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The text below seems to have been written by a person who speaks some other language than English as a first language:

How endorphins/enkephalins work in human body.
Endorphins are a type of inhibitory nerve that reduces the cell voltage of the excitory nerve, causing the signal to weaken. It is a type of presynaptic inhibition. How it works is that it acts as a secondary nerve that changes the calcium influx of another nerve, therefore reducing the signal. Endorphins work to lessen the pain in humans.
Several types of drugs that is related to endorphins that acts as an inhibitory nerve are morphine, heroin, and codeine.

Can anyone fact-check this and convert it into grammatical English?

I don't think the person is foreign, I just think they either can't write well, or don't know the proper term. Maybe they mean "never inhibitor" instead of "inhibitory nerve."?

The discussion above has been pretty much rendered moot by subsequent changes to the page. --Dcfleck 15:17, 2005 May 30 (UTC)

Endophines are just some of the many chemicals that contribute to the runner's high[edit]

There are many chemicles in the bloodstream that contribute to runners high, including adrenaline,noradrenalin dopamine, serotonin and more, so I think this is not relevant. Therefore I'm removing, if someone's going to add something on runner's high, make a new page for it and make sure you know ALL the chemicles involved. -- (talk) 15:29, 16 May 2009 (UTC)

So-called "runner's high"[edit]

" their research possibly demonstrating the high comes from completing a challenge rather than as a result of exertion"

Is this widely considered to be a possibility, and should it be in the article? I don't know much about this, but I often experience this 'runner's high' after exercise without having any feeling of accomplishment... and when I do feel accomplishment, it isn't nearly enough to explain the feeling for me personally. So from an outsider's view, this comment in the article quickly made me wonder how many scientists "some scientists" was supposed to mean, and how widely agreed apon the various explanations are... as this article might give the impression that the view of "runner's high" = "accomplishment" is a widely agreed scientific fact. Peoplesunionpro 00:37, July 25, 2005 (UTC)

Runner's high is also the object of various other stray items in this discussion page: Mechanism demystified, Disambiguation needed, Talk:Endorphin#Evidence indicating endocannabinoid causes runners high is weak., This can't be right can it?.

It's not a good idea that "Runner's high" redirects to "Endorphin", since 1° that makes up too great a part of the article, 2° the role of endorphins in that phenomenon is still controversial (are they the main factor or not?). Ideally, "Runner's high" should be a separate article, and the discussion items named above should be moved to the discussion page of that article.

By the way, in its current state the section on Runner's high is more a bit of a patchwork of different scientific opinions that are not clearly differenciated or organized (not to speak of synthetized, which might be premature).

--Zxly (talk) 14:35, 13 February 2010 (UTC)

Wouldn't this section be better as a separate article? Clearly it is related, but it feels a bit off topic. Esspecially given that the section discusses a range of other explanations for the 'runner's high'. -- (talk) 16:16, 11 December 2012 (UTC)

Video games[edit]

"Research has also shown that video game playing can release endorphins." This assertion needs a reference to back it up. Karl Stas 22:22, 14 November 2005 (UTC)


Are you not interested in making the strong dependency between (hamster) sexual behaviour and hypophyseal ß-endorphin incretions into the brain vessels obvious? vk

I'd like to remind you to sign your posts and please don't write in all-caps.

Thank you for your understanding.


DarkestMoonlight (talk) 13:45, 2 April 2008 (UTC)

removing more sex claims[edit]

Karl Stas took out a bunch of the unreferenced sex claims over a month ago, and no one has produced a citation, so I'm taking out the one remaining quantitative sentence, and leaving only the general statement that some claim sex involves endorphins. It's equally unreferenced, but it's gotta be true. --Allen 04:56, 21 February 2006 (UTC)

Although a bit funny to read, what is the relevance to Working out gives you endorphines. Endorphines make you happy. Happy people just don't kill their husbands. Fr0 01:30, 4 May 2006 (UTC)

Disambiguation needed[edit]

A search for "runners high" (without an apostrophe) goes straight to an alt. rock album by the pillows. Searching "runner's high" goes to this page. Can someone make a disambiguation page?

References still needed?[edit]

The [Endorphin#Activity|Activity section] is still listed as needing references, but it certainly seems like there are plenty there (although I'd say the citations need to be cleaned up). Is there any reason this is still there? Can anyone offer any specifics as to why it was first added? Andrewski 17:37, 13 June 2006 (UTC)


What in chocolate causes endorphines to be released?

Theobromine is an alkaloid belonging to the methylxanthines.
The structure of theobromine is similar to that of caffeine.

