Timeline of music in the United States (1880–1919)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Timeline of music in the United States
Music history of the United States
Colonial erato the Civil WarDuring the Civil WarLate 19th centuryEarly 20th century40s and 50s60s and 70s80s to the present

This is a timeline of music in the United States from 1880 to 1919.


  • George Upton's "Women in Music" is the "first of many articles and reviews by prominent male critics which sought to trivialize and undermine the achievements of what was considered an alarming number of new women composers in the realm of 'serious' classical music".[1]
  • The Native American Sun Dance is banned.[2]
  • John Knowles Paine's second symphony, In Spring, premiers in Boston, and is "received with unparalleled success".[3]
  • Gussie Lord Davis has his first hit with "We Sat Beneath the Maple on the Hill", making him the first African American songwriter to succeed in Tin Pan Alley.[4]
  • Patrick Gilmore's Twenty-Second Regimental Band becomes the first fully professional ensemble of any kind in the country to be engaged in performances full-time, year-round.[5]


  • Henry Lee Higginson forms the Boston Symphony Orchestra; Higginson would personally run the Orchestra for almost four decades.[6][7]
  • The Thomas B. Harms music publishing company is established solely to publish popular music, then referring to parlor music.[8]
  • Tony Pastor becomes an established theater owner on 14th Street in New York City, where he becomes the first person "to bid... for women customers in the variety theater", bringing that field out of "disreputable saloons" and transforming it "into decent entertainment that respectable women could enjoy".[9][10]


Mid-1880s music trends
  • The Office of Indian Affairs outlaws a wide range of Native American customs and rituals, having begun with the Sun Dance in 1880.[2]
  • Norwegian American choirs begin to form organizations, putting together festivals and other periodic gatherings to celebrate Norwegian culture and music.[21]


  • The Metropolitan Opera opens in New York City.[7][22][23]
  • C. C. Perkins and J. S. Dwight publish the first history of a musical society in the United States, that of the Handel and Haydn Society of Boston.[24][25]
  • John Slocum, who began preaching revelations the year before, is seen as being healed by his wife Mary's prayers; the Slocums' followers come to create the Shaker Church, of which music is an integral part.[26]
  • F. L. Ritter publishes the first comprehensive music history of the United States, Music in America.[27]
  • The Freeman, an Indianapolis, Indiana-based periodical, is founded, soon becoming the primary trade paper for African American theatrical groups.[28]
  • Gretsch becomes the first drum manufacturer in the United States.[29]
  • J. S. Putnam's "New Coon in Town" is one of the first hit coon songs to be published.[30]



  • Charles Fletcher Lummis begins one of the earliest collections of Spanish folk songs soon after he arrives in Los Angeles.[36]
  • M. Wittmark and Sons is formed to focus exclusively on publishing popular parlor music.[8]
  • A Hawaiian schoolboy named Joseph Kekuku is credited with inventing the Hawaiian guitar, in which strings are melodically picked and stopped by a metal bar, with the guitar held across the lap.[37][38]
  • Scott Joplin arrives in St. Louis, Missouri and soon becomes a fixture at the Silver Dollar Saloon, beginning his career which will put "his creative stamp on that great body of music that came to be known as classic ragtime".[39][40] The Saloon is owned by John Turpin, an important patron of ragtime whose son, Thomas Million Turpin is known as the "Father of St. Louis Ragtime".[41]
  • The Chicago Music Company releases the first opera by an American woman to be published, The Joust, Or, The Tournament, by G. Estabrook[42]
  • The Anglo-Canadian Music Publishers' Association is formed to protect the copyrights of European music publishers.[43]


  • (Approximate) Wovoka, a medicine man of the Northern Paiute, articulates the messianic message of the Ghost Dance spiritual movement, which fused Christian (particularly Presbyterian and Mormon) teachings with those of Wovoka's father, Ta'vibo, which revolved around traditionalism and resurrection.[44]
  • Several Swedish American choirs join together to form the Union of Scandinavian Singers, which becomes a major part of the Swedish American music industry.[21]
  • John Philip Sousa's "The Gladiator March" sells more than a million copies, marking a turning point in his career.[45]
  • The principal international agreement on copyright, the Berne Convention, is signed; the United States will not sign until 1989.[46]



Late 1880s music trends


  • Antoni Mallek forms the Polish Singers Alliance, an influential national Polish American organization.[54]
  • The composer Edward McDowell premiers his Piano Concerto No. 2 in New York, establishing him as one of the most prominent composers of the era.[55]
  • W. S. B. Matthews' A Hundred Years of Music in America is the first attempt at a history of "popular and the higher music education" in the country; it hails Lowell Mason as the founder of American music.[24][56]
  • The first African American woman to compose a produced opera is Louisa Melvin Delos Mars, with Leoni, the Gypsy Queen.[57] She is also one of the three women who each became the first to have an operetta they composed produced, along with Emma Marcy Raymond's Dovetta and Emma Roