The Fall of the House of Usher
|"The Fall of the House of Usher"|
1894 illustration by Aubrey Beardsley
|Author||Edgar Allan Poe|
|Published in||Burton's Gentleman's Magazine|
|Publication date||September 1839|
The story begins with the unnamed narrator arriving at the house of his friend, Roderick Usher, having received a letter from him in a distant part of the country complaining of an illness and asking for his help. As he arrives, the narrator notes a thin crack extending from the roof, down the front of the building and into the adjacent lake.
Although Poe wrote this short story before the invention of modern psychological science, Roderick's condition can be described according to its terminology. It includes a form of sensory overload known as hyperesthesia (hypersensitivity to textures, light, sounds, smells and tastes), hypochondria (an excessive preoccupation or worry about having a serious illness) and acute anxiety. It is revealed that Roderick's twin sister, Madeline, is also ill and falls into cataleptic, deathlike trances. The narrator is impressed with Roderick's paintings, and attempts to cheer him by reading with him and listening to his improvised musical compositions on the guitar. Roderick sings "The Haunted Palace", then tells the narrator that he believes the house he lives in to be alive, and that this sentience arises from the arrangement of the masonry and vegetation surrounding it.
Roderick later informs the narrator that his sister has died and insists that she be entombed for two weeks in the family tomb located in the house before being permanently buried. The narrator helps Roderick put the body in the tomb, and he notes that Madeline has rosy cheeks, as some do after death. They inter her, but over the next week both Roderick and the narrator find themselves becoming increasingly agitated for no apparent reason. A storm begins. Roderick comes to the narrator's bedroom, which is situated directly above the vault, and throws open his window to the storm. He notices that the tarn surrounding the house seems to glow in the dark, as it glowed in Roderick Usher's paintings, although there is no lightning.
The narrator attempts to calm Roderick by reading aloud The Mad Tryst, a novel involving a knight named Ethelred who breaks into a hermit's dwelling in an attempt to escape an approaching storm, only to find a palace of gold guarded by a dragon. He also finds, hanging on the wall, a shield of shining brass on which is written a legend:
- Who entereth herein, a conqueror hath bin;
- Who slayeth the dragon, the shield he shall win;
With a stroke of his mace, Ethelred kills the dragon, who dies with a piercing shriek, and proceeds to take the shield, which falls to the floor with an unnerving clatter.
As the narrator reads of the knight's forcible entry into the dwelling, cracking and ripping sounds are heard somewhere in the house. When the dragon is described as shrieking as it dies, a shriek is heard, again within the house. As he relates the shield falling from off the wall, a reverberation, metallic and hollow, can be heard. Roderick becomes increasingly hysterical, and eventually exclaims that these sounds are being made by his sister, who was in fact alive when she was entombed. Additionally, Roderick somehow knew that she was alive. The bedroom door is then blown open to reveal Madeline standing there. She falls on her brother, and both land on the floor as corpses. The narrator then flees the house, and, as he does so, notices a flash of moonlight behind him which causes him to turn back, in time to see the moon shining through the suddenly widened crack. As he watches, the House of Usher splits in two and the fragments sink into the tarn.
"The Fall of the House of Usher" was first published in September 1839 in Burton's Gentleman's Magazine. It was slightly revised in 1840 for the collection Tales of the Grotesque and Arabesque. It contains within it Poe's poem "The Haunted Palace", which had earlier been published separately in the April 1839 issue of the Baltimore Museum magazine.
The theme of the crumbling, haunted castle is a key feature of Horace Walpole's Castle of Otranto (1764), which largely contributed in defining the Gothic genre. The presence of a capacious, disintegrating house symbolizing the destruction of the human body is a characteristic element in Poe's later work.
"The Fall of the House of Usher" shows Poe's ability to create an emotional tone in his work, specifically feelings of fear, doom, and guilt. These emotions center on Roderick Usher, who, like many Poe characters, suffers from an unnamed disease. Like the narrator in "The Tell-Tale Heart", his disease inflames his hyperactive senses. The illness manifests physically but is based in Roderick's mental or even moral state. He is sick, it is suggested, because he expects to be sick based on his family's history of illness and is, therefore, essentially a hypochondriac. Similarly, he buries his sister alive because he expects to bury her alive, creating his own self-fulfilling prophecy.