Chocolate also contains Phenethylamine - a precursor to many neurotransmitters - this is also thought to increase the release of acetylcholine, another powerful brain chemical which is r responsible for improving mood.

Theobromine in chocolate is thought to be a mimic molecule which lowers the trigger threshold of the pineal gland and can cause a cascade effect. Initially the mimic action will cause increased arousal in the pleasure centers, and reaction begins. It is short lived however. (talk) 21:03, 28 April 2015 (UTC)

Mechanism demystified, Runners High explained[edit]

New to this so be merciful. Mechanism: The individual writing that jargon-loaded text is -in fact- quite a little more knowledgable but I think I am smart enough to understand and dumb enough to translate (no offense intended). As for the first paragraph it basically states that the chemical does not eliminate your brain's ability to perceive pain but stops (inhibits) your receptors (nerves) from being able to transmit the pain by blocking the ability of certain nerves to receive voltage input (the calcium is either a voltage transmitter compound or generator in that scenario, I am unsure). Nerves are graduated binary on/off sensors right? So it blocks the pain nerves from being turned on effectively reducing or eliminating the perceived pain based on the number of nerves blocked (amount of chemical in your system-more Vicadin = more blockage) and the amount of stimulus received (just how far in the fire did you stick your hand?). K?

"Runners' high": I've seen this in action and yes, it's physical as much as psychological. You run far enough your body depletes its energy reserves, consumes straight oxygen and assumes you are fighting for your life so it releases a "don't worry, keep going" chemical (endorphin) to keep you moving so the T-rex doesn't eat you. Boxers don't get it. Why? Because they aren't pushed hard enough to consume all reserves..they are holding back and they know they have a definite number of rounds to endure. Video gamer's don't get the absolutely wasted runners' high effect for the same reason. They are experiencing a muted "OK sex, but not great" version stimulated by the mind and not backed up by the body. An accomplishment based stimulus without physical stimulus. Working out in a gym works in reverse. When you go through the motions and follow the same routine you feel good but not GRRREAT! You KNOW there is an end in sight and you see yourself approaching it with each completed exercise. So your body is spent, but your brain is comfy in the knowledge that it will end soon enough. A physical based stimulus without mental stimulus. Intuitively it would seem that there has to be BOTH a "no end in sight" subliminal message reinforced by the body being totally spent but unable to stop for the brain to go all out in its endorphin release. Standard sports and video games and the like just don't push you hard enough in both categories.

In Reply: I don't think that's quite the way it works, I mean, if these chemicals are produced when the body depletes it's reserves, then what's a 'running block?' -you know,when you 'hit the wall' - your running and then all of a sudden you can't run anymore becuase your tired?

glycogen vs. oxygen[edit]

"This also corresponds with the time that muscles use up their stored glycogen and begin functioning with only oxygen."

This sentence is not factually accurate, it confuses the fuel type with aerobic vs. anaerobic consumption. Glycogen is the muscular store of glucose, mobilized when ever the muscle starts to do work. Glucose is run through the glycolysis process to produce ATP. If oxygen is present (aerobic exercise), the products of glycolysis continue into the Krebs cycle to produce more energy. If no oxygen (anaerobic exercise) is present, the products glycolysis are made into lactic acid. Anaerobic processes are much less efficient.

When the glycogen supplies run out, the muscle moves to fat metabolism, which has a much higher oxygen requirement. Oxygen is never a fuel in and of itself as this sentence seems to imply. The sentence should probably read:

"This also corresponds with the time that muscles use up their stored glycogen and begin functioning with only fatty acids."

However, I'm not sure that the statement itself is true. Is there support for the idea that endorphin release corresponds to glycogen exhaustion? I found this article (pdf) from The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism which shows caffeine lowering the threshold of exercise related endorphin release, and shows endorphin release after sprints, which generally are far too short to exhaust glycogen.

Added citation needed[edit]

I added {{Fact}} tags at the bottom, as the reference only named three of the examples mentioned. As far as I know, there are alternative ways of getting "well-being" than just the endorphine-based way (dopamine and adrenaline rushes are two examples), so in my opinion every positive stimuli cannot be listed without citation as now. Narssarssuaq 19:31, 27 November 2006 (UTC)

How Much Capsaicin, Cocoa, and Poppyseeds does it take to trigger endorphin release?[edit]

This is an actual question, and it isn't a druggy one, either (judging from "answers" to similar questions on a question asking website, a lot of people will think that upon reading the above question). Flag of the United States.svgChiss Boy 23:31, 20 February 2007 (UTC)

Poppy seeds don't trigger an endorphin release. They contain small amounts of morphine. —The preceding unsigned comment was added by (talk) 13:11, 8 March 2007 (UTC).

can you get addicted to exercise[edit]

can you get addicted to exercise?The Right Honourable 06:49, 18 March 2007 (UTC)

Yes, you can because of the endorphins.

