Timeline of music in the United States to 1819

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Timeline of music in the United States
Music history of the United States
Colonial erato the Civil WarDuring the Civil WarLate 19th centuryEarly 20th century40s and 50s60s and 70s80s to the present

This is a timeline of music in the United States prior to 1819.

circa 500[edit]

  • Approximate: The oldest archeological remains of rasps, made from sheep horn, wood, deer bone, antelope scapula and elk rib, can be dated to approximately this timeframe.[1]
  • 620-670 C.E.: Earliest wood flutes from the Prayer Rock district of NorthEastern Arizona.[2]

circa 1000[edit]

  • Approximate: Copper and clay bells can be dated to this era, and were traded across the Mississippi Valley and into Mexico.[1]

circa 1300[edit]






  • The "first documented European music education" in the United States begins in a colony in New Mexico, founded by a group of Spanish friars accompanying Juan de Oñate.[8]


  • Jamestown, Virginia, becomes the first permanent settlement by the British in what is now the United States.[6]


  • The Book of Psalmes: Englished Both in Prose and Metre is published in Amsterdam by Henry Ainsworth. This book will be the basis for the psalmody of the Pilgrims who colonize New England.[9][10]



  • The Pilgrims arrive in Plymouth, Massachusetts, who begin the well-documented sacred song tradition of New England. The psalmody of the Pilgrims and other early New England Protestants was "spare and plain", reflecting their Calvinist theology.[13]
  • John Utie, the first fiddler in the United States, lands in Virginia.[14]




  • The earliest documentation of military music in the future United States comes from drummers in Virginia performing for drill practices.[17]




  • The Dutch Reformed Church in New York colony orders the precentor (voorzanger) to "tune the psalm" for the congregation to sing along; this practice consisted of the leader singing a line, which is then repeated, and often elaborated upon, by the audience. This practice is later known as lining out and is a crucial feature of African American church music.[25]


  • The Bay Psalm Book is published in its third edition, its definitive form, often called the New England Psalm Book. There is, as yet, no music provided in the collection.[26]


  • The earliest known military band is formed in New Hampshire, consisting of fifteen oboists and two drummers.[17]


  • The first documented music in New Sweden (now New Jersey) is from the military, when Governor Johan Risingh exited a fort with drums and trumpets or fifes playing to meet with the Dutch forces to whom he was capitulating.[27]





  • The Pueblo Revolt leads to the destruction of the Spanish missions in what is now New Mexico, obliterating all known printed music and other musical documentation.[15]



  • Money is authorized by several Virginia counties to purchase drums and trumpets for use in their state militia.[17][30]


  • Johannes Kelpius, leader of the German Pietists who settled near Philadelphia, brings an organ, becoming the first individual in the future United States to do so.[31][32]


  • The ninth edition of the Bay Psalm Book is published. It is the first to feature printed music.[26]




  • The first concert in New York City is a private affair, at the home of a Mr. Broughton.[37]



  • The first permanent church organ in the United States, the Brattle organ, imported by Thomas Brattle,[39] is installed in Boston at King's Chapel.[40] The colonial American aversion to music, which was viewed as sinful, led to the church leaving the organ unpacked for a full year before actually installing it.[41]
  • John Tufts publishes the first instructional book for singing in the country. It was extremely successful.[42]



  • The first organized classes in music are organized in New England, for the improvement of church music.[44]




  • The lined-out style of hymnody begins to be criticized for abandoning conservative notation in favor of an oral tradition.[47]
  • Reverend Thomas Symmes publishes an essay, The Reasonableness of Regular Singing,[48] in which he proposes schools to educate the public in psalm singing. Such schools were to become a major musical institution in New England in the 18th and 19th centuries.[49]
  • The Amish arrive in Pennsylvania, thus beginning the Amish music tradition in the United States.[50]
  • The Ephrata Cloister is founded in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania; they will develop their own musical system and form of hymnody.[51]
Early 1720s music trends
  • New England psalmody begins to grow more organized and disciplined, through singing schools and other institutions.[49] Public concerts, held alongside lectures or sermons, begin to be held in small towns throughout the region.[52]


