Theodor Corona Musachi
|Theodor Corona Musachi|
|Lord of Berat|
|Reign||after 1393 — 1417|
Berat, Ottoman Empire, Surroundings of Berat, part of League of Lezhe
Theodor Corona Musachi (Albanian: Theodhor Koronë Muzaka) or Teodor III Muzaka, was an Albanian nobleman who led the 1437–38 revolt against the Ottomans and was one of the founders of the League of Lezhë in 1444[A].
Theodor Corona Musachi was а member of the Muzaka family whose domains extended till Kastoria (in modern-day Greece) at the end of the 14th and beginning of the 15th century. According to Gjon Muzaka (not completely reliable primary source) parents of Theodor Corona Musachi had three sons (Gjin, Theodor and Stoya) and two daughters (Comita and Kyranna).
Muzaka explained that Theodor inherited control over Berat from his father Andrea Muzaka III. It is unknown when Muzaka family began to control Berat. Byzantine Eastern Roman sources state that the Muzaka family was in control of Berat regions since 1270 sometimes under Byzantine umbrella and sometimes as de juro independent lords. Many Albanian Princes unlike other ethnicites of the Eastern Roman Empire had the right of total autonomy and self governance in their lands, with the promise to join the Roman emperor in foreign wars. This is also stated in the diary of Teodor Muzaka[disambiguation needed], in which is mentioned that Muzaka family was the ruler of Epirus for centuries. It is not states clearly if it was historical Epirus or just some parts of Southern Albania. The Muzaka family was in conflict with Prince Marko. Muzaka family managed to defeat Marko and take large shares of south and southwestern Macedonia from him.
Before 1396 (the year of Marko's death) Corona Musachi was probably a young man who participated in this conflict, which explains why he is commemorated in Serbian and south Slavic epic poetry as Korun, Marko's enemy.
At the end of 1411, Niketa Thopia suffered a heavy defeat from the forces of Theodor Corona Musachi during one skirmish. This event was recorded in a Venetian source composed on 29 February 1412. He himself was held prisoner and with the intervention of the Ragusan Republic was released in 1413, but only after conceding some territories around the Shkumbin river to the Muzaka family.
In 1417 Berat was captured by the Ottoman Empire.
In 1437—38, while sanjakbey of the Sanjak of Albania was Theodor's son Yakup Bey, Theodor Korona Muzaka revolted in the region of Berat. This revolt was, like previous Albanian Revolt of 1431–36, suppressed by the Ottomans. Even though in the Albanian Revolt of 1432–36 Gjergj Arianiti was victorious over Ottomans and secured the independence and enlargement of his principality by including today's Bitola. There are claims that Muzaka's 1437—38 revolt is not supported by contemporary sources. Jakub Bey was recorded to be on the position of the sanjakbey of the Sanjak of Albania in 1442.
League of Lezhë
- Lekë Zaharia (lord of Sati and Dagnum) and his vassals Pal Dukagjin and Nicholas Dukagjini
- Peter Spani (lord of the mountains behind Drivast)
- Lekë Dushmani (lord of Pult)
- George Strez Balšić with IGjon Strez Balšić and Gojko Balšić
- Andrea Thopia and his nephew Tanush
- Gjergj Arianiti
- Theodor Corona Musachi
- Stefan Crnojević (lord of Upper Zeta) and his sons
- Studia Albanica (in French). Académie des sciences de la République Populaire d'Albanie, Institut d'histoire, Institut de linguistique et littérature. 1988. p. 90.
Il est possible que Theodore Korona Muzaka alt ete un jeune homme avant la mort de Marko Krali (1396) et qu'il ait participe dans les combats contre lui. Cest ainsi qu'on peut expliquer pourquoi il est entre avec le nom Korun Kesexhia
- Studia Albanica. L'Institut. 1989. p. 90.
Dans un autre acte vénitien du 29 février 1412, il est dit que le seigneur de Berat, Teodor Korona Muzaka a emprisonné Niketë Topia. (Historijski Arhiv u Dubrovniku. Reformationes XXXIV! 162v).
- Historia e Shqipërisë: përgatitur nga një kolektiv punonjësish shkencorë të sektorëve të historisë së kohës së lashtë dhe të kohës së mesme, Volume 1. Instituti i Historisë dhe i Gjuhësise. 1959. p. 268.
Pasi u larguan ushtritë turke të Rumelisë, shpërtheu aty nga viti 1437-1438 një kryengritje tjetër në rrethin e Beratit, e krye- suar nga Theodhor Korona Muzaka, biri i të cilit, Jakup Beu, ishte në atë kohë sanxhakbeu i sanxhakut të Shqipërisë
- Frashëri 1964, p. 65
- Instituti i Historisë (Akademia e Shkencave e RPS të Shqipërisë) (1970). Studime historike, Volume 7. Akademia e Shkencave, Instituti i Historisë.
- Türk Tarih Kongresi: Kongrenin çalişmaları, kongreye sunulan tebliğler. Kenan Matbaası. 1994. p. 1693.
Yerli Hristiyan beylerden birisi olan Teodor Muzaka'nın oğlu Yakup Bey, İslâma geçerken, Osmanlı yönetimi kadrosu içine sokulmuş ve 1442 yılının dolaylarında Arvanid sancak beyi makamına kadar çıkmayı başarmıştır.3 Adı geçen sancağın
- Noli 1947, p. 36
- Schmitt 2001, p. 297: "Nikola und Paul Dukagjin, Leka Zaharia von Dagno, Peter Span, Herr der Berge hinter Drivasto, Georg Strez Balsha sowie Johann und Gojko Balsha, die sich zwischen Kruja und Alessio festgesetzt hatten, die Dushman von Klein-Polatum sowie Stefan (Stefanica) Crnojevic, der Herr der Oberzeta"
- Noli, Fan Stilian (1947), George Castrioti Scanderbeg (1405-1468), International Universities Press, OCLC 732882
- Božić, Ivan (1979), Nemirno pomorje XV veka (in Serbo-Croatian), Beograd: Srpska književna zadruga, OCLC 5845972
- Frashëri, Kristo (1964). The history of Albania: a brief survey. Retrieved 31 July 2012.
- Schmitt, Oliver Jens (2001), Das venezianische Albanien (1392-1479) (in German), München: R. Oldenbourg Verlag GmbH München, ISBN 3-486-56569-9
- Gopčević, Spiridon (1914). Geschichte von Montenegro und Albanien (in German). Gotha: F.A. Perthes. OCLC 9968504. Retrieved 29 March 2012.
- Musachi, John (1515). "Brief Chronicle on the Descendants of our Musachi Dynasty". Archived from the original on 10 September 2010. Retrieved 29 November 2011.
Theodor Corona Musachi
| Lord of Berat
? – 1417