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Temporal range: Middle Permian 267–260 Ma
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Order: Therapsida
Suborder: Dinocephalia
Family: Anteosauridae
Subfamily: Syodontinae
Ivakhnenko, 1994

Syodontinae is a group of dinocephalian therapsids. It is one of two subfamilies in the family Anteosauridae, the other being Anteosaurinae.[1] They are known from the Middle Permian Period of what is now Russia and South Africa. One of the best known syodontines is Syodon from Russia. The South African form Australosyodon, is one of the earliest known Gondwanan anteosaurs.


Syodontines lack the boss on the lower jaw that characterises the related anteosaurines, and they have often been considered more primitive in this respect.


Below is a cladogram showing syodontine relationships from a 2012 phylogenetic study of anteosaurians:[2]


Biarmosuchus tener


Estemmenosuchus uralensis

Ulemosaurus svijagensis

Tapinocaninus pamelae


Archaeosyodon praeventor


Sinophoneus yumenensis

Titanophoneus adamanteus

Titanophoneus potens

Anteosaurus magnificus


Pampaphoneus biccai

Notosyodon gusevi

Syodon biarmicum

Australosyodon nyaphuli


  1. ^ Kammerer, C.F. (2011). "Systematics of the Anteosauria (Therapsida: Dinocephalia)". Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 9 (2): 261–304. doi:10.1080/14772019.2010.492645. 
  2. ^ Cisneros, J.C.; Abdala, F.; Atayman-Güven, S.; Rubidge, B.S.; Şengör, A.M.C.; Schultz, C.L. (2012). "Carnivorous dinocephalian from the Middle Permian of Brazil and tetrapod dispersal in Pangaea". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 109 (5): 1584–1588. PMC 3277192Freely accessible. PMID 22307615. doi:10.1073/pnas.1115975109.