The House of Usher, itself doubly referring both to the actual structure and the family, plays a significant role in the story. It is the first "character" that the narrator introduces to the reader, presented with a humanized description: its windows are described as "eye-like" twice in the first paragraph. The fissure that develops in its side is symbolic of the decay of the Usher family and the house "dies" along with the two Usher siblings. This connection was emphasized in Roderick's poem "The Haunted Palace" which seems to be a direct reference to the house that foreshadows doom.
L. Sprague de Camp, in his Lovecraft: A Biography [p. 246f], wrote that "[a]ccording to the late [Poe expert] Thomas O. Mabbott, [H. P.] Lovecraft, in 'Supernatural Horror', solved a problem in the interpretation of Poe" by arguing that "Roderick Usher, his sister Madeline, and the house all shared one common soul". The explicit psychological dimension of this tale has prompted many critics to analyze it as a description of the human psyche, comparing, for instance, the House to the unconscious, and its central crack to a split personality. Mental disorder is also evoked through the themes of melancholy, possible incest, and vampirism. An incestuous relationship between Roderick and Madeline is never explicitly stated, but seems implied by the strange attachment between the two.
Opium, which Poe mentions several times in both his prose and poems, is mentioned twice in the tale. The gloomy sensation occasioned by the dreary landscape around the Usher mansion is compared by the narrator to the sickness caused by the withdrawal symptoms of an opiate-addict. The narrator also describes Roderick Usher's appearance as that of an "irreclaimable eater of opium".
Allusions and references
- The opening epigraph quotes "Le Refus" (1831) by the French songwriter Pierre-Jean de Béranger (1780–1857), translated to English as "his heart is a suspended lute, as soon as it is touched, it resounds". Béranger's original text reads "Mon cœur" (my heart) and not "Son cœur" (his/her heart).
- The narrator describes one of Usher's musical compositions as "a ... singular perversion and amplification of the wild air of the last waltz of Von Weber". Poe here refers to a popular piano work of his time — which, though going by the title "Weber's Last Waltz" was actually composed by Carl Gottlieb Reissiger (1798–1859). A manuscript copy of the music was found among Weber's papers upon his death in 1826 and the work was mistakenly attributed to him.
- Usher's painting reminds the narrator of the Swiss-born British painter Henry Fuseli (1741–1825).
- German writer E. T. A. Hoffmann, who was a role model and inspiration for Poe, published the story "Das Majorat" in 1819. There are many similarities between the two stories, like the breaking in two of a house, eerie sounds in the night, the story within a story and the house owner being called "Roderich". As Poe was familiar with Hoffmann's works he certainly knew the story and cleverly drew from it using the element for his own purposes.
- Another German author, Heinrich Clauren's, 1812 story "The Robber's Castle", as translated into English by John Hardman and published in Blackwood's Magazine in 1828 as "The Robber's Tower", may have served as an inspiration according to Arno Schmidt and Thomas Hansen. As well as common elements, such as a young woman with a fear of premature burial interred in a sepulchre directly beneath the protagonist's chamber, stringed instruments and the living twin of the buried girl, Diane Hoeveler identifies textual evidence of Poe's use of the story, and concludes that the inclusion of Vigiliae Mortuorum secundum Chorum Ecclesiae Maguntinae (Vigils for the Dead according to the Use of the Church of Mainz) is drawn from the use of a similarly obscure book in "The Robber's Tower".
Literary significance and criticism
Along with "The Tell-Tale Heart", "The Black Cat" and "The Cask of Amontillado", "The Fall of the House of Usher" is considered Poe's most famous work of prose. This highly unsettling macabre work is recognized as a masterpiece of American Gothic literature. Indeed, as in many of his tales, Poe borrows much from the already developed Gothic tradition. Still, as G. R. Thomson writes in his Introduction to Great Short Works of Edgar Allan Poe [p 36], "the tale has long been hailed as a masterpiece of Gothic horror; it is also a masterpiece of dramatic irony and structural symbolism."
