Talk:Anatomical terms of motion

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March 16, 2014Peer reviewReviewed
May 27, 2014Featured list candidatePromoted
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Why does "excycloduction" redirect here?[edit]

What does it mean? Not mentioned in article. (talk) 15:35, 16 September 2014 (UTC)

Sorry for the delay... this refers to an eye movement - I have changed the redirect to point to the relevant part of that article. --Tom (LT) (talk) 23:14, 10 March 2017 (UTC)

Ankle distinction emphasis needed[edit]

I am having a heck of a time mentally grasping the distinction between pro-supi nation and in-e version. Here are the pictures the article uses for things that look pretty similar:

It would be nice if both pictures used the same foot to explain what I mean, a flipped image of one or the other might better illustrate it.


  • Inversion looks a LOT like supination, both look to move the big toe toward the middle
  • Eversion looks a LOT like pronation, both look to move the big toe away from the middle

I mean, I know the concept that VERSION is about tilting while NATION is about rotation... and I can see a bit of the differences in the pictures, but there still seems to be a lot of overlap in the actions and I am wondering if there would be a way for this article to better explain the differences in the actions.

Like for example if it could explain muscles in common between the actions and muscles not in common. Or explain certain body building actions that target one action but not the other.

Especially since many actions that feet do are not blatently one or the other it is really hard to tell what is happening here.

A whole article dedicated to explaining the distinctions and importances of each motion would not be wasted, but even just expanding these sections to elaborate (or a new one focusing on the comparison) would be very helpful. Very confused by these.

It is a lot easier to grasp wrist motions. Not sure why... maybe different joint structures that are less square. I figure pronation and supination of the hand-forearm are the equivalent to pronation and supination of the foot-lowerLeg. Not sure what the equivalent of inversion and eversion of the ankle is in respect to the wrist... perhaps radial and ulnar deviation... hoping someone can answer that too.

It would also be good to explain the common-phrasing of certain terms in respect to proper anatomical terms. For example in it mentions regarding the posterior tibial tendon:

helps turn the foot inward during walking

I did not know whether that meant inversion or supination. In looking up the muscle associated with that tendon, it says the contraction, it says that it produces inversion, so I figure it meant that. But to casual readers who do not read the muscle article, it is hard to know what expressions like -turn in the foot- mean. It might even be used to refer to both for all I know. I would like to know if we have articles about common-phrasing or slang in regard to these motion terms too. --Ranze (talk) 18:00, 19 November 2014 (UTC)

Plantar flexion decreases the angle?[edit]

"Plantar flexion is the movement which decreases the angle" Shouldn't this be "increases"?

If not, then the page on Soleus_Muscle should be changed because it says "The action of the calf muscles, including the soleus, is plantarflexion of the foot (that is, they increase the angle between the foot and the leg)." Ddunn801 (talk) 22:26, 7 July 2015 (UTC)

I'm pretty sure this is correct as written. Notice it says "the angle between the sole... and the BACK of the leg". I guess you could also say plantar flexion INCREASES the angle, measured at the front, but it's natural and customary to discuss flexion in terms of decreasing angles. — Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 01:55, 10 July 2016 (UTC)

Speech and gesture[edit]

First - Vocal speech involves anatomical reference points and terms indicating motion and generalised abstract dimensional location of the tongue and other oral articulators. (Sign language and studies of gesture likewise has a complex range of terms, and there are a wide range of other human activities using the anatomy with their own terminologies.) It would be good to at least point readers to such terminologies where anatomical labelling is critical rather than merely incidental or derived. There are a few gestural illustrations, but the whole article is depressingly medical :-)

For example, the section "Special motions of the jaw and teeth" includes a seemingly unusual use of protrusion/retrusion, plus occlusion. Occlusion as far as I am aware refers to contact, not clear from the definition "motion of the mandibula towards the maxilla making contact between the teeth".

Here are the terms used in phonetics / speech science, and necessary for people interested in speech, head and neck musculature, and a set of dimensions different to the others offered, even the "superficial and deep" pairing on the sister page "anatomical terms of location"

"Constriction / degrees of stricture". These equivalent terms/dimensions of location-motion cover both approximation and contact of two articulators used in speech, such as the upper and lower lips, or tongue and palate, etc. A stricture of complete closure in the oral cavity means a complete occlusion of the airway. A stricture of close approximation indicates anatomic proximity close enough to generate turbulent airflow and acoustic frication. A stricture of open approximation indicates anatomic proximity too wide to audibly constrict the airway. A vowel typically has a stricture of open approximation, so a vowel-consonant-vowel sequence involves motions from open approximation to something more constricted, and back again. The consonant could have complete occlusion, for example, and this could be at different locations between the larynx (a glottal stop) to the lips (a labial stop). In each case, the vocal tract is narrowed through voluntary muscular action to block it, with a range of mechanisms.

The oral tract is oriented from rostral to caudal, and is flexible during speech and swallowing, so that these degrees of approximation form a different dimension from those otherwise mentioned on these 2 pages.

Second - it would nice to have a pointer to an article about the kinematics and underlying control of motion in these dimensions of motion. The article on Kinesiology is not well linked.

and, of course, the article on Kinesiology itself is, as usual, focused on skeletal kinematics and control, missing out the muscular hydrostat of the tongue (and lips), where an entirely different model is required to deal with the range of motions and degrees of freedom involved, which also don't fit well to a simple Agonist/Antagonist model due to the lack of skeletal bracing and attachment.

At leasta link to this following page would be a real pleasure for me to see -

— Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 14:37, 22 February 2016 (UTC)

Clarify the distinction between inversion/eversion and pronation/supination of the foot[edit]

Could the difference between inversion/eversion and pronation/supination of the foot please be clarified? As far as I can tell, the definitions given in the article are synonymous with each other:

Pronation of the foot refers to turning of the sole outwards, so that weight is borne on the medial part of the foot.
Eversion is the movement of the sole of the foot away from the median plane.

A similar request was made in #Ankle distinction emphasis needed, but was not discussed or addressed. (talk) 14:22, 10 March 2017 (UTC)