Theodor Corona Musachi

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Theodor Corona Musachi
Lord of Berat
Reign after 1393 — 1417
Titles and styles
Lord
Born before 1396
Died 1449
Berat, Ottoman Empire, Surroundings of Berat, part of League of Lezhe
Noble family Muzaka
Issue
Father Andrew Molosachi
Occupation feudal lord

Theodor Corona Musachi (Albanian: Theodhor Koronë Muzaka) or Teodor III Muzaka, was an Albanian nobleman who led the 1437–38 revolt against the Ottomans and was one of the founders of the League of Lezhë in 1444[A].

Family[edit]

Theodor Corona Musachi was а member of the Muzaka family whose domains extended till Kastoria (in modern-day Greece) at the end of the 14th and beginning of the 15th century. According to Gjon Muzaka (not completely reliable primary source) parents of Theodor Corona Musachi had three sons (Gjin, Theodor and Stoya) and two daughters (Comita and Kyranna).

Muzaka explained that Theodor inherited control over Berat from his father Andrea Muzaka III. It is unknown when Muzaka family began to control Berat. Byzantine Eastern Roman sources state that the Muzaka family was in control of Berat regions since 1270 sometimes under Byzantine umbrella and sometimes as de juro independent lords. Many Albanian Princes unlike other ethnicites of the Eastern Roman Empire had the right of total autonomy and self governance in their lands, with the promise to join the Roman emperor in foreign wars. This is also stated in the diary of Teodor Muzaka[disambiguation needed], in which is mentioned that Muzaka family was the ruler of Epirus for centuries. It is not states clearly if it was historical Epirus or just some parts of Southern Albania. The Muzaka family was in conflict with Prince Marko. Muzaka family managed to defeat Marko and take large shares of south and southwestern Macedonia from him.

Before 1396 (the year of Marko's death) Corona Musachi was probably a young man who participated in this conflict, which explains why he is commemorated in Serbian and south Slavic epic poetry as Korun, Marko's enemy.[1]

At the end of 1411, Niketa Thopia suffered a heavy defeat from the forces of Theodor Corona Musachi during one skirmish. This event was recorded in a Venetian source composed on 29 February 1412.[2] He himself was held prisoner and with the intervention of the Ragusan Republic was released in 1413, but only after conceding some territories around the Shkumbin river to the Muzaka family.

In 1417 Berat was captured by the Ottoman Empire.

Revolt[edit]

In 1437—38, while sanjakbey of the Sanjak of Albania was Theodor's son Yakup Bey,[3] Theodor Korona Muzaka revolted in the region of Berat. This revolt was, like previous Albanian Revolt of 1431–36, suppressed by the Ottomans.[4] Even though in the Albanian Revolt of 1432–36 Gjergj Arianiti was victorious over Ottomans and secured the independence and enlargement of his principality by including today's Bitola. There are claims that Muzaka's 1437—38 revolt is not supported by contemporary sources.[5] Jakub Bey was recorded to be on the position of the sanjakbey of the Sanjak of Albania in 1442.[6]

League of Lezhë[edit]

The League of Lezhë was founded by:[7]

Notes[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Oliver Schmitt does not mention Musachi as one of the founders of the league.[8]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Studia Albanica (in French). Académie des sciences de la République Populaire d'Albanie, Institut d'histoire, Institut de linguistique et littérature. 1988. p. 90. Il est possible que Theodore Korona Muzaka alt ete un jeune homme avant la mort de Marko Krali (1396) et qu'il ait participe dans les combats contre lui. Cest ainsi qu'on peut expliquer pourquoi il est entre avec le nom Korun Kesexhia 
  2. ^ Studia Albanica. L'Institut. 1989. p. 90. Dans un autre acte vénitien du 29 février 1412, il est dit que le seigneur de Berat, Teodor Korona Muzaka a emprisonné Niketë Topia. (Historijski Arhiv u Dubrovniku. Reformationes XXXIV! 162v). 
  3. ^ Historia e Shqipërisë: përgatitur nga një kolektiv punonjësish shkencorë të sektorëve të historisë së kohës së lashtë dhe të kohës së mesme, Volume 1. Instituti i Historisë dhe i Gjuhësise. 1959. p. 268. Pasi u larguan ushtritë turke të Rumelisë, shpërtheu aty nga viti 1437-1438 një kryengritje tjetër në rrethin e Beratit, e krye- suar nga Theodhor Korona Muzaka, biri i të cilit, Jakup Beu, ishte në atë kohë sanxhakbeu i sanxhakut të Shqipërisë 
  4. ^ Frashëri 1964, p. 65
  5. ^ Instituti i Historisë (Akademia e Shkencave e RPS të Shqipërisë) (1970). Studime historike, Volume 7. Akademia e Shkencave, Instituti i Historisë. 
  6. ^ Türk Tarih Kongresi: Kongrenin çalişmaları, kongreye sunulan tebliğler. Kenan Matbaası. 1994. p. 1693. Yerli Hristiyan beylerden birisi olan Teodor Muzaka'nın oğlu Yakup Bey, İslâma geçerken, Osmanlı yönetimi kadrosu içine sokulmuş ve 1442 yılının dolaylarında Arvanid sancak beyi makamına kadar çıkmayı başarmıştır.3 Adı geçen sancağın 
  7. ^ Noli 1947, p. 36
  8. ^ Schmitt 2001, p. 297: "Nikola und Paul Dukagjin, Leka Zaharia von Dagno, Peter Span, Herr der Berge hinter Drivasto, Georg Strez Balsha sowie Johann und Gojko Balsha, die sich zwischen Kruja und Alessio festgesetzt hatten, die Dushman von Klein-Polatum sowie Stefan (Stefanica) Crnojevic, der Herr der Oberzeta"

Sources[edit]

Theodor Corona Musachi
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Andrew Molosachi
Lord of Berat
? – 1417
Succeeded by
Post abolished