  • Two psalm collections are published in Boston, the first two emphasize the music and instructions for singing the tunes over the sacred verses of the psalms. These were John Tufts' An Introduction to the Singing of Psalm Tunes[48] and Thomas Walters' The Grounds and Rules of Musick, Explained. These two publications "began a new era in American music history: between them they formed a point of contact between music as an art with a technical basis and a public motivated to learn that technique".[49] Walter's is particularly influential and highly regarded, and is the first book to be printed (by James Franklin) with bar lines in British North America.[52][53]


Mid 1720s music trends



  • The first public concert in the country is held in Boston, in a room used by a local dancing master for assemblies.[17][20][56]


  • The first singing school in the United States is formed in Charleston, South Carolina, where music is taught by John Salter at a boarding school for girls run by his wife.[57][58] Salter is the first secular music teacher in the country.[41]
  • The first opera written by an American to be both published and produced is The Fashionable Lady; or, Harlequin's Opera by James Ralph, which is premiered this year in London.[59]




  • John Wesley's A Collection of Psalms and Hymns is the "first book of religious music published in the colonies".[66]
  • The first newspaper advertisement concerning a fugitive slave with a reference to the slave's musical ability comes from American Weekly Mercury, about runaway Samuel Leonard of Perth Amboy, New Jersey, a half-Native American, half-African fiddler.[67]



  • Charles Theodore Pachelbel gives the first documented public concert in New York City.[37][74]
  • The oldest surviving music from New Orleans dates to this year. It is a piece of sacred music.[55]
  • The first major instrument manufacturer in the United States, John Clemm, comes to Philadelphia, where he will establish an organ and piano business.[75]
  • Hanover, Virginia, hosts the first documented fiddling contest in the country.[76]



  • The slaves of the Stono Rebellion - the largest slave rebellion in British North America[78] - in South Carolina are reported to use drums to recruit fighters, and music and dancing for emboldening the rebels.[79] As a result, African American drumming is banned in South Carolina.[12][80]


  • Trinity Church in New York begins instructing African Americans in psalmody, one of the earliest examples of formal African American music instruction; the teacher is organist Johann Gottlob Klem (John Clemm).[81]
  • Religious persecution at home leads to a wave of German-speaking Moravian immigrants, who will play a vital role in establishing American concert music, become known for their brass choirs and become among the earliest instrument manufacturers in the country.[50] They will settle in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania this year, flourishing and becoming widely known for their music.[41][82]
  • English hymn writer John Cennick publishes his first collection, Sacred Hymns for the Children of God; he will go on to become the "real founder of folky religious song in the rebellious eighteenth century movement".[83]




Early 1750s music trends
  • The custom of giving African American workers vacations during the spring election period begins in Connecticut; the workers establish secular festivals that include song and dance, with elections of "governors" and "kings" as part of the celebrations.[86]


  • Though the ban may not have been strictly or effectively enforced, the city of Boston prohibits theater entertainment, due to a Puritan influence that treated theater as a negative institution that symbolized a "preference for idleness and pleasure over hard work and thrift".[87]
  • The first comic ballad opera, The Beggar's Opera by John Gay,[88] is first performed in the colonial United States, in New York City; it goes on to become hugely successful, and among the most popular pieces of the period.[89]
  • Approximate: The African American 'Lection Day holiday, in which blacks paraded and elected an honorary ruler, is first celebrated, in Connecticut.[90]
  • An organ at Zion Lutheran Church in New Germantown, New Jersey, is the first documented organ in that state; the first organ in Pennsylvania also arrives in this year.[91]



  • The British Museum has had a drum since this date, made in Virginia from local wood and deer skin, but in a manner typical of the Ashanti of Ghana, a major piece of evidence for African retention in African American music.[12] It is also similar to the apinti drum of the Afro-Guyanese.[92]


  • An unused room in a building becomes the first concert hall in Boston.[93]
Francis Hopkinson, an early American composer


