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"The appellation villa denoted that Kirchardt was then a small community not long settled." No, often long-established, villa still meant a self-sufficient agricultural community centered on a (perhaps defensible) farmstead and worked by villeins (a later usage). More than a few Roman villas in western Germany passed into the Merovingian fisc and were granted to found monasteries.--Wetman (talk) 20:13, 13 August 2010 (UTC)