Timeline of music in the United States (1970–present)

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Timeline of music in the United States
Music history of the United States
Colonial erato the Civil WarDuring the Civil WarLate 19th centuryEarly 20th century40s and 50s60s and 70s80s to the present

This is a timeline of music in the United States from 1970 to the present.

1970[edit]

  • Diana Ross leaves the Supremes, considered to be the most successful and influential girl group of all time, to embark upon a solo career after her final performance with the group on January 14, 1970 in Las Vegas, Nevada.
  • Armadillo World Headquarters opens in Austin, Texas. It will become a major venue for the music of Austin, especially the local country scene.[1][2]
  • Black Sabbath's Black Sabbath and Paranoid codify the genre later known as heavy metal music; though Black Sabbath is British, heavy metal will become an important American phenomenon in the next decade.[3]
  • Charlie Gillett's The Sound of the City is the first comprehensive history of R&B and rock.[4]
  • Growing Latino "political unrest and cultural awakening" manifests in musical expression, especially in the formation of a group called El Chicano, who had a major hit with "Viva Tirado". "Viva Tirado" becomes the "first single to attain positions in all popular music categories except country and western".[5]
  • Francis Grasso opens the Sanctuary, the first "notoriously gay discothèque" in the country in the New York club scene; he innovates a technique called disco blending, which allows for uninterrupted dancing, laying the groundwork for disco music.[6]
  • Miles Davis' Bitches Brew is an important part of the origin of jazz-rock.[7]
  • Haitian performers with mini-djaz bands touring the United States begin deserting to settle in Miami and other cities, establishing a number of local Haitian music scenes.[8]
  • Nosotros, a Hollywood trade association for Latino entertainers, inaugurates what will become known as the Golden Eagle Awards, for Latino musicians.[5]
  • The works of Scott Joplin become the basis for a ragtime revival,[9] inspired in large part by The Complete Piano Works of Scott Joplin, a recording by John W. Parker, and Scott Joplin: Piano Rags, a recording by Joshua Rifkin. Eubie Blake becomes the only ragtime pianist to ever record one of his own pieces, "Charleston Rag" (written in 1921).[10]
  • The case Sinatra v. Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co., though ultimately unsuccessful, contends for the first time that the use of a performer to imitate a different performer – in this case, Nancy Sinatra – could constitute the tort of passing off.[11]
  • Jamaican musician U-Roy becomes the first to record rhythmic speech over dubs, which is the direct ancestor of rapping, one of the elements of hip hop culture.[12]
  • Louis Wayne Ballard becomes the Director of Music Programs for the Bureau of Indian Affairs. He will be the first Native American to create educational materials on Native American music.[13]
  • The Stooges begin performing, becoming known for making physical contact with the crowd, one of the reasons they are considered an important predecessor of punk rock and hardcore.[14]
  • The first digital synthesizers are created.[15]

1971[edit]

Early 1970s music trends

1972[edit]

1973[edit]

1974[edit]

  • Gloria Gaynor's "Never Can Say Goodbye" is the first "disco hit to reach the charts".[50]
  • The National Endowment for the Arts creates a subcategory within its music program for "Jazz/Folk/Ethnic Music"; though jazz had previously been supported by the NEA, this is the first support for folk music.[32][51]
  • The military establishes the Bicentennial Band, which will tour across the United States over the next few years in celebration of the country's bicentennial anniversary.[52]
  • The case Schroeder v. Macaulay is a key ruling on the enforceability of music publishing agreements. Among the consequences of the case is the reversion of unused material to the ownership of the author.[11]

1975[edit]

Mid-1970s music trends

1976[edit]

1977[edit]

1978[edit]

Late 1970s music trends

1979[edit]

1980[edit]

Early 1980s music trends
  • Music education curricula in the United States begin incorporating musical elements from diverse areas of both the country and the world.[105]
  • Americans become more interested in the music education of their children, especially after news of the "Mozart effect", in which children exposed to Western classical music are said to become more intelligent later in life, spreads across the country.[105]
  • The last documented use of Ghost Dance-derived songs ends, among the Naraya songs, sung by women for general well-being, of the Wind River Shoshone.[130]
  • Hardcore punk develops and spreads across the country.[131]