"The Fall of the House of Usher" has been criticized for being too formulaic. Poe was criticized for following his own patterns established in works like "Morella" and "Ligeia" using stock characters in stock scenes and stock situations. Repetitive themes like an unidentifiable disease, madness, and resurrection are also criticized.
Poe's inspiration for the story may be based upon events of the Hezekiah Usher House, which was located on the Usher estate that is now a three-block area bounded in modern Boston by Tremont Street to the northwest, Washington Street to the southeast, Avery Street to the south and Winter Street to the north. The house was constructed in 1684 and either torn down or relocated in 1830. Other information tells that a sailor and the young wife of the older owner were caught and entombed in their trysting spot by her husband. When the Usher House was torn down in 1830, two bodies were found embraced in a cavity in the cellar.
Another source of inspiration may be from an actual couple by the name Mr. and Mrs. Luke Usher, the friends and fellow actors of his mother Eliza Poe. The couple took care of Eliza's three children (including Poe) during her time of illness and eventual death.
Scholars speculate that Poe, who was an influence on Herman Melville, inspired the character of Ahab in Melville's novel Moby-Dick. John McAleer maintained that the idea for "objectifying Ahab's flawed character" came from the "evocative force" of Poe's "The Fall of the House of Usher". In both Ahab and the house of Usher, the appearance of fundamental soundness is visibly flawed — by Ahab's livid scar, and by the fissure in the masonry of Usher.
Film, TV or theatrical adaptations
In the low-budget Roger Corman film from 1960, known in the United States as House of Usher starring Vincent Price as Roderick Usher, the narrator is Philip Winthrop (Mark Damon), who had fallen in love with the sickly Madeline (Myrna Fahey) during her brief residence in Boston and become engaged to her. As Roderick reveals, the Usher family has a history of evil and cruelty so great that he and Madeline pledged in their youth never to have children and to allow their family to die with them. Winthrop tries desperately to convince Madeline to leave with him in spite of Roderick's disapproval, and is on the point of succeeding when Madeline falls into a deathlike catalepsy; her brother (who knows that she is still alive) convinces Winthrop that she is dead and rushes to have her placed in the family crypt. When she wakes up, Madeline goes insane from being buried alive and breaks free. She confronts her brother and begins throttling him to death. Suddenly the house, already aflame due to fallen coals from the fire, begins to collapse, and Winthrop flees as Roderick is killed by Madeline and both she and the Ushers' sole servant are consumed by the falling house. The film was Corman's first in a series of eight films inspired by the works of Edgar Allan Poe.
A devout fan of the works of Poe, cult director Curtis Harrington tackled the story in his first and last films. Casting himself in dual roles as Roderick and Madeline Usher in both versions, Harrington shot his original 10-minute silent short on 8mm in 1942, and he shot a new 36 minute version simply titled Usher on 35mm in 2000 which he intended to utilize in a longer Poe anthology film that never came to fruition. Both versions were included on the 2013 DVD/Blu-ray release "Curtis Harrington: The Short Film Collection."
In 2002 Lance Tait wrote a one-act play The Fall of the House of Usher, based on Poe's tale. Laura Grace Pattillo wrote in The Edgar Allan Poe Review (2006), "[Tait's] play follows Poe's original story quite closely, using a female Chorus figure to help further the tale as the 'Friend' (as Tait names the narrator) alternates between monologue and conversation with Usher."