  • The British begin expelling the French-speaking Acadians from Canada, many of whom will go to Louisiana, providing an important foundation for both Cajun music and Louisiana Creole music.[94]
  • An English surgeon composes the words to "Yankee Doodle", which will become the most popular song in the country in the latter part of the Revolutionary War.[95] It will remain the only national song of the United States until the War of 1812.[96]


  • The first documented public performance by a military band in the British colonies comes in a Philadelphia parade this year.[17][97]


  • William Smith[who?]'s Alfred, produced by the College of Philadelphia, is the first "documented serious opera written and performed in the United States".[59]
  • Full military bands are sent to North America by the British, hoping to alleviate reluctance by the colonialists to join the British militias. New bands will arrive every year during the French and Indian War.[97]



Early 1760s music trends
  • Music instructor James Brenner begins teaching in a coffeehouse in Philadelphia.[103]
  • Francis Hopkinson begins playing harpsichord in concert; he would go on to be among the most influential composers of the colonial era,[104] and the first American composer for voice and harpsichord.[105]


  • James Lyon publishes in Philadelphia the "first American tunebook to address the needs of both congregation and choir", Urania, or a Choice Collection of Psalm-Tunes, Anthems, and Hymns. This tunebook offers "something for every kind of sacred singer" and "was the first American tunebook to bring psalmody straight into the commercial arena", showing "how psalmody... could find a niche in the marketplace".[98][106][107] The collection features the first published American anthems, fuging tunes and hymn tunes. It is also the first work to identify its songs as "new", meaning composed in the colonies. Twenty-eight of the songs include both music and text, and are the first such printings in the country.[46]
  • Barzillai Lew, a free-born African American musician from Massachusetts, becomes an Army fifer and drummer during the French and Indian War. His wife, Dinah Bowman, is the first black woman in history to be identified as a pianist. The Lew family is prominent in the area around Dracut, Massachusetts, and the family remains musically renowned well into the 20th century.[108]
A scene from Love in a Village, a pasticcio of the 1760s





Late 1760s music trends
  • British patriotic songs begin to be changed into anti-British protests circulated through newspapers and broadsides.[119]
  • Itinerant music instructor John Stadler travels across Virginia, teaching music to families like the wealthy Carters and the Washingtons[103]


  • An advertisement in the Boston Chronicle is the one of the first for sheet music, for "Liberty Song", in the United States.[120]


  • A concert is organized by John Gualdo in Philadelphia; this consisted of a wide range of pieces, much of which was composed by Gualdo himself, leading some historians to refer to this as the first "composers'-concert" in the United States.[121]
  • Roman Catholic missionary activity begins to "severely devastate" the civilizations of central coast and southern California, bringing new forms of Roman Catholic music to the indigenous peoples of California.[122]
  • In Isaac Bickerstaffe's comic opera The Padlock, the actor Lewis Hallam the Younger performs "Dear Heart! What a Terrible Life I Am Led", the first documentation of a white stage presentation of an African American-styled song.[116]
  • John Harris of Boston becomes the first spinet-maker in the United States.[123]
  • An anonymous manuscript published by John Boyles of Boston, Abstract of Geminiani's Art of Playing on the Violin is the first known instrumental education book in the future United States.[48]


  • William Billings' The New-England Psalm-Singer is the first compilation of entirely American music and the first compiled by a native-born American to be published,[102] first major publication by a singing master,[101] and the first tunebook in the country dedicated to the music of a single composer. The most famous song in the compilation is "Chester", which will be an unofficial anthem for Americans during the Revolutionary War.[101] Its publication begins a flourishing of distinctively American New England publications of sacred tunes.[124][125] Billings himself will go on to become one of the first major figures in American music history, and is said to have been the first to introduce both the pitch pipe and the violoncello to the New England church choir.[126]
  • William Tuckey, an organist and choirmaster in New York's Trinity Church, presents a performance from Handel's Messiah, the first performance from that piece in the United States.[127]