1981[edit]

1982[edit]

1983[edit]

1984[edit]

1985[edit]

Mid-1980s music trends

1986[edit]

1987[edit]

1988[edit]

Late 1980s music trends

1989[edit]

1990[edit]

Early 1990s music trends

1991[edit]

1992[edit]

1993[edit]

1994[edit]

1995[edit]

Mid-1990s music trends

1996[edit]

1997[edit]

1998[edit]

Late 1990s music trends
  • Live musical instruments again become common parts of recorded hip hop.[12]

1999[edit]

2000[edit]

  • The Grammy Awards designate seven awards for Latin music: Tejano Performance, Latin Pop Performance, Latin Rock/Alternative Performance, Mexican-American Performance, Salse Performance, Merengue Performance and Traditional Tropical Latin Performance.[46] The Latin Grammys are also founded to focus specifically on rewarding Latin music in the United States.[5]
  • The O Brother Where Art Thou? is a surprise success, consisting of old time music, which provokes a resurgence of interest in American folk music.[38]
  • Napster is convicted of violating copyright law for enabling people to trade files without permission from the owner of the copyrights in the file.[219]

2001[edit]

2002[edit]

2003[edit]

2004[edit]

2005[edit]

References[edit]

  • Abel, E. Lawrence (2000). Singing the New Nation: How Music Shaped the Confederacy, 1861–1865. Mechanicsburg, Pennsylvania: Stackpole Books. ISBN 0-8117-0228-6.
  • Bird, Christiane (2001). The Da Capo Jazz and Blues Lover's Guide to the U.S. Da Capo Press. ISBN 0-306-81034-4.
  • Blush, Steven (2001). American Hardcore: A Tribal History. Feral House. ISBN 0-922915-71-7.
  • Chase, Gilbert (2000). America's Music: From the Pilgrims to the Present. University of Illinois Press. ISBN 0-252-00454-X.
  • Jason Coe (September 30, 2006). "Music Moments". Hyphen (10). Archived from the original on September 7, 2008. Retrieved July 28, 2008.
  • Crawford, Richard (2001). America's Musical Life: A History. W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 0-393-04810-1.
  • Cusic, Don (1990). The Sound of Light: A History of Gospel Music. Popular Press. ISBN 0-87972-498-6.
  • Darden, Robert (1996). People Get Ready: A New History of Black Gospel Music. New York: Continuum International Publishing Group. ISBN 0-8264-1752-3.
  • Erbsen, Wayne (2003). Rural Roots of Bluegrass: Songs, Stories and History. Pacific, Missouri: Mel Bay Publications. ISBN 0-7866-7137-8.
  • Banning Eyre. "Arabic Music in the US, after September 11". Afropop. Retrieved July 29, 2008.
  • Gates, Henry Louis (1988). The Signifying Monkey: A Theory of Afro-American Literary Criticism. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Nancy Rae Glass (November 7, 2002). "Hsu-Li arrives ready to set Fire to Portland". Archived from the original on January 23, 2016. Retrieved July 28, 2008.
  • Hansen, Richard K. (2005). The American Wind Band: A Cultural History. GIA Publications. ISBN 1-57999-467-9.
  • Hinkle-Turner, Elizabeth (2006). Women Composers and Music Technology in the United States: Crossing the Line. Ashgate Publishing. ISBN 0-7546-0461-6.
  • Hitchcock, H. Wiley; Stanley Sadie (1984). The New Grove Dictionary of American Music, Volume II: E - K. Macmillan Press.
  • Derek John (October 26, 2004). "Asian-American Rapper Jin Makes Hip-Hop History". NPR. Retrieved July 28, 2008.
  • Kirk, Elise Kuhl (2001). American Opera. University of Illinois Press. ISBN 0-252-02623-3.
  • Komara, Edward M. (2006). Encyclopedia of the Blues. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-92699-8.
  • Koskoff, Ellen (ed.) (2000). Garland Encyclopedia of World Music, Volume 3: The United States and Canada. Garland Publishing. ISBN 0-8240-4944-6.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
  • Koskoff, Ellen (2005). Music Cultures in the United States: An Introduction. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-96589-6.
  • Lankford, Jr., Ronald D. (2005). Folk Music USA: The Changing Voice of Protest. New York: Schirmer Trade Books. ISBN 0-8256-7300-3.
  • Lewis, George H. (1993). All that Glitters: Country Music in America. Popular Press. ISBN 0-87972-574-5.
  • Malone, Bill C.; David Stricklin (2003). Southern Music/American Music. University Press of Kentucky. ISBN 0-8131-9055-X.
  • McQuillar, Tayannah Lee (2007). When Rap Music Had a Conscience: The Artists, Organizations and Historic Events That Inspired and Influenced the Golden Age of Hip-Hop. Da Capo Press. ISBN 1-56025-919-1.
