Slighting

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Corfe Castle was partially demolished (slighted) during the English Civil War so that its defences could not be reused.

Slighting is the deliberate destruction, partial or complete, of a fortification without opposition, to render it unusable as a fortress.[1][2]

Sometimes, such as during the Wars of Scottish Independence and the English Civil War, slighting is carried out on a systematic basis as part of a policy by one or both sides to deny the use of fortified places to their enemies.[3][4][5]

History[edit]

In England during the Middle Ages, adulterine (unauthorised) castles, if captured by the king, would usually be slighted.[6] During the Wars of Scottish Independence, King Robert the Bruce adopted a strategy of slighting Scottish castles to prevent them being occupied by the English.[5][7] A strategy of slighting castles in the Levant was also adopted by the Mamluks in their wars with the Crusaders.

Under the terms of The concessions of Francis and Mary to the nobility and the people of Scotland and the Treaty of Edinburgh in July 1560, various fortified places were designated for demolition to prevent their use by French and English forces.[8] These included the recent fortifications at Dunbar Castle, Leith and Eyemouth.[9][10][11] On the island of Inchkeith a token garrison of 60 French soldiers were allowed to remain for a time. Inchkeith and Dunbar were finally slighted in 1567.[12]

One side of Kenilworth Castle's great tower was slighted following the English Civil War

During the English Civil War many castles and fortified houses were slighted by the Parliamentarians to stop them being used by the Royalists.[3] Most of the destruction was in Wales, the Midlands, and Yorkshire e.g. Pontefract Castle. The coastal fortifications were spared by the Commonwealth, as they might have been useful for hindering a Royalist or foreign invasion.[4]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Hull 2008, p. 86.
  2. ^ Friar, Stephen (2003). The Sutton Companion to Castles, Sutton Publishing, Stroud, 2003, p. 271. ISBN 978-0-7509-3994-2
  3. ^ a b Manganiello 2004, p. 498.
  4. ^ a b Lowry 2006, p. 29.
  5. ^ a b Perry & Blackburn 2000, p. 321.
  6. ^ Muir 1997, p. 173.
  7. ^ Traquar, Peter Freedom's Sword p. 159
  8. ^ Haynes, Samuel, ed. (1740). A Collection of State Papers left by William Cecil, 1542–1570. London. p. 354: letter summarising the finalised treaty of Edinburgh. 
  9. ^ Flintham 2011, Fortified Places: Edinburgh cites Cullen 1988, p. 1
  10. ^ Guthrie 1768, pp. 124, ff.
  11. ^ Calendar State Papers Scotland, vol.1 (1898), p.862, 452, 454
  12. ^ Pollard & Banks 2009, p. 112.

References[edit]

Further reading[edit]