  • The first Shakers arrive in the United States, beginning American Shaker music.[128]
  • English traveler Nicholas Cresswell notes a song which he describes as a "Negro tune". This "may well represent the earliest record of the influence of slave music on the white colonists". His work also contains the first reference to a banjo.[129]
  • George Leile, one of the first African Americans with official permission to preach, travels along the Savannah River preaching to slaves. He eventually formed one of the earliest self-governing black churches in the country, in Silver Bluff, South Carolina.[130]
  • Samson Occom, a Native American minister, publishes the first hymnal to contain refrains.[131]
  • John (Johann) Behrent constructs a piano, and is said to have been the first person in what is now the United States to do so.[132][133]



  • The Shakers, led by Ann Lee, settle at Niskayuna, New York, forming a communal religious society that used dance and music as an essential and sacred element of the religion.[136]
  • George Washington, worried that poor quality performance by musicians during drill practices would hinder military performance in battle, establishes tighter conditions for military bands in the Continental Army.[137]



  • William Billings' The Singing Master's Assistant includes songs that link the plight of the Israelites in Egyptian captivity with the lives of Bostonians of the time. This tunebook influentially "treated Scripture not only as a guide to spiritual inspiration and moral improvement, but as a historical epic that, bringing past into present, offered timeless parallels to current events".[138]
  • Andrew Law and his brother form a tunebook-printing company in Cheshire, Connecticut, beginning with 1779's Select Harmony, which reveals Law as a "champion of American composers, at a time when the notion that Americans could compose music at all was a new one".[134][139]
  • Thomas Jefferson presents a view common to many of the upper-class elite in North America, in a letter to Giovanni Fabbroni complaining that American music was in a state of "deplorable barbarism".[140]
  • A reorganization of the Continental Army establishes pay grades of military musicians and creates staff positions for drum and fife majors.[137]




  • Due to a manpower shortage, military musicians come to be chosen from enlisted men, rather than from performers who enlisted solely as musicians. This is the first evidence of musicians doing soldierly duties in the American army.[141]
  • Francis Hopkinson composes the first American Grand Opera, America Independent, Or the Temple of Minerva.[105]


  • James Aird's Selection of Scotch, English, Irish and Foreign Airs is published, containing the earliest known printing of "Yankee Doodle".[142]





  • John Aitken becomes the first American publisher of strictly music, and the first to publish secular sheet music in the United States. Most of the music is composed or arranged by Alexander Reinagle.[152][153] Aitken engraves Reinagle's A Selection of the Most Favorite Scots-Irish Tunes, which is the first use of punching tools to engrave music in the country.[120]
  • Johannes Herbst, a Moravian bishop and hymn writer, begins collecting music manuscripts. His archive is not publicly available until 1977.[154]



  • The Constitution of the United States comes into effect, granting Congress the power to "promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts, by securing for limited Times to Authors and Inventors the exclusive Right to their respective Writings and Discoveries", the beginning of American copyright law.[157]
  • A ban on theatrical music is lifted, for the first time since the American Revolution.[19]



  • A slave named Newport Gardner wins a lottery and buys his freedom, opening a singing school and becoming one of the first African American music teachers.[161]
  • The ban on theaters in Philadelphia is ended.[162]


  • Congress passes a law requiring all able-bodied white males to join a state militia; the result helps spur the development of military bands, as opposed to fife-and-drum corps, which Congress authorizes for the first time the same year.[142][163] The Militia Act standardized the instrumentation of military bands.[164]
  • Thomas Wignell forms a theatrical company in Philadelphia, with Alexander Reinagle as his music director.[165]
  • Big concert in Philadelphia held to honor Mozart


  • The ban on theater entertainment in Boston ends.[87]
  • John Aitken ends his music publishing career for a time, as composer Alexander Reinagle become music director for the New Theater in Philadelphia. One impetus for Aitken's ending his business comes from increased competition, as the American music publishing industry diversifies and competitors arise in New York, Boston and Baltimore.[152]
  • Benjamin Carr opens a musical instrument shop in Philadelphia, and soon begins publishing music as well, one of the first music publishing ventures in the United States.[166] His periodical The Gentleman's Amusement included Philip Phile's "The President's March",[167] which is later the tune for "Hail, Columbia".[164]