  • Miller, James. Flowers in the Dustbin: The Rise of Rock and Roll, 1947–1977. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-684-80873-0.
  • Mitchell, Gillian (2007). The North American Folk Music Revival: Nation and Identity in the United States. Ashgate Publishing. ISBN 0-7546-5756-6.
  • Moore, Allan (2003). The Cambridge Companion to Blues and Gospel Music. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-00107-2.
  • Levine, Victoria Lindsay (2002). Writing American Indian Music. American Musicological Society. ISBN 0-89579-494-2.
  • Office of the Press Secretary (June 17, 2008). "President Bush Honors Black Music Month". White House. Retrieved July 30, 2008.
  • Rettenmund, Matthew (1996). Totally Awesome 80s: A Lexicon of the Music, Videos, Movies, TV Shows, Stars. Macmillan. ISBN 0-312-14436-9.
  • "Blondie". Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. Retrieved July 27, 2008.
  • John Shepherd; David Horn; Dave Laing; Paul Oliver; Peter Wicke, eds. (2003). Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World, Volume 1: Media, Industry and Society. London: Continuum. ISBN 0-8264-6321-5.
  • Southern, Eileen (1997). Music of Black Americans. New York: W.W. Norton & Co. ISBN 0-393-03843-2.
  • "Magdalen on 'Fire'". The Spectator. March 15, 2004. Retrieved July 28, 2008.
  • Sullivan, Rachel E. (May 2003). "Rap and Race: It's Got a Nice Beat, but What about the Message?". Journal of Black Studies. 33 (5): 605–622. doi:10.1177/0021934703033005004.
  • "U.S. Army Bands in History". U.S. Army Bands. Retrieved July 20, 2008.
  • Vallely, Fintan (1999). The Companion to Irish Traditional Music. NYU Press. ISBN 0-8147-8802-5.
  • Waksman, Steve (October 2004). "California Noise: Tinkering with Hardcore and Heavy Metal in Southern California". Social Studies of Science: Special Issue on Sound Studies: New Technologies and Music. 34 (5): 675–702. doi:10.1177/0306312704047614.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Malone and Stricklin, pg. 140
  2. ^ Lewis, pg. 60
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v Ho, Fred, Jeremy Wallach, Beverly Diamond, Ron Pen, Rob Bowman and Sara Nicholson, "Snapshot: Five Fusions", pgs. 334–361, in the Garland Encyclopedia of World Music
  4. ^ a b c Horn, David. "Histories". The Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World. pp. 31–38.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Loza, Steven. "Hispanic California". The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music. pp. 734–753.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i Levine, Victoria Lindsay. "Southeast". The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music. pp. 466–471.
  7. ^ Southern, pg. 499
  8. ^ a b c d Averill, Gage. "Haitian and Franco-Caribbean Music". The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music. pp. 802–807.
  9. ^ Crawford, pg. 545
  10. ^ Chase, pgs. 424–426
  11. ^ a b c d e Greenfield, Steve; Guy Osborn. "Lawsuits". The Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World. pp. 495–497.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Norfleet, Dawn M. "Hip-Hop and Rap". The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music. pp. 692–704.
  13. ^ Levine, pg. xxiv
  14. ^ Blush, pg. 209
  15. ^ Schrader, Barry. New Grove Dictionary of American Music. pp. 30–35.
  16. ^ a b c d Leger, James K. "Música Nuevomexicana". The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music. pp. 754–769.
  17. ^ Crawford, pg. 810
  18. ^ Cohen, Sara. Sound (Local). pp. 413–415.
  19. ^ Koskoff, pg. 266
  20. ^ a b c Laing, Dave. "Home Taping". The Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World. p. 489.
  21. ^ a b Théberge, Paul. "Home Recording". The Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music. pp. 619–620.
  22. ^ a b c d e f g h Cockrell, Dale and Andrew M. Zinck, "Popular Music of the Parlor and Stage", pgs. 179–201, in the Garland Encyclopedia of World Music
  23. ^ Chase, pg. 541
  24. ^ Southern, pg. 505
  25. ^ a b Maultsby, Portia K.; Mellonee V. Burnin; Susan Oehler. "Overview". The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music. pp. 572–591.
  26. ^ Ramsey, Jr., Guthrie P. (Spring 1996). "Cosmopolitan or Provincial?: Ideology in Early Black Music Historiography, 1867–1940". Black Music Research Journal. 16 (1): 11–42. doi:10.2307/779375. JSTOR 779375.
