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Temporal range: Late Cretaceous (about 80 Mya)[1] - Recent
Gonospira uvula Reunion 0408.jpg
A live individual of Gonospira uvula
Scientific classification
Gray, 1860

Gray, 1860[2]

Enneinae Bourguignat, 1883
Marconiinae Schileyko, 2000
Odontartemoninae Schileyko, 2000
Orthogibbinae Germain, 1921
Ptychotrematinae Pilsbry, 1919
Streptaxinae Gray, 1860

58 genera

Streptaxidae is a family of carnivorous air-breathing land snails, terrestrial pulmonate gastropod mollusks in the clade Stylommatophora. Six Streptaxidae subfamilies are accepted in the 2005 taxonomy of the Gastropoda by Bouchet & Rocroi.

Streptaxidae are carnivorous except for one species Edentulina moreleti, which is herbivorous.[3] All streptaxids have well-developed radula, except Careoradula perelegans, which is the only known terrestrial gastropod without radula.[4]

Altogether 66 species from the family Streptaxidae are listed in the 2010 IUCN Red List.[5]


The historical area of origin of the Streptaxidae is probably Gondwanaland.[6]

The family is widely distributed across the tropical and subtropical areas of South America, Africa and Asia.[7] The Recent native distribution of Streptaxidae includes South America, Africa, Arabia, Madagascar, Seychelles, Mayotte, Comores, Mauritius, Réunion, Rodrigues, India, Sri Lanka, Andamans, South-East Asia and the Philippines.[1] The genus Gibbulinella is found in the Canary Islands.[1]

The species diversity of Streptaxidae reaches its maximum in sub-Saharan Africa.[7]

With 13 genera and about 130 nominal species, the second most diverse streptaxid fauna can be found in Southeast Asia.[7] Streptaxidae are the most diverse among tropical Asian carnivorous snails.[7] In Indochina, streptaxid diversity was thought to comprise only 10 genera and about 40 species in 1967.[8] However, in 2006-2016, 21 new species (more than half the previous total) and one new genus had been described from Indochina.[8] Thirty-seven species are recorded from Thailand, 10 from Myanmar, 45 from Vietnam,[8][9] and 12 from Laos.[8]


Streptaxids can generally be recognized by their eccentric or cylindrical shells, while the animals have a bright yellow to red or orange body with external hook-like structures on the everted penis.[7]

Early classifications of the family such as Wilhelm Kobelt (1905–6), used mainly shell shape and the arrangement of apertural dentition.[8] However, many shell characters are highly conserved or occur recurrently, making some species and genera difficult to separate.[8] The reproductive organs of streptaxids can also be taxonomically significant.[8]


Prior to Schileyko’s revision in 2000 only two subfamilies, the Streptaxinae and the Enneinae had been recognized, which were primarily based on their shell morphology.[7]

2005 taxonomy[edit]

Only the one family, Streptaxidae, was recognized within the Streptaxoidea in the taxonomy of Bouchet & Rocroi (2005).[10]

There are 6 subfamilies in the family Streptaxidae according to the taxonomy of the Gastropoda by Bouchet & Rocroi, 2005, that follows Schileyko (2000):[11]

  • Streptaxinae Gray, 1860 - synonym: Artemonidae Bourguignat, 1889
  • Enneinae Bourguignat, 1883[12] - synonym: Streptostelidae Bourguignat, 1889
  • Marconiinae Schileyko, 2000[13]
  • Odontartemoninae Schileyko, 2000[14]
  • Orthogibbinae Germain, 1921[15] - synonyms: Gibbinae Steenberg, 1936; Gonidominae Steenberg, 1936
  • Ptychotrematinae Pilsbry, 1919[16]

2010 taxonomy[edit]

Sutcharit et al. (2010)[1] have established a new family Diapheridae within Streptaxoidea and they have added two genera Diaphera and Sinoennea into Diapheridae.[1]

In the recent decades, most of the taxonomic and systematic research on streptaxids has been performed on sub-Saharan African taxa.[7] Only a few publications focus on South American or Asian groups.[7]


Genera in the family Streptaxidae include:







Unsorted to subfamily:


See also[edit]


This article includes CC-BY-3.0 text from the reference[7] and CC-BY-4.0 from the reference[8]