  • The first sheet music to be registered for copyright under the new US Constitution was The Kentucky Volunteer, music by Raynor Taylor, lyrics by "a woman of Philadelphia". This was the published by Benjamin Carr, most prolific American music publisher in the 1790s.
  • A comic opera called The Children in the Wood premiers in Philadelphia; with music by Samuel Arnold and libretto by Thomas Morton, the opera becomes wildly popular in the United States.[168]
  • Andrew Law publishes The Art of Singing, a trio of books aimed at educating Americans in music; these publications "represent nothing less than a conversion in musical taste", as he abandoned American composers in favor of European principles of composition.[169]
  • Ann Hatton and James Hewitt's Tammany; or, The Indian Chief is the both first American opera on a Native American subject[170] and the first on an American subject of any kind. It is also the first with a female librettist.[59]
Mid 1790s music trends
  • Though the publisher Andrew Law had gained fame for compiling American and British compositions in his tunebooks as equals, his increasingly British-oriented compilations begin to lose commercial ground to works that mix both American and British compositions, indicating a growing American musical sensibility.[171]




  • The Pocket Hymn Book is published in Philadelphia. It will become the standard collection of hymns for the camp meetings of the Great Awakening of the early 19th century.[178]





  • Reverend Richard Allen publishes A Collection of Spiritual Songs and Hymns for Bethel Church in Philadelphia; this is the first such collection "assembled by a black author for a black congregation".[71][142][188] The collection includes works by Isaac Watts and others, as well as some that are unattributed and may have been composed by Allen himself.[189] It was also the first collection "to employ the so-called wandering refrains -- that is, refrain verses or short choruses attached at random to orthodox hymn stanzas".[131]
  • William Smith and William Little publish The Easy Instructor in Philadelphia;[48] it is the first shape note tunebook, which would become the standard for American shape note singing in the 19th century.[171]
  • Richard Allen publishes his own hymnal, A Collection of Spiritual Songs and Hymns, which becomes very popular.[190]
  • The first camp meeting is held near the Gasper River in Logan County, Kentucky; the diverse crowd forces the song leaders to keep the songs simple, leading to a style known as the camp meeting spiritual.[191]
Early 19th century music trends
  • Presbyterian clergy in Kentucky begin to hold camp meetings to promote Christian spirituality; these would go on to be run by Baptist and Methodist preachers as part of the Great Awakening of religious fervor.[192][193]




  • In Salem and western Middlesex County, Massachusetts, clergymen and other local leaders and singers begin advocating for a more formal and European style of religious musical expression.[197]
mid-19th century music trends
  • Presbyterian clergy begin to hold camp meetings to promote Christian spirituality; these would go on to be run by Baptist and Methodist preachers as part of the Great Awakening of religious fervor.[192]
  • Musical reformers in New England continue advocating for a return to traditionally European religious music, as organizations like the Middlesex Musical Society and the Essex Musical Association are formed[198]
  • Two important British-dominated tunebooks are published in 1805 and 1807. These lead to an increase in European-dominated tunebooks being published after the mid-19th century.[198]


  • Shape note singing grows in popularity and expands in influence after William Smith and William Little's The Easy Instructor is picked up by an Albany, New York publisher.[199]
  • The Salem Collection of Classical Sacred Musick is published in Salem, Massachusetts; it is described by traditionalist psalmodist Nathaniel D. Gould as a spearhead for musical reform in New England churches.[200]
  • Approximate: Musical reformers of psalmody, who promote "European standards and 'correct taste'", begin using the name of George Frideric Handel to symbolize the idealized music they prefer.[201]
  • Richard McNemar converts to become a Shaker; he will become known as the "Father of Shaker music", and is the most prolific composer of Shaker hymns and anthems.[136]
  • Librettist Lorenzo Da Ponte (who worked with Mozart) emigrates to the United States, where he will help to introduce opera to mainstream Americans.[43]
  • Beethoven’s 1st Symphony and other works debuted in Charlestown, Virginia