DarkestMoonlight (talk) 13:46, 2 April 2008 (UTC)

There's plenty of other chemicals involved too, and yes, once you know howto gt make youself high you can get addicted, dangerously so if you're not careful -- (talk) 15:46, 16 May 2009 (UTC)

Reverted edit[edit]

I'm not entirely sure if the edit I reverted was vandalism or not, but punctuation had been removed, the article's structure had been removed...the article appeared to be reformatted into simplified class notes (in particular, before "runner's high"), for lack of better words. Shatteredshards] 05:16, 30 March 2007 (UTC)

could synthetic endorphins be used as drugs?[edit]

could synthetic endorphins be used as drugs?

I am no expert at all but I think that some drugs are analouges of endorphins. Since these work and are easier to manufacture (and in some cases maybe more potent) than actual synthetic endorphins there is probably little point in producing true synthetic endorphins. That's a layman's 2 cents anyway.

I'm an expert. many many endorphin analogues have been synthesized, and a few tested as drugs. firstly, they don't cross the blood-brain barrier, and secondly, they are rapidly broken down by various proteases. they are not, in fact as good as the other opiods like morphine et al. years ago R guillimen tested some during childbirth in Japan: it actually worked, but they had to be injected with the epidural, and were no better than conventional drugs. Nice idear though —Preceding unsigned comment added by Saleemsan (talkcontribs) 22:49, 31 January 2008 (UTC)

Very vague phrase[edit]

In the introduction it says: "Using drugs may increase the effects of the endorphins". Which drugs? I'm assuming street drugs, but which kind? Opioids? If you have the info, maybe you should get a source to back it up. It's my first attempted edit so, whatever. --Hecajoda (talk) 09:28, 21 November 2007 (UTC)

Drugs as in medical substances i suppose. —Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 13:38, 2 January 2009 (UTC) (talk) 15:05, 2 January 2009 (UTC)

Evidence indicating endocannabinoid causes runners high is weak.[edit]

After reading the article referred to in the New York Times article, (Sparling, P.(2003) "Exercise activates the endocannabinoid system".NeuroReport.14:2209-2211.) I decided to make corrections. The New York Times sometimes can stretch facts or in this case fabricate them. —Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 17:15, 28 November 2007 (UTC)

The anandamide hypothesis remains plausible but far from proven, in my opinion; nonetheless, the fact that naloxone/naltrexone do not antagonize runner's high is pretty much a nail in the coffin of the endorphin hypothesis. Certainly the Neuroreport article has been overhyped, but I fail to see any overt fabrication, and I have tried to make the article a bit more NPOV, accordingly. St3vo (talk) 04:31, 29 November 2007 (UTC)

For a better overview of the supporting evidence, look at Dietrich A, McDaniel WF. "Endocannabinoids and exercise." Br J Sports Med. 2004 Oct;38(5):536-41. PMID 15388533. I'll try to work it into the article tomorrow. St3vo (talk) 04:53, 29 November 2007 (UTC)

was not endorphine sth released as a result of fear and which just blocks the movements and thoughts of man and animals? If not, what was that? Apart for this, if a remark can be made, very rarely in these articles the function is stated, and I think that it is the most important. So: this is it, its structure is this, its mechanism is this, it is synthesised as this, but what does it do? what is its effect? It is rarely stated, and I think the most easily to be understood and the most needed to common people is precisely that. With respect. —Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 23:21, 2 November 2008 (UTC)


"brought on by pain, danger, or other forms of stress", I could be wrong but it was my understanding that adrenaline could be triggered by fear or danger, but endorphins were released in response to physical catalysts? Max Rebo Band (talk) 08:09, 20 December 2008 (UTC)

" and they resemble the opiates in their abilities to produce analgesia and a sense of well-being. "

I don't know, but this hasn't been proofed yet, though? —Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 13:43, 2 January 2009 (UTC)

"morphine produced naturally in the body".[citation needed][edit]

here you are

Goldstein A., 1976, Opioid peptides endorphins in pituitary and brain, science 193 (4258): 1081-1086. —Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 14:27, 2 January 2009 (UTC) (talk) 14:30, 2 January 2009 (UTC)