List of films
- La Chute de la maison Usher (France, 1928) by Jean Epstein
- The Fall of the House of Usher (US, 1928) by James Sibley Watson and Melville Webber
- The Fall of the House of Usher (US, 1942) by Curtis Harrington
- The Fall of the House of Usher (UK, 1950) by Ivan Barnett, starring Gwen Watford
- House of Usher (a.k.a. Fall of the House of Usher and The Mysterious House of Usher) (1960) by Roger Corman with Vincent Price
- The Fall of the House of Usher (1966) (TV) with Denholm Elliott and Susannah York. episode part of the UK ITV series Mystery and Imagination
- "Histoires extraordinaires: La chute de la maison Usher" (1981) (TV) with Mathieu Carrière
- The Fall of the House of Usher, a.k.a. Revenge in the House of Usher (1982) (TV) with Robert Hays, Martin Landau, Dimitra Arliss, Ray Walston, and Charlene Tilton
- Zánik domu Usherů (The Fall of the House of Usher) (1982) (animated version by Jan Švankmajer)
- El hundimiento de la Casa Usher' (1983) by Jesús Franco with Howard Vernon
- The House of Usher (1989) with Oliver Reed
- Usher (US, 2000) by Curtis Harrington
- The Fall of the Louse of Usher (2002) by Ken Russell
- Usher (2004) by Robert Leatherwood
- The House of Usher (2006)
- House of Usher (2008) by David DeCoteau
- La Chute de la maison Usher (Russia, 2010)
- The Fall of the House of Usher (2012), an animated short film
- The Fall of the House of Usher (2015), narrated by Christopher Lee, animated short film which is part of Extraordinary tales
Between 1908 and 1917, French composer Claude Debussy worked on an opera called La chute de la maison Usher. The libretto was his own, based on Poe, and the work was to be a companion piece to another short opera (Le diable dans le beffroi) based on Poe's "The Devil in the Belfry". At Debussy's death the work was unfinished, however. In recent years completions have been attempted by three different musicologists.
The Alan Parsons Project's first release (1976's Tales of Mystery and Imagination) features a long instrumental named after this story. The track has five parts: "Prelude", "Arrival", "Intermezzo", "Pavane" and "Fall", and its style showcases 20th-century classical music and progressive rock. The music incorporates fragments of Debussy's unfinished opera.
Another operatic version, composed by Philip Glass in 1987 with a libretto by Arthur Yorinks, premiered at American Repertory Theatre and the Kentucky Opera in 1988 and was revived at the Nashville Opera in 2009. The Long Beach Opera mounted a version of this work in February 2013 at the Warner Grand Theatre in San Pedro, Los Angeles.
Peter Hammill composed an opera based on the story between 1973 and 1991 and released it in 1991. In this work, the house itself becomes a vocal part, to be sung by the same performer who sings the role of Roderick Usher. The libretto by Chris Judge Smith adopts the subplot of a romantic attraction between Madeline Usher and the narrator, who is given the name Montresor. Hammill released a totally overhauled version in 1999, without drums but with an added violin and layers of electric guitar that created an orchestral sound. He also resang all of his own vocals.
In 1984 Russian composer Nikita Koshkin composed a programmatic, solo classical guitar work entitled "The Usher Waltz". The piece is often included in concert programmes and has been recorded by numerous guitarists, including John Williams.
In 2006, as part of Titania Medien's Gruselkabinett series, Marc Gruppe adapted the story into a radio drama starring Tobias Kluckert as Roderick and Oliver Feld as Philipp.
In 2008, a musical theatre adaptation ("Usher") written by two Yale students (Sarah Hirsch and Molly Fox) won the Best Musical award at the New York International Fringe Festival. The musical, since renamed "The Fall of the House of Usher", subsequently won the Pallas Theatre Collective's submission contest in 2013 and will run in Washington DC in 2014.
Songwriter Anna Coogan wrote a score to Jean Epstein's classical film and performed it in 2015.
- Poe, Edgar A. "The Fall of the House of Usher." 1839. Elements of Literature. Fifth Course. Austin: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 2009. 321-333. Print.
- Beebe, Maurice. "The Universe of Roderick Usher" as collected in Poe: A Collection of Critical Essays, Robert Regan, ed. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, Inc., 1967. p. 123.
- Hutchisson, James M. Poe. Jackson, Mississippi: University of Mississippi Press, 2005, p. 38.
- Meyers, Jeffrey. Edgar Allan Poe: His Life and Legacy. New York City: Cooper Square Press, 1992. ISBN 0-8154-1038-7 p. 111
- Butler, David. "Usher's Hypochondriasis: Mental Alienation and Romantic Idealism in Poe's Gothic Tales", collected in On Poe: The Best from "American Literature. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1993. ISBN 0-8223-1311-1 p. 189–90.
- Meyers, Jeffrey. Edgar Allan Poe: His Life and Legacy. New York City: Cooper Square Press, 1992. ISBN 0-8154-1038-7 p. 111.
- Hoffman, Daniel. Poe Poe Poe Poe Poe Poe Poe. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1972. ISBN 0-8071-2321-8 p. 297.