  • The Middlesex Collection of Church Musick is published in Boston; it is described by traditionalist psalmodist Nathaniel D. Gould as a spearhead for musical reform in New England churches.[200]





  • Russian visitor Pavel Svinin visits an African American church in Philadelphia; this is one of the first written depictions of black church music in the United States.[190]
  • The first use of the word hit referring to a success in show business comes from this year. The word is borrowed from the game of backgammon.[207]
Early 1810s music trends
  • Three regions of shape note publishing take form, outside of New England: one was based in the South, especially Georgia and South Carolina, another was dominated by Germans between Philadelphia and the Shenandoah Valley, and the last stretched from Pennsylvania and the Shenandoah Valley westward to Cincinnati and St. Louis.[208]


  • A hymnbook, popularly called The Bridgewater Collection is first published; it will be used at least until well into the 20th century.[209]
  • Songs celebrating American naval victories in the War of 1812 include "Hull's Victory", which commemorates the capture of the HMS Guerriere by the USS Constitution.[210]
  • During the War of 1812, American military bands use bugles rather than drums and fifes as in the Revolutionary War.[206]
  • While British troops blockade American ports, European sheet music can not be imported, helping to spur the rise of the American music publishing industry.[211]




  • In Boston the Handel and Haydn Society is formed to "improve sacred music performance and promote the sacred works of eminent European masters". This marks "a new stage in Americans' recognition of music as an art".[217][218] It remains an influential part of Bostonian culture.[7][219]
  • The keyed bugle is introduced to the United States. The keyed bugle led to the development of a whole new class of valved brass instruments called saxhorns after their French inventor, Antoine-Joseph Sax[220]
  • This is the earliest proffered date for the formation of the first minstrel troops.[221]
  • The song "Backside Albany", with a melody borrowed from the British folk song "Boyne Water", is the first blackface air.[19]
  • Thomas Hastings, a prolific publisher of church music and author, publishes his "first and most famous collection", Musica Sacra.[222]


  • The African Methodist Episcopal Church is founded in Philadelphia, which "established a racial division in American Protestantism; music was to remain a major part of the Church's spiritual expression.[81]
  • The earliest description of a specifically African American Christian music performance comes from George Tucker, who witnessed the song in Portsmouth, Virginia.[223]
  • Daniel Loomis becomes the first teacher of music at the West Point Academy, and George W. Gardiner is assigned commander of the West Point Band.[214]
  • Thomas Funk publishes Choral Music, a songbook that helps establish the American shape note singing tradition. Funk's descendents will carry on his legacy in founding Ruebush-Kieffer, a publishing company that will be the predecessor of most of the Southern religious music publishing firms of the late 19th and early 20th centuries.[224]
Late 1810s music trends
  • Thomas Hastings begins composing works that use European harmonic techniques; he is one of the few American composers of the era considered to have mastered these techniques.[225]


  • The city government of New Orleans limits African American dancing to Sundays before sundown in Congo Square, which would become a hotbed of musical mingling and innovation.[145][226]
  • Civilian Richard Willis is hired as teacher of music at the West Point Academy. The tradition of hiring civilians for this position will last until 1972. He will also introduce the keyed bugle to the American military.[214]


  • Music teacher, keyed bugler and bandleader Frank Johnson publishes Six Sets of Cotillions, establishing a career that will make him the leader of the "Philadelphia School", the first African American "school of classically trained composers".[111] He also becomes the first African American to publish sheet music this year,[227][228][229] and will later become the first widely acclaimed composer, both at home and in England, first to innovate a style or school elaborated upon by other individuals,[230] first to give formal band concerts,[230][231] and the first to perform with white musicians in public[232] and the first to tour widely in the United States.[230] He may be the first American of any race to tour abroad, in 1837.[233]
  • Richard Allen publishes a hymnal, the first for the African Methodist Episcopal Church, which became the world's "first black denomination" when it was founded in 1816.[234]
  • African Americans begin organizing their own camp meetings, start with one held this year by the African Methodist Episcopal Church, in Bucks County, Pennsylvania.[235]
  • Bohemian composer Anthony Philip Heinrich comes to the United States and is so impressed by the "natural scenery, (America's) exciting history, and the music of the Native American" that he began composing a string of works on these topics.[236]


