside Leszek Balcerowicz, Vaclav Klaus and Mart Laar as one of the architects of post-communist economic restructuring.
On the Eurozone crisis
Dyankov's views on the Eurozone crisis are presented in a number of publications, and summarized in a recent article. He also published a book on the subject titled Inside the Euro Crisis. The main argument is that Europe needs a frank discussion about competitiveness.
A third book, Europe's Growth Challenge, suggests ways in which the continent can compete with the United States and Asia. European society benefits from equality in income, excellent healthcare and basic education, good infrastructure, and developed institutions for the rule of law. But Europe has entered a period of economic stagnation and is distracted by multiple challenges. Economic and political strains have stalled vital reforms, while the threat of disunion is evident. By focusing on what works in Europe and the great variations within Europe, Dyankov shows how Europe can develop a strategy for higher economic growth. These steps a reduction of the fiscal role of the state, an opening up of services and digital trade, an easing of the regulatory and tax burdens on labor, an improved environment for startups and innovation, pension reform, and the development of Europe's energy union. Europe's Growth Challenge is finalist for The Hayek Prize for 2018.
His attitude and wording concerning Russia has become famous for his firmness. On September 27, 2012 he stated that if needed Russian nuclear-power companies would be slammed in the talks about future possible building of nuclear plant at Belene if their conditions were not satisfactory for Bulgaria. As deputy prime minister, Simeon Dyankov was also responsible for canceling the oil-pipeline project connecting the ports of Burgas and Alexandroupolis. At the same time, as minister Dyankov was supportive of easing Russian tourism into Bulgaria and increasing cultural ties. For example, on January 23, 2013, during a visit to Moscow he stated that in fact "Bulgaria bets on Russian investment". The visa regime was in fact eased after Dyankov's intervention, so that Russian tourists who already have Schengen visas were no longer required to obtain Bulgarian visas. The same new rule applies for citizens of Turkey and Ukraine.
Corporate income tax rates in advanced economies have fallen from an average of 46 percent in 1987 to 23 percent in 2017. Dyankov's research suggests that tax convergence will take place by 2020, with the United States, France and Germany also lowering their tax rate to below 25 percent. This trend reduces tax competition across jurisdictions.
Future of work
The study conducted by Dyankov in the 2019 World Development Report finds that the fears of mass unemployment due to technology are unfounded.
Dyankov is married to the Columbia University economist Caroline Freund, and has two children. In 2016 Freund published Rich People, Poor Countries, a widely acclaimed book on superstar global companies.
His father-in-law is the theoretical physicist Peter Freund of the University of Chicago. Freund was one of the originators of two-component duality which gave the original impetus to what then developed into string theory. He pioneered the modern unification of physics through the introduction of extra dimensions of space and found mechanisms by which the extra dimensions curl up. Professor Freund made significant contributions, to the theory of magnetic monopoles, to supersymmetry and supergravity, to number-theoretic aspects of string theory, as well as to the phenomenology of hadrons.
Dyankov has a passion for antique and old historic and finance books, history of Bulgarian finance, etc.
While in the Bulgarian government, Dyankov started a program for restoring cultural heritage sites from the Thracian, Roman and early Bulgarian history. Together with Bozhidar Dimitrov, director of the National Historical Museum (Bulgaria), the state invested in over 80 archaeological sites. Simeon Dyankov was called once "Bulgaria's Top Archaeologist" by a fellow minister. In 2012, he received the title of Honorary Citizen of Sozopol.
- The Great Rebirth: Lessons from the Victory of Capitalism over Communism
- Bulgaria's Ex-Finance Minister Djankov Appointed Rector of Private University in Moscow
- Handicapping the John Bates Clark Medal The Wall Street Journal April 12, 2012
- Crime Crackdown Boosts Budget Crackdown in Bulgaria The Wall Street Journal January 12, 2010
- Standard & Poor's Upgrades Bulgaria's Outlook to Stable
- Bulgaria Ruling Party GERB Eyes Second Term, Clear Majority, January 10, 2010
- Bulgaria Finance Minister Rejects Presidential Bid Rumors, May 2, 2010
- Bulgaria Ruling Party GERB Eyes Second Term, Clear Majority, January 10, 2010
- Bulgaria Finance Minister Rejects Presidential Bid Rumors, May 2, 2010
- Bulgaria's FinMin to Join World Bank Knowledge Council, Novinite, June 11, 2012
- Bulgaria's FinMin to Join World Bank Knowledge Council, Novinite, June 11, 2012
- Protests Pressure Bulgarian Government The Wall Street Journal February 19, 2013
- Bulgaria Government Quits The Wall Street Journal February 20, 2013
- After Bulgarian Protests, Prime Minister Resigns The New York Times Feb 20, 2013
- Europe Needs a Smarter Austerity Debate The Wall Street Journal April 17, 2013
- New Faculty Feature: Adjunct Lecturer Simeon Djankov, Kennedy School, Harvard, July 24, 2013
- Inside the Euro Crisis: An Eyewitness Account, Peterson Institute for International Economics, June 2014
- Bulgaria Lashes Out at Russia over Increased Belene NPP Claim, SNA, September 27, 2012. Retrieved January 29, 2013.