  27. ^ Miller, pgs. 278–279
  28. ^ Maultsby, Portia K.; Isaac Kalumbu. "African American Studies". The Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World. pp. 47–54.
  29. ^ a b c d Diamond, Beverly; Barbara Benary. "Indonesian Music". The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music. pp. 1011–1023.
  30. ^ a b c d Maultsby, Portia K. "Funk". The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music. pp. 681–686.
  31. ^ a b c d e Pegley, Karen and Rob Haskins, "Snapshot: Two Forms of Electronic Music", pgs. 250–255, in the Garland Encyclopedia of World Music
  32. ^ a b c d e f g h i Bergey, Barry, "Government and Politics", pgs. 288–303, in the Garland Encyclopedia of World Music
  33. ^ Théberge, Paul. "Quadrophonic". The Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music. pp. 437–438.
  34. ^ Marlowe, Robert J. "Buck Owens Recording Studio". The Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music. p. 652.
  35. ^ Tarsia, Joseph. "Sigma Sound Studios". The Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music. pp. 670–671.
  36. ^ Strachan, Robert; Marion Leonard. "Archives". The Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World. pp. 3–6.
  37. ^ Miller, pg. 301
  38. ^ a b Erbsen, pg. 6
  39. ^ Miller, pgs. 304–305
  40. ^ Miller, pg. 310
  41. ^ Cusic, pg. 183
  42. ^ Reyes, Adelaida. "IDentity, Diversity, and Interaction". The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music. pp. 504–518.Baker, Theodore (1881). Uber die Musik der nordamerikanischen Wilden. Leipzig: Breitkopf u. Härtel.
  43. ^ Pruter, Robert; Paul Oliver. "Chicago". The Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World. Retrieved July 9, 2008.
  44. ^ Bird, pg. 420
  45. ^ Miller, pg. 311
  46. ^ a b c d e Sheehy, Daniel; Steven Loza. "Overview". The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music. pp. 718–733.
  47. ^ Mitchell, pg. 173
  48. ^ a b Cohen, Sara; Marion Leonard. "Feminism". The Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World. pp. 74–76.
  49. ^ Clarke, pg. 66
  50. ^ a b c d e f g h Garofalo, Reebee. The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music. pp. 705–715.
  51. ^ Koskoff, pg. 32
  52. ^ U.S. Army Bands
  53. ^ a b Levy, Mark. "Central European Music". The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music. pp. 884–903.
  54. ^ a b c d e Krasnow, Carolyn H. and Dorothea Hast, "Snapshot: Two Popular Dance Forms", pgs. 227–234, in the Garland Encyclopedia of World Music
  55. ^ a b Sullivan, pg. 606
  56. ^ a b c d e f Slobin, Mark. "Jewish Music". The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music. pp. 933–945.
  57. ^ Darden, pg. 286
  58. ^ Cowdery, James R. and Anne Lederman, "Blurring the Boundaries of Social and Musical Identities", pgs. 322–333, in the Garland Encyclopedia of World Music
  59. ^ a b c Loza, Steven. "Latin Caribbean". The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music. pp. 790–801.
  60. ^ a b c d Vallely, pg. 415
  61. ^ Miller, pg. 318
  62. ^ U.S. Army Bands
  63. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Kassabian, Anahid, "Film", pgs. 202–205, in the Garland Encyclopedia of World Music
  64. ^ a b Sam, Sam-Ang. "Cambodian Music". The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music. pp. 998–1002.
  65. ^ Levin, Victoria Lindsay (Winter 1993). "Musical Revitalization among the Choctaw". American Music. 11 (4): 391–411. doi:10.2307/3052538. JSTOR 3052538.
  66. ^ Chase, pgs. 484–485
  67. ^ Atton, Chris. "Fanzines". The Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World. pp. 226–228.
  68. ^ a b Cornelius, Steven. "Afro-Cuban Music". The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music. pp. 783–789.
  69. ^ Chase, pg. 556
  70. ^ Beaudry, Nicole. "Arctic Canada and Alaska". The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music. pp. 374–382.Johnston, Thomas F. (1975). "Eskimo Music of the Northern Interior Alaska". Polar Notes. 14 (54–57)., Johnston, Thomas F. (1976). Eskimo Music, a Comparative Circumpolar Study. Mercury Series 32. Ottawa: National Museum of Man., Johnston, Thomas F. (1976). "The Eskimo Songs of Northwestern Alaska". Arctic. 29 (1): 7–19. doi:10.14430/arctic2783., Dall, William H. (1870). Alaska and Its Resources (Reprint, New York: Arno Press, 1970 ed.). Boston: Lee and Shephard.