  • John Fanning Watson, a Wesleyan Methodist, publishes a tract called Methodist Error, which criticizes clergy that hold camp meetings, on the basis that they were relatively racially egalitarian, and the music poorly-composed and performed, especially by African Americans. Though his criticism is not entirely aimed at African Americans, the features he most identifies as religiously inappropriate are characteristically African American.[192] His chief complaint is the use of refrains "of their own composing", referring to those include in the hymnal of Richard Allen from 1801.[237]
  • The "best-known stage for drama, concert music and opera" in Richmond, Virginia, the Richmond Theater, opens.[238]
  • John Siegling opens a music publishing firm, Siegling Music Company, in Charleston, South Carolina; it will last for many years, and will be the oldest music publishing company in operation by the time the Civil War begins.[239][240]


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  • Stowe, David W. (2004). How Sweet the Sound: Music in the Spiritual Lives of Americans. Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-01290-9. 
  • Tawa, Nicholas E. (1980). Sweet Songs for Gentle Americans: The Parlor Song in America, 1790–1860. Popular Press. ISBN 0-87972-130-8. 
  • "U.S. Army Bands in History". U.S. Army Bands. Retrieved 20 July 2008. 
  • "Anasazi Flutes from the Broken Flute Cave". Clint Goss. Retrieved 5 February 2010. 