Why is this listed as a morphine effect? Endorphins are the original effect. Morphine and other opioids are the over exaggeration of this effect. It was likely only discovered because of the effects of opioids. The current state is on par with East India Company propaganda. --KillerQ13 (talk) 08:09, 4 March 2015 (UTC)


"and they resemble the opiates in their abilities to produce analgesia and a sense of well-being."

has this been prooved yet? all the article over, it is said that endorphine causes a feeling of happiness but this has not been prooved yet!!! it is only said by most of the people... (talk) 14:30, 2 January 2009 (UTC)


"They are produced by the pituitary gland and the hypothalamus in vertebrates during strenuous exercise,[1] excitement, and climax, "

climax, i don't think so..:

Avram Goldstein, MD; Ralph W. Hansteen, PhD Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1977;34(10):1179-1180.

and &

Author(s): Kruger T, Exton MS, Pawlak C, von zur Muhlen A, Hartmann U, Schedlowski M Source: PSYCHONEUROENDOCRINOLOGY Volume: 23 Issue: 4 Pages: 401-411 Published: MAY 1998

what kind of wikipedia site is this, all untrue facts? (talk) 15:04, 2 January 2009 (UTC)

This can't be right can it?[edit]

In the section on runner's high there is this phrase: "Anandamide is similar to the active endocannabinoid anandamide."

As a non-expert on this subject this seems to be non-sense, comparing one chemical to itself.--Derek Andrews (talk) 15:14, 30 September 2009 (UTC)

Moderators of nerve conduction...[edit]

Endorphins, like any other neurotransmitters, are very complex, and to write text like: "endorphins act continuously as moderators of nerve conduction, perception and the nervous system's many modes; shock, fatigue, hunger, nervous, sexual and etc..." is just too broad and simplified. Please discuss here first before adding this or similar content to the article. Lova Falk talk 13:30, 20 June 2010 (UTC)

i can'nt disagree more strongly
it makes it much more definite and awesome
ever notice how loud things seam when one wakes with a hangover?this is because of the lack of endorphins in your cranial nerves!
u should consider-Endorphins are moderators of the nervous system. They control nerve transmission like a volume knob on a radio or the gain control on a guitar amp or the input levels on a mic. Their levels change in a regular cycle threw the day to make sure your senses only occupy the required amount of your consciousness and no nerve impulses become excessive. This avoids "clipping" (like in a bad audio recording) of the information transmitted threw the nerve. They can also change the nervous systems mode to adapt to its environment.
gives a much better over view of endorphins. I really don't think you see the forest for all the trees! I can..:)
Pharmacies wont tell you how they mess up your nervous system and make you suffer and beg for many different medications for relief from your raw nervous system, that now becomes exhausted from over stimulation and makes mountains out of mole hills from every sensation!(like Purdue with its Monkey Wrench Oxycodone, or is it more like a vise grip that strips the nut?)
(edit conflict) Hi Ron, we are several editors who all undo your edits. You don't provide sources, and the information is rather dubious. For example, from your last edit: "they are grossly imitated by opiates." However, opiates are "any of the narcotic opioid alkaloids found as natural products in the opium poppy plant" - so it is not like opiates are made in order to imitate endorphins. Like the article says, endorphins resemble opiates. And this is just an example...Lova Falk talk 16:57, 20 June 2010 (UTC)
When you write that endorphins are moderators of the nervous system, it sounds like you mean that they function as neuromodulators. Please take a look at the article neuromodulation. You see that there are several neurotransmitters taht regulate diverse populations of central nervous system neurons. The most important ones that are mentioned in this article are noradrenaline, dopamine, serotonin, acetylcholine. So to say that endorphins are the moderators of the nervous system is way and way too simplified.Lova Falk talk 17:03, 20 June 2010 (UTC)

Endorphins do full time macro moderation and are not neurotransmitters like you stated!

Yes plants do make opiates to imitate animal endorphins and provide human biological needs.