  71. ^ a b Nguyen, Phong T.; Terry E. Miller. "Vietnamese Music". The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music. pp. 993–997.
  72. ^ Catlin, Amy. "Hmong Music". The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music. pp. 1003–1006.
  73. ^ a b c Miller, Terry E. "Lao, Thai, and Cham Music". The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music. pp. 1007–1010.
  74. ^ Darden, pg. 276
  75. ^ a b Riis, Thomas L. "Musical Theater". The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music. pp. 614–623.
  76. ^ *Walsh, Gavin (2006). Punk on 45; Revolutions on Vinyl, 1976–79 (London: Plexus), p. 27. ISBN 0-85965-370-6.
  77. ^ a b c d e f g Hyphen: Music Moments Archived September 7, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
  78. ^ Keightley, Keir; Will Straw. "Single". The Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World. pp. 779–780.
  79. ^ Crawford, pg. 832
  80. ^ a b c d Kealiinohomoku, Joann W. and Mary Jane Warner, "Dance", pgs. 206–226, in the Garland Encyclopedia of World Music
  81. ^ Koskoff, pg. 30
  82. ^ a b c d e f g Frisbie, Charlotte J. "American Indian Musical Repatriation". The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music. pp. 491–501.
  83. ^ Miller, Terry E. "Overview". The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music. pp. 948–956.
  84. ^ Chase, pg. 539
  85. ^ Southern, pg. 497
  86. ^ Mitchell, pg. 171
  87. ^ Mitchell, pg. 172
  88. ^ Blush, pg. 102
  89. ^ Buckley, David; John Shepherd. "Stardom". Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World. pp. 366–369.
  90. ^ a b c Bastian, Vanessa. "Instrument Manufacture". The Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World. pp. 526–529.
  91. ^ Miller, pg. 338
  92. ^ a b c Buckley, David; John Shepherd; Berndt Ostendorf. "Death". The Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World. pp. 200–204.
  93. ^ Bowers, Jane, Zoe C. Sherinian and Susan Fast, "Snapshot: Gendering Music", pgs. 103–115, in the Garland Encyclopedia of World Music
  94. ^ Rothenbuhler, Eric W.; Tom McCourt. "Radio". Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World. pp. 329–333.
  95. ^ a b Smith, Jeff. "The Film Industry and Popular Music". The Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World. pp. 499–504.
  96. ^ Darden, pg. 147
  97. ^ a b c d Hilts, Janet; David Buckley; John Shepherd. "Crime". The Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World. pp. 189–196.
  98. ^ Chase, pg. 404
  99. ^ Bird, pg. 200
  100. ^ a b Waksman, pg. 682
  101. ^ Blush, pg. 14
  102. ^ Blush, pg. 132
  103. ^ Bird, pg. 41
  104. ^ Laing, Dave. "Windham Hill". The Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World. p. 774. Laing calls it "virtually synonymous" with New Age music.
  105. ^ a b c Campbell, Patricia Sheehan and Rita Klinger, "Learning", pgs. 274–287, in the Garland Encyclopedia of World Music
  106. ^ a b c Miller, Rebecca S. "Irish Music". The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music. pp. 842–846.
  107. ^ Shepherd, John; Peter Wicke. "Musicology". The Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World. pp. 90–94.
  108. ^ Livingston, Tamara E. and Katherine K. Preston, "Snapshot: Two Views of Music and Class", pgs. 55–62, in the Garland Encyclopedia of World Music
  109. ^ Cohen, Sara; Leonard, Marion. "Gender and Sexuality". The Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World. pp. 231–237.
  110. ^ a b Théberge, Paul. "Amplifier". The Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World. pp. 505–506.
  111. ^ a b Strachan, Robert; Marion Leonard. "Film and Television Documentaries". The Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World. pp. 26–29.
  112. ^ a b Blush, pg. 17
  113. ^ Sturman, Janet L. "Iberian Music". The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music. pp. 847–853.
  114. ^ Martin, Claire. "Snapshot: The Tyagaraja Festival in Cleveland, Ohio". The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music. pp. 988–992.
  115. ^ Hinkle-Turner, pg. 46
  116. ^ Rettenmund, pg. 49
  117. ^ Koskoff, pg. 31
  118. ^ a b c d e Southern, pgs. 361–364
  119. ^ a b c Rasmussen, Anne K. "Middle Eastern Music". The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music. pp. 1028–1041.