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    Diamond, Beverly; M. Sam Cronk; Franziska von Rosen (1994). Visions of Sound: Musical Instruments of First Nations Communities in Northeastern America. Chicago Studies in Ethnomusicology. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-14475-5. 
  2. ^ Clint Goss (2010). "Anasazi Flutes from the Broken Flute Cave". Retrieved 16 December 2010. 
  3. ^ Crawford, pg. 17; Crawford calls de Padilla "most likely the first European to teach music to Native Americans".
  4. ^ Crawford, pg. 17
  5. ^ Crawford, pg. 20; Crawford notes that "Florida Indians liked the psalm melodies and continued to sing them years after the Spaniards had massacred the French colonists, as a way of testing strangers to determine whether they were friend (French) or foe."
  6. ^ a b c Koskof, "Musical Profile of the United States and Canada", pgs. 2–20, Garland Encyclopedia of the World Music
  7. ^ a b Cornelius, pg. 12
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  9. ^ Crawford, pg. 22
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  13. ^ Crawford, pg. 21
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  22. ^ Horn, David. "Hymnals". The Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music. pp. 580–583. ISBN 0-8264-9112-X. Horn notes that it was the first book printed in English in the colonies. 
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  25. ^ Southern, pg. 29
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  27. ^ Haufman, pg. 24; Haufman notes the use of drums and trumpets from a document by Israel Acrelius, writing in 1789, and the use of drums and fifes, attributed to John E. Pomfret, writing in 1956.
  28. ^ Burk, Meierhoff and Phillips, pg. 50
  29. ^ a b Haufman, pg. 18
  30. ^ Hansen, pg. 97
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  32. ^ Birge, p. 5
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  37. ^ a b c Nicholls, pg. 53
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  45. ^ Reyna, José R. "Tejano Music". The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music. pp. 770–782. 
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  55. ^ a b Nicholls, pg. 57
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  59. ^ a b c d e f g Kirk, pg. 385
  60. ^ a b Crawford, pg. 51
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  62. ^ Clarke, pg. 94
  63. ^ a b Darden, pg. 47
  64. ^ Burk, Meierhoff and Phillips, pg. 28
  65. ^ a b Chase, pg. 16; Chase cites Owen, Barbara. The Organ in New England. ISBN 0-915548-08-9. 
  66. ^ Erbsen, pg. 20
  67. ^ Epstein, pgs. 112–113
  68. ^ a b Abel, pg. 242
  69. ^ Nicholls, pg. 56
  70. ^ Chase, pgs. 40–41
  71. ^ a b Horn, David. "Hymnals". The Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music. pp. 580–583. ISBN 0-8264-9112-X. 
  72. ^ Stowe, pg. 1
  73. ^ Clarke, pgs. 12–13
  74. ^ Chase, pg. 96
  75. ^ Elson, University Musical Encyclopedia, pg. 5
  76. ^ Cohen, pg. xv
  77. ^ Southern, pg. 34
  78. ^ Peretti, pg. 23
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  80. ^ Klitz, pg. 45
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  83. ^ Chase, pg. 43, citing Jackson, George Pullen. White and Negro Spirituals. ISBN 0-306-70667-9. 
  84. ^ Chase, pg. 42
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  88. ^ Clarke, pg.10
  89. ^ Crawford, pg. 95
  90. ^ Southern, pg. 52
  91. ^ Haufman, pg. 32
  92. ^ Epstein, pg. 49
  93. ^ Crawford, pg. 86
  94. ^ Rahkonen, Carl. "French Music". The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music. pp. 854–859. 
  95. ^ Elson, The History of American Music, pg. 144
  96. ^ Elson, University Musical Encyclopedia, pg. 81
  97. ^ a b Hansen, pg. 203
  98. ^ a b Crawford, pg. 37
  99. ^ Elson, The History of American Music, pg. 42; Elson cites this claim to Henry M. Brooks, antiquarian
  100. ^ Crawford, pgs. 81–82; "Hopkinson himself claimed to be the first American composer in 1788, in a preface to the publication of Seven Songs for the Harpsichord or Forte Piano." Crawford notes that music historian Oscar Sonneck tested this claim in 1905, concluding that Hopkinson had a valid claim. Crawford also notes, however, that some historians would not consider any composer American until the ninth state ratified the United States Constitution in June 1788, and thus it is possible that Hopkinson was, in fact, referring to the publication of Seven Songs for the Harpsichord or Forte Piano as the first American composition.
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  102. ^ a b Clarke, pg. 14
  103. ^ a b Crawford, pg. 77
  104. ^ Crawford, pg. 80
  105. ^ a b Chase, pg. 14
  106. ^ Chase, pg. 114
  107. ^ Birge, pg. 16
  108. ^ Crawford, pg. 113; Crawford notes that the Lew family's musicianship continued through a total of seven generations, counting Barzillai's father Primus Lew, a military field musician.
  109. ^ Abel, pg. 249
  110. ^ a b c Chase, pg. 51
  111. ^ a b Wright, Jacqueline R. B. "Concert Music". The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music. pp. 603–613. 
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  126. ^ Elson, pgs. 12, 18–19
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  219. ^ Southern, pg. 99
  220. ^ Abel, pg. 133
  221. ^ Darden, pg. 121; Darden mentions claims for 1815, 1829 and 1832.
  222. ^ Chase, pg. 139
  223. ^ Darden, pg. 66
  224. ^ Malone and Stricklin, pg. 9
  225. ^ Crawford, pg. 133
  226. ^ Chase, pg. 62
  227. ^ Southern, pg. 107 indicates that Johnson was the first African American to publish sheet music.
  228. ^ Crawford, pg. 20 indicates that John was the first American black to publish music.
  229. ^ Hansen, pg. 213 indicates Johnson was the first African American to publish music.
  230. ^ a b c Southern, pg. 107
  231. ^ Clarke, pg. 20
  232. ^ Clarke, p. 20
  233. ^ Clark, pg. 21
  234. ^ Southern, pgs. 80–81
  235. ^ Southern, pg. 130
  236. ^ Southern, pg. 267
  237. ^ Southern, pg. 180
  238. ^ Abel, pg. 239
  239. ^ Abel, pg. 255
  240. ^ Cornelius, pg. 17

Further reading[edit]

  • Lowens, Irving. A Bibliography of Songsters, Printed in America Before 1821. Worcester, Massachusetts: American Antiquarian Society. ISBN 0-912296-05-4. 
  • Keller, Kate Van Winkle. Popular Secular Music in America Through 1800: A Preliminary Checklist of Manuscripts in North American Collections. Philadelphia: Music Library Association. ISBN 0-914954-22-9.