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The FR-V is not the CPU of the Expeed processor, as the firmware for the Nikon camera's have two parts the IO cpu which is a MIPS processor (eg TX19A), and the main processor (the expeed) the is a FR. The FRV has a 32bit instruction set, where-as the FR uses 16bit instructions. (by SimeonPilgrim (talk | contribs)‎, 21:19, 10 March 2012‎ )

Hi Simeon, nice to see you here. Didn´t noticed you already have a Wikipedia account. Congratulations to your success based on knowledge.
Reworded article to avoid misunderstandings. The FR is obviously no FR-V, but the Expeed is obviously not only an FR. The explanation that you see only FR code in the firmware is quite simple: I am quite sure that the Milbeaut image processor is ROM programmed. Also it is possible that it is RAM programmed, you have to see some "not FR code" in the firmware which is stored by the FR at a special address-range in the RAM. But: also its possible Nikon has such version for development purposes, imho they are not sold.
The FR could also move the program into the DSP - also its possible that the DSP gets his instructions by moving them itself into its Modified Harvard architecture out of the flash (during the boot-process). In any way you have to see few kilo-bytes DSP code in the firmware. Tagremover (talk) 14:15, 14 March 2012 (UTC)
Of interest, the D7100 is ARM based, not FR based. — Preceding unsigned comment added by SimeonPilgrim (talkcontribs) 01:48, 18 May 2013 (UTC)


You are absolutely right with the above. This article is about the Expeed, so i wrote it as it is; but mostly because i did no research on every Nikon DSLR, if there is really a mips in it. I agree and think something has to changed or added to just mention that a mips is included.

Very early designs[edit]

There is evidence, Nikon used the Sparclite, see Diag RAW hack. I have no evidence, that the original FR with versions FR50 and earlier ever was used by Nikon, as it was not powerful.

Early DSLRs[edit]

The Milbeaut starts in 2000/2001. Some links that D70 is FR-V (not FR) based or Milbeaut M-1.


Variants with EI-12x, like D200, are probably based on FR-7x model (Milbeaut) M-2. Would explain why D200 firmware is expanded, but basically identical to D80.

Expeed 1[edit]

Everything marked: EI-13x and EI-14x. EI-13x: FR-7x with Milbeaut M3. Fujitsu: MB91396 or MB91380. Probably (additionally, variant EI-14x) this:FR80 with Milbeaut M-4 (Fujitsu: MB91680) including some new Features.

Expeed 2[edit]

Lost the link. Fujitsu: MB91720. Everything marked: EI-15x. Like Leica S2: FR-80 with Milbeaut M-5 ?Fujitsu Microelectronics-Leica's Image Processing System Solution For High-End DSLR Like:Pentax M5Pentax PRIME-2pentax2Pentax hack

Expeed 3[edit]

EXPEED 3 additionally including an HD video H.264 codec engine and being based on dual-core ARM architecture. Fujitsu: MB91696AM Nikon: EXPEED3 (D-SLR series)Fujitsu Releases 6th Generation of Milbeaut Imaging Processors

Used in the Nikon 1 series with EI-160, 24 digital readout channels.

I guess there is a possibility that the D4 and D800 is an Expeed2, because:

-Its complex to write a new software, if the Expeed3 version is really the ARM
-The Expeed2 has power enough for the D4 and D800, probably with increased clock and an additional Video compression-processor.
-It has 12 analog signal readout channels like EI-142
-Its marked EI-158 instead of EI-16x. A guess.

The D800 and D4 are FR based, the D810, D5200 are ARM based. So the Expeed 3 FR section should have the D5200 references removed. If anybody want me to "prove" this, I can share a webex session, and show you the assemble code of each model. SimeonPilgrim (talk) 02:13, 29 May 2015 (UTC)


Page 6+7: Milbeaut=FR core with DSP + image processor(Bayer etc.) + video., [1], [2] (PDFs).

Fujitsu Develops Multi-core Processor for High-Performance Digital Consumer ProductsFujitsu: Milbeaut Imaging Processors

EXPEED/Milbeaut/FR Version Summary[edit]


Seems that the Nikon ID: EI-1Mx : M = Milbeaut generation. Tagremover (talk) 16:12, 11 March 2012 (UTC)

I am quite sure this fits. FR-version are those matched with the specific Milbeaut. Please add your comments. Tagremover (talk) 16:31, 11 March 2012 (UTC)

Manuals (FR and Softune)[edit]

FR CPU:[3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11]



Softune:[15][16][17] See: FR Family SOFTUNE Workbench Download

uITRON: [18][19][20]



Newer PDFs: [24][25][26] [27][28][29][30][31][32] Many other PDFs, Workbench and more

So i wish you the best with your project. Feel free to reply on the best related paragraph. Tagremover (talk) 01:41, 11 March 2012 (UTC)

FR-V in newer Expeed and Milbeaut?[edit]

FR-V (and FR) used to be in: [33]. Newer version mention ARM but not FR, but not FR-V either. I made the mistake of assuming that FR* technology was out. Not sure what the relationship between FR and FR-V is. FR-V = FR + VLIW? Why would they not mention that FR-V was still in Milbeaut and Expeed in newer press releases? comp.arch (talk) 09:35, 31 March 2014 (UTC)

Question about memory in Expeed 3[edit]

Expeed 1 and 2 had no way of addressing externally, will this continue with Expeed 3? — Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 19:23, 26 October 2014 (UTC)