  120. ^ Blush, pg. 22
  121. ^ Middleton, Richard. "Semiology/Semiotics". The Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World. pp. 122–126.
  122. ^ President Bush Honors Black Music Month
  123. ^ Hosokawa, Shuhei. "Walkman". The Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World. pp. 524–525.
  124. ^ a b Wolfe, Charles K. and Jacqueline Cogdell DjeDje, "Snapshot: Two Views of Music, Race, Ethnicity, and Nationhood", pgs. 76–86, in the Garland Encyclopedia of World Music
  125. ^ Blush, pg. 18
  126. ^ Rock and Roll Hall of Fame: Blondie
  127. ^ Rettenmund, pg. 50
  128. ^ Blush, pg. 16; Blush cites Joey Shithead of DOA, whose 1981 Hardcore 81 Blush describes as possibly the "first official use of the term in music".
  129. ^ Asai, Susan M. "Japanese Music". The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music. pp. 967–974.
  130. ^ Romero, Brenda M. "Great Basin". The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music. pp. 420–427.Herzog, George (1935). "Plains Ghost Dance and Great Basin Music". American Anthropologist. 38 (3): 403–419. doi:10.1525/aa.1935.37.3.02a00040.
  131. ^ Blush, pg. 20
  132. ^ Darden, pg. 273
  133. ^ Darden, pg. 299
  134. ^ a b Straw, Will. "Music Video". The Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music. pp. 622–623.
  135. ^ a b c Laing, Dave. "MTV". The Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World. pp. 446–447.
  136. ^ Reyna, José R. "Tejano Music". The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music. pp. 770–782.
  137. ^ Blush, pg. 26
  138. ^ Blush, pgs. 30–32; Blush calls the song a "lightning rod of controversy".
  139. ^ Blush, pg. 62
  140. ^ Blush, pg. 284
  141. ^ a b Levy, Mark; Carl Rahkonen; Ain Haas. "Scandinavian and Baltic Music". The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music. pp. 866–881.
  142. ^ a b c d e Zheng, Su. "Chinese Music". The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music. pp. 957–966.
  143. ^ Blush, pg. 138
  144. ^ Blush, pg. 159
  145. ^ Blush, pg. 173, 210, 228, 256, 260
  146. ^ Southern, pgs. 604–605
  147. ^ a b U.S. Army Bands
  148. ^ a b Miller, pgs. 350–351
  149. ^ a b Haskins, Rob, "Orchestral and Chamber Music in the Twentieth Century", pgs. 173–178, in the Garland Encyclopedia of World Music
  150. ^ a b Southern, pg. 600
  151. ^ McQuillar, pg. 5
  152. ^ Blush, pg. 203
  153. ^ a b Borwick, John; Dave Laing. "Compact Disc". The Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World. pp. 507–508.
  154. ^ Darden, pg. 288
  155. ^ a b Laing, Dave. "Sponsorship". The Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World. pp. 565–566.
  156. ^ a b Post, Jennifer C., Neil V. Rosenberg and Holly Kruse, "Snapshot: How Music and Place Intertwine", pgs. 153–172, in the Garland Encyclopedia of World Music
  157. ^ Darden, pg. 192
  158. ^ a b Rahkonen, Carl. "Overview". The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music. pp. 820–830.
  159. ^ Koskoff, pg. 180
  160. ^ a b c Laing, Dave. "Awards". The Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World. pp. 533–535.
  161. ^ Witmer, Robert. "British Caribbean Music". The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music. pp. 808–812.
  162. ^ Shepherd, John; David Buckley. "Pornography". Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World. pp. 322–328.
  163. ^ a b Cloonan, Martin. "Censorship". The Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World. pp. 168–172.
  164. ^ Southern, pg. 583
  165. ^ a b Moore, pg. xvi
  166. ^ Blush, pg. 156
  167. ^ Blush, pg. 173
  168. ^ Garofalo, Reebee. "Charity Events". The Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World. pp. 172–173.
  169. ^ a b Garner, Ken. "Programming". The Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World. pp. 449–451.
  170. ^ Rock and Roll Hall of Fame: Aerosmith
  171. ^ Vallely, pg. 422
  172. ^ Hilts, Janet; David Buckley; John Shepherd. "Cultural Imperialism". The Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World. pp. 196–198.
  173. ^ Haefer, J. Richard. "Southwest". The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music. pp. 428–439.Painter, Muriel Thayer (1986). With Good Heart: Yaqui Beliefs and Ceremonies in Pascua Village. Tucson: University of Arizona Press.
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Further reading[edit]