I did state my source. APRIORI

Did you read the page I mentioned? And what is your source that says that plants make opiates to provide and imitate human biological needs? Lova Falk talk 17:16, 20 June 2010 (UTC)

I would agree that they are more like neuromodulaters than neurotransmitters. Where they dont transmit anything at all. They dont cause an action potential in the nerve. they act at a distance, they are not pumped back in to the nerve super fast. They are usualy found at a second pseudo synapse that is before the presynapse and after the postsynapse. They are mostly produced by glands. They dont need synapses at all. Its receptors are also found at transmitting end of the nerve. But i think it would be better to say neuromodulators are neurotransmitters acting as endorphins. Technically thinking, perhaps epinephrine should also be thought of as a endorphin. "I am not your rolling wheels, I am the Highway"

Endorphins, like any other neurotransmitters, are very complex. Could you please provide any refs to textbooks or peer reviewed publications telling that any opioid peptides act as neurotransmitters across the synapse (this is a very specific terminology). I am not familiar with anything except something like this: "These findings suggest the possibility that the beta -endorphin-producing neurons in the ventrobasal hypothalamus could influence GABAergic neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus directly by synaptic relationships." Biophys (talk) 19:48, 21 June 2010 (UTC)
Here come some textbooks: What is psychology?, Competition science vision, Functional neuroscience. Furthermore, take a look at Neurotransmitters. This table lists endorphin as a common neurotransmitter. Note that I never specifically wrote that they act across the synapse. I'm not a neuroscientist, but I did do a specialist course in clinical neuropsychology, and I have learned that endorphin is a neurotransmitter. Now this might be a simplification, but I have been fighting simplifications the whole time, so please correct me if I am wrong! (And please explain why so many sources state that endorphins are neurotransmitters). Lova Falk talk 20:13, 25 June 2010 (UTC)
I thought neurotransmitters are substances that are transported in synaptic vesicles to produce the action potential at the another side of the synapse. Do you mean that any substances that affect activity of neurons can be called neurotransmitters? Biophys (talk) 05:53, 27 June 2010 (UTC)
As I said, I am not an expert. I am not the one who wrote these books or who created the table with Common neurotransmitters. As I said before, if endorphins are not neurostransmitters, please explain to me why not (with a good source). And please explain why they are in the common neurotransmitters table. I checked the talk page of Neurotransmitters, but there is not a single comment or question about the table. Lova Falk talk 08:21, 27 June 2010 (UTC)
All right then. I thought about them as modulators of transmission, but they can be considered transmitters themselves, except they are not transported by the synaptic vesicles but simply secreted. Still, they are mostly known as endogenous anesthetics and should be mentioned as such in the first phrase (that was actually my suggestion [1]).Biophys (talk) 12:39, 27 June 2010 (UTC)

definition of 'high'?[edit]

I thought 'high' is defined as being a state of intoxication from consuming mind-alterating substances, therefore the sense of joy people get from having sex, eating and other instinctive activities, like exercise, is not defined as 'high'. — Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 11:47, 28 July 2012 (UTC)

Runners high[edit]

Given that this phenomenon is only putatively caused by endorphins and has potential refutations in medical literature, this section really should not be on this page or redirect to this page from Runners High. Nearly the entire section lacks wp:medrs-quality sources as well. It really needs attention if anyone is willing to take the time to do a rewrite.Seppi333 (talk) 20:24, 20 August 2013 (UTC)

Acupuncture research history[edit]

I think this was the first paper that identified the link between acupuncture and endorphin / enkephalin release in humans: — Preceding unsigned comment added by Drmike001 (talkcontribs) 18:55, 12 January 2014 (UTC)

I should also add a further reference by the same authors published the following year, this time in patients with chronic pain, demonstrating a rise in CSF beta-endorphin after electroacupuncture: — Preceding unsigned comment added by Drmike001 (talkcontribs) 11:10, 20 January 2014 (UTC)

Source 2[edit]

Source 2 is offline. We might need a new source for this information. — Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 07:55, 19 February 2014 (UTC)

"Endorphins make you depressed"[edit]

Aside from being untrue, having no source, and screwing up the formatting of the text, I can't find this sentence when editing the page, even though it appears in plain text. — Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 20:24, 8 March 2014 (UTC)

Partial deletions and merge to beta-endorphin completed.[edit]

The merge discussion in a prior revision was held at Wikipedia talk:WikiProject Pharmacology#endorphin and beta-endorphin. I deleted a fair amount of content that failed WP:MEDRS and moved other pieces of this article to beta-endorphin. This article is about the endorphin class (α-endorphin, β-endorphin, γ-endorphin, α-neo-endorphin, and β-neo-endorphin), so content added here should be relevant to all of them. Moreover, references in medical articles must satisfy WP:MEDRS; this policy is much stricter than WP:RS, so please familiarize yourself with this policy before adding new material to the article.
Thanks, Seppi333 (Insert  | Maintained) 00:55, 15 July 2014 (UTC)

Addiction effect[edit]

'Just like morphine itself, "endorphins has a similar effect, by exercising or laughter. — Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 20:02, 19 August 2016 (UTC)