- "Edgar Allan Poe Society of Baltimore - General Topics - A Few Minor Poe Topics". eapoe.org.
- Hoffmann, E. T. A. (1990). Kaiser, Gerhard R., ed. Nachtstücke. Stuttgart: Philipp Reclam. ISBN 978-3-15-000154-7.
- Hansen, Thomas S. (Spring 1992). "Poe's 'German' Source for 'The Fall of the House of Usher': The Arno Schmidt Connection". Southern Humanities Review. 26 (2): 101–13.
- Perry, Dennis; Sederholm, Carl (2009). Poe, "The House of Usher," and the American Gothic. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 9–10.
- Hoeveler, Diane Long (2008). "Reading Poe Reading Blackwood's: The Palimpsestic Subtext in "The Fall of the House of Usher"". In Lewes, Darby. Double Vision: Literary Palimpsests of the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries. Lexington Books. pp. 227–229.
- Kennedy, J. Gerald. "Introduction: Poe in Our Time" collected in A Historical Guide to Edgar Allan Poe. Oxford University Press, 2001. ISBN 0-19-512150-3 p. 9
- Krutch, Joseph Wood. Edgar Allan Poe: A Study in Genius. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1926. p. 77
- An Historic Corner, Tremont Street and Temple Place by Walter K. Watkins, in Days and Ways in Old Boston by William S. Rossiter (ed.), Boston: R.H. Stearns & Co., 1915, pp. 91-132
- A.I.A. Guide to Boston. Susan and Michael Southworth p. 59
- Allen, Hervey. Israfel: The Life and Times of Edgar Allan Poe. New York: Farrar & Rinehart, Inc., 1934: 683.
- McAleer, John J. "Poe and Gothic Elements in Moby-Dick", Emerson Society Quarterly, No. 27 (II Quarter 1962): 34.
- Toscano, Mark (2013). Conversations in the Back of the Theatre: Preserving the Short films of Curtis Harrington (DVD Booklet). Drag City/Flicker Alley.
- "Retrospective in Terror: An Interview with Curtis Harrington". Terror Trap. April 2005. Retrieved 2014-03-22.
- Database (undated). "The Fall of the House of Usher (1949)". Internet Movie Database. Retrieved 25 October 2012.
- In this 1982 interpretation, the curse of the House of Usher is blamed on the Usher family having broken a pact with Satan that its first patriarch had made, in large part by building a chapel within the House, and Satan himself is described as having actually become the House to exact his revenge.
- "'Extraordinary tales, Hong Kong Review' on the Holywood reporter".
- "Extraordinary tales in tha Haifa film festival".
- Waleson, Heidi (24 November 2009). "Two by Philip Glass". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 29 November 2010.
- Ginell, Richard. "Review: Long Beach Opera charts 'The Fall of the House of Usher'". Los Angeles Time. Retrieved 5 February 2013.
- Dorof, Jacob. "Two Eli productions stand out at New York's Fringe". The Yale Daily News.
- Trav, S.D. "Fringe Festival 2008 Reviews!". The Village Voice.
- Siegal, Barbara. "Usher-- the musical, not the person who seats you". Talkin' Broadway.
- Pallas Theatre. "TableRead 2013".
- Pallas Theatre. "Our Season".
- Evans, Walter (1977). "'The Fall of the House of Usher' and Poe's Theory of the Tale". Studies in Short Fiction. 14 (2): 137–144. Rpt. in Short Story Criticism. Ed. Laurie Lanzen Harris and Sheila Fitzgerald. Vol. 1. Detroit: Gale, 1988. 403–5.
|Wikisource has original text related to this article:|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to The Fall of the House of Usher.|
- The Fall of the House of Usher at Project Gutenberg
- The Fall of the House of Usher at Project Gutenberg (audiobook)
- The Fall of the House of Usher public domain audiobook at LibriVox
- Full text as reprinted in The Works of the Late Edgar Allan Poe (1850)
- Full text at Bartelby.com
- "The Fall of the House of Usher" with annotated vocabulary at PoeStories.com
- Full text at American Literature
- Analysis by Martha Womack
- William B. Cairns (1920). "Fall of the House of Usher, The". Encyclopedia Americana.