  • The Literature of Rock II-III (1979–1990). 2 volumes. Metuchen, New Jersey: Scarecrow Press.
  • Frith, Simon (1978). "Rock and Sexuality". Screen Education (29). (republished in Simon Frith; Andrew Goodwin, eds. (1990). On Record: Rock, Pop and the Written Word. New York: Pantheon Books. pp. 419–424.)
  • Gillett, Charlie (1970). The Sound of the City. The Rise of Rock and Roll. London: Souvenir Press.
  • McCoy, Judy (1992). Rap Music in the 1980s: A Reference Guide. Metuchen, New Jersey: Scarecrow Press.
  • Spottswood, Richard. Ethnic Music on Records: A Discography of Ethnic Recordings Produced in the United States, 1893–1942. Urbana, Illinois: University of Illinois Press.
  • Hitchcock, H. Wiley; Stanley Sadie (1986). The New Grove Dictionary of American Music. Macmillan Press.
  • Sanjek, Russell (1988). American Popular Music and Its Business: The First Four Hundred Years. 3 volumes. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Southern, Eileen (1971). Music of Black Americans. New York: W.W. Norton & Co. ISBN 0-393-03843-2.
  • Stokes, Geoffrey (1976). Music-Making Machinery. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill.
  • Tagg, Philip (1979). Kojak – 50 Seconds of Television Music: Toward the Analysis of Affect in Popular Music. Göteburg: Skrifter fran Musikvetenskapliga Institutionen.
  • Walser, Robert (1993). Running With the Devil: Power, Gender, and Madness in Heavy Metal Music. Hanover, New Hampshire: Wesleyan University Press/University Press of New England.