|WikiProject Physics||(Rated C-class, Mid-importance)|
What are the physical properties of superatoms? At STP, what is their state (are the nobel-gas chemical properties ones solid, liquid, or gas)? Do they behave more like atoms or molecules alone (can Al-14 be disintegrated by reaction with reagent, or is it more stable and requires extreme conditions like plasma to decompose? Polonium 01:56, 25 January 2006 (UTC)
In regards to the stability of aluminum superatoms. It is very important to understand that the stability of an aluminum superatom is very dependant on its valence state. Without 40 electrons it is just a cluster of aluminum atoms. So to answer your question, they are relativley fragile when compared to iodine or calcuim. The ionzation potential of Al13- is right around 3.6 eV; if it is reduced, it becomes the quite reactive species Al13, which has been termed a superhalogen. Likewise, it's reactivity towards a reagent is very likely dependant on the electron affinity (EA) of the reagent. If the EA is higer than ~3.6 eV it will oxidize the superatom and leave a cluster of aluminum that is very reactive. However, if it is kept in a chemical environment that allows it to remain an ion, it should be inert with respecte to any reagents with a EA lower than ~3.6 eV (without any other protection)
In regards to the standard state(solid/liquid/gas). There is no direct answer to this question. It can be said however, that they will not be a gas. They are too masive, and charged. The state of an element is determined by the properties of the pure element at STP, however, A pure sample of aluminum superatoms can not exist, it would simply be a block of bulk aluminum. However, they might exist as a solid in a salt-like crystal structure. For example, KBr is a solid, but Bromine is a liquid and Br ions exist in many aqueous solutions. unsigned posting by 18.104.22.168 in 01:17, 2 March 2006.
一般人们采用气相凝聚方法获得团簇，其中蒸发、溅射等多种方案可以实现物质的气化，而凝聚则依赖缓冲气体和超声膨胀等方法实现。Na团簇即是在这样的实验中被发现存在一个的2, 8, 20, 40, 58 和 82的幻数序列。此幻数序列不同于惰性气体团簇中常出现的几何序，却更接近于一种电子序，整个团簇类似于一个原子，所有Na原子的自由电子类似于单电子能级一般的自由排布，逐层填满，比如2，8即为填满第一壳层和第二壳层后的总电子数。或者说，超原子中所有原子的自由电子在占据（或排布）一组被整个团簇所共有的电子轨道。这样也就像原子核的势由正电核的形状所决定一样，很容易理解，非球形或有杂质的团簇的幻数（或满壳层原子数）与球形团簇略有不同。相应的从化学上看，遵循这样一种新壳层模式的超原子也就表现相应的性质演变规律。所以，比满壳层多一个电子的超原子就很容易失去一个电子，就像碱金属原子一样（叫做超碱金属），而比满壳层少一个电子的团簇就很容易得到电子，呈现很大的电子亲和势，就像一个卤素原子一样，所以叫做超卤素 目录
• 1 铝团簇 • 2 其他团簇 • 3 超原子复合物 o 3.1 金超原子复合物 o 3.2 其他超原子复合物 4 参考 • 5 参考文献 • 6 外部链接
 铝团簇 一些铝团簇就有超原子性质。这些团簇负离子(Aln– with n = 1,2,3...)在氦气中产生，在含I的气氛下可以发生反应。质谱分析证明，这样的反应会生成Al13I–.然后这样的含13个铝原子还多一个电子的团簇就与O2不再发生反应了。注意，其电子总数刚好为40，是Na原子电子序幻数数列中的一个幻数。（Na原子的幻数序列）意味着这一团簇应该具有类似惰性气体原子的性质，这刚好与实验吻合。计算表明，这一多余的电子处于团簇中的铝簇部分，其指向刚好于碘原子相反。这说明此时本团簇（的非碘部分）呈现比碘更大的电子亲和势，甚至强于溴，因此被命名为超卤素。相关的Al13I2–团簇也预计有类似I3-离子的化学性质。 类似的，拥有42个电子的Al14 团簇，表现出类似碱土金属的+2价化学性质，这就可以理解的Al14I3–行为了。这一阴离子有43个巡游电子，三个I原子各自获得一个电子，从而在凝胶模型框架中就剩余了40个电子。总结如下 • Al7 = 类Ge原子. • Al13 = 类卤素. o Al13Ix–, where x = 1-13. • Al14 = 类碱土金属. o Al14Ix–, where x = 1-14.
• Li(HF)3Li = (HF)3 内核使得来自Li的两个电子环绕整个分子轨道运动，就像原子核一样. • VSi16F = 有离子键. • 13原子Pt团簇有顺磁性 •  超原子复合物 超原子复合物是由有机配体稳定的包含一个金属核心的一类特殊超原子体系。比如，硫醇包裹金团簇，其电子计数法则为 ne = NvA - M – z 其中，N是核心中的金属原子数，v是原子的价态，M是配合物所需电子数，z为整个复合物的电荷数，ne是需要考虑的全部电子数。 比如，Au102(p-MBA)44 有 58个电子，就是一个类幻数. — Preceding unsigned comment added by Songfengqi (talk • contribs) 01:20, 29 February 2012 (UTC)
In the text, "...it has been established that the magic numbers are 13, 19, 23, 26, 29, 32, 34, 43, 46, 49, 55, etc." the "etc." seems to suggest this sequence follows a noticeable pattern (like "and so on"). I can't see such a pattern here. Could this be clarified with the actual pattern, if one exists, or else rephrased if one doesn't, perhaps by mentioning "...lower magic numbers have been determined empirically and higher ones have been determined by computer model. The first few magic numbers are (list above)"...? TricksterWolf (talk) 05:39, 19 March 2012 (UTC)
- I've never heard of a sequence, personally. I'll need to check a bit, but I think it's not an easy pattern to deduce here.Jasper Deng (talk) 05:42, 19 March 2012 (UTC)
Possible discovery of Cooper pairing in aluminium superatoms at 100K
http://phys.org/news/2015-02-world-superconductors.html 22.214.171.124 (talk) 21:02, 25 February 2015 (UTC)