- A Sainted Discovery The Economist August 19, 2010
- Hoekman, Bernard and Simeon Djankov (1996). "The European Union's Mediterranean Free Trade Initiative" The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 19(4), pages 387–405, 07.
- Hoekman, Bernard, and Simeon Djankov (1997). Determinants of the Export Structure of Countries in Central and Eastern Europe. World Bank Economic Review, 11, 3: 471–87.
- Hoekman, Bernard, and Simeon Djankov (1997). Effective protection and investment incentives in Egypt and Jordan during the transition to free trade with Europe. World Development, 25, 2: 281–291.
- Djankov, Simeon and Bernard Hoekman (1998). Conditions of Competition and Multilateral Surveillance. The World Economy, 21, 8: 1109–1128.
- Deardorff, Alan, and Simeon Djankov, (2000). Knowledge Transfer under Subcontracting: Evidence from Czech Firms. World Development, vol. 28(10), pp. 1837–1847, October.
- Claessens, Stijn, Simeon Djankov and Ashoka Mody (eds.), (2001) Resolution of Financial Distress (book). World Bank
- Botero, Juan, Simeon Djankov, Rafael La Porta, Florencio López de Silanes and Andrei Shleifer (2004). The Regulation of Labor. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 119: 1339–1382.
- Djankov, Simeon, Rafael La Porta, Florencio López de Silanes and Andrei Shleifer (2002). The Regulation of Entry. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 117: 1–37.
- Djankov, Simeon, Rafael La Porta, Florencio López de Silanes and Andrei Shleifer (2003). Courts. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 118: 453–517.
- Djankov, Simeon, Edward Miguel, Yingyi Qian, Gérard Roland and Ekaterina Zhuravskaya (2005). Who are Russia's Entrepreneurs?. Journal of the European Economic Association, 3, 2: 587–597.
- Djankov, Simeon, Yingyi Qian, Gérard Roland and Ekaterina Zhuravskaya (2006). Entrepreneurship in China and Russia Compared. Journal of the European Economic Association, 4, 2: 352–365.
- Djankov, Simeon, Caralee McLiesh and Andrei Shleifer (2007). Private Credit in 129 Countries. Journal of Financial Economics, May.
- Bertrand, Marianne, Simeon Djankov, Rema Hanna and Sendhil Mullainathan (2007). Obtaining a Driver's License in India: An Experimental Approach in Studying Corruption. Quarterly Journal of Economics, November.
- Djankov, Simeon, Rafael La Porta, Florencio Lopez-de-Silanes and Andrei Shleifer (2008). The Law and Economics of Self-Dealing. Journal of Financial Economics, May.
- Djankov, Simeon, Caroline Freund and Cong Pham, Trading on Time. Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, Vol. 92(1), pages 166–173, Feb. 2010.
- Djankov, Simeon, Jose Montalvo and Marta Reynal-Querol, The Curse of Aid. Journal of Economic Growth, September 2008.
- Djankov, Simeon, Oliver Hart, Caralee McLiesh and Andrei Shleifer, Debt Enforcement around the World. Journal of Political Economy, December 2008
- Djankov, Simeon, Rafael La Porta, Florencio Lopez-de-Silanes and Andrei Shleifer, Disclosure by Politicians. American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, March 2010.
- Djankov, Simeon, Tim Ganser, Caralee McLiesh, Rita Ramalho and Andrei Shleifer, "The Effect of Corporate Taxes on Investment and Entrepreneurship" American Economic Journal: Macroeconomics, American Economic Association, Vol. 2(3), pages 31–64, July 2010.
- Djankov, Simeon. "Inside the Euro Crisis: An Eyewitness Account" August 2014.
- Aslund, Anders and Simeon Djankov. "The Great Rebirth" December 2014.
- Djankov, Simeon, Nikolova, Elena and Jan Zilinsky (2016). "The happiness gap in Eastern Europe" Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 44(1), pages 108–124.
- Djankov, Simeon (2017). "The City of London after Brexit" Peterson Institute for International Economics, Policy Brief 17–9.
- Djankov, Simeon (2017). "Corporate Tax Cuts: Examining the Record in Other Countries' Peterson Institute for International Economics, Policy Brief 17–14.
- Djankov, Simeon & Nikolova, Elena, (2018). "Communism as the unhappy coming," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 46(3), pages 708–721.
- Hyland, Marie Caitriona and Djankov, Simeon and Goldberg, Pinelopi Koujianou, Gendered Laws (2019). World Bank Policy Research Working Paper No. 9080. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3507828.
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