  1. ^ Dadagulella is placed here within Ptychotrematinae, because Dadagulella and Gulella are supposed to be sister groups.
  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl Sutcharit C., Naggs F., Wade C. M., Fontanilla I. & Panha S. (2010). "The new family Diapheridae, a new species of Diaphera Albers from Thailand, and the position of the Diapheridae within a molecular phylogeny of the Streptaxoidea (Pulmonata: Stylommatophora)". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 160: 1-16. doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.2009.00598.x.
  2. ^ Gray J. E. (October 1860) "On the arrangement of the land pulmoniferous Mollusca into families". Annals and Magazine of Natural History, serie 3, 6: 267-269. Streptaxidae is on the page 268.
  3. ^ Gerlach J. (2001). "Edentulina moreleti", the first herbivorous streptaxid (Gastropoda)". Phelsuma 9: 75. PDF.
  4. ^ Gerlach J. & van Bruggen A. C. (1998). "A first record of a terrestrial mollusc without a radula". Journal of Molluscan Studies 64(2): 249-250. doi:10.1093/mollus/64.2.249.
  5. ^ IUCN 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.3. <>. Downloaded on 27 September 2010.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g Gerlach J. & Bruggen A. C. van (1999). "Streptaxidae Mollusca: Gastropoda: Pulmonata) of the Seychelles Islands, western Indian Ocean". Zoologische Verhandelingen 328: 1-60. abstract, PDF.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i Siriboon, T.; Sutcharit, C.; Naggs, F.; Panha, S. (2013). "Three new species of the carnivorous snail genus Perrottetia Kobelt, 1905 from Thailand (Pulmonata, Streptaxidae)". ZooKeys. 287: 41–57. doi:10.3897/zookeys.287.4572. PMC 3677355. PMID 23794847.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h Inkhavilay, Khamla; Siriboon, Thanit; Sutcharit, Chirasak; Rowson, Ben; Panha, Somsak (2016-05-16). "The first revision of the carnivorous land snail family Streptaxidae in Laos, with description of three new species (Pulmonata, Stylommatophora, Streptaxidae)". ZooKeys. 589: 23–53. doi:10.3897/zookeys.589.7933. ISSN 1313-2970. PMC 4926661. Retrieved 2017-11-02.
  9. ^ Sang, Do Duc; Do Duc, Sang (2017). "Checklist of the genus Perrottetia Kobelt, 1905 (Pulmonata: Streptaxidae) of Vietnam, with description of a new species". Folia Malacologica. 25 (2): 95–100. doi:10.12657/folmal.025.009. Retrieved 2017-11-02.
  10. ^ a b Bouchet, Philippe; Rocroi, Jean-Pierre; Frýda, Jiri; Hausdorf, Bernard; Ponder, Winston; Valdés, Ángel & Warén, Anders (2005). "Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families". Malacologia. Hackenheim, Germany: ConchBooks. 47 (1–2): 1–397. ISBN 3-925919-72-4. ISSN 0076-2997.
  11. ^ Schileyko A. A. (2000). "Treatise on recent terrestrial pulmonate molluscs: Rhytididae; Chlamydephoridae; Systrophiidae; Haplotrematidae; Streptaxidae; Spiraxidae; Oleacinidae; Testacellidae". Ruthenica Supplement 2 Part 6: 731–880.
  12. ^ Bourguignat J. R. (1883) Annales des Sciences Naturelles, Zoologie, serie 6, 15, Art. 2: page 74.
  13. ^ Schileyko A. A. (2000). "Treatise on recent terrestrial pulmonate molluscs: Rhytididae, Chlamydephoridae, Systrophiidae, Haplotrematidae, Streptaxidae, Spiraxidae, Oleacinidae, Testacellidae". Ruthenica, Suppl. 2, Part 6: 731-880. page 828.
  14. ^ Schileyko A. A. (2000). "Treatise on recent terrestrial pulmonate molluscs: Rhytididae, Chlamydephoridae, Systrophiidae, Haplotrematidae, Streptaxidae, Spiraxidae, Oleacinidae, Testacellidae". Ruthenica, Suppl. 2, Part 6: 731-880. page 830.
  15. ^ Germain (1921) Faune malacologique terrestre et fluviatile des iles Mascareignes: 415, 461.
  16. ^ Pilsbry H. A. (1919) Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 40: 180.
  17. ^ Wenz W. v. (1947) "Zur Taxonomie der Euthyneura". Archiv für Molluskenkunde 76(1): 336.
  18. ^ Dance S. P. (1972). "Bruggennea n.gen., proposed for Recent streptaxids from Borneo (Gastropoda, Streptaxidae)". Archiv für Molluskenkunde 102: 131-132.
  19. ^ Bequaert J. & Clench W. J. (1936). "Studies of African land and fresh-water mollusks. Notes on Gonaxis Taylor, with description of a new species". Journal of Conchology London, 20: 263-273.
  20. ^ Rowson B. & Tattersfield P. (2013). "Revision of Dadagulella gen. nov., the “Gulella radius group” (Gastropoda: Streptaxidae) of the eastern Afrotropics, including six new species and three new subspecies". European Journal of Taxonomy 37: 1-46. doi:10.5852/ejt.2013.37.
  21. ^ Gerlach J. (2001). "Conturbatia, a new genus of Streptaxidae (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Pulmonata)". Zoosystematics and Evolution 77(2): 297-302. doi:10.1002/mmnz.20010770213.
  22. ^ Emberton K. C. (2002). "Parvedentulina and edentate Gulella of Madagascar (Gastropoda: Stylommatophora: Streptaxidae)". Archiv für Molluskenkunde 131(1/2): 67-165. abstract.

Further reading[edit]

  • Zilch A. (1961). "Die Typen und Typoide des Natur-Museums Senckenberg 24: Mollusca, Streptaxidae". Archiv für Molluskenkunde 90: 79-120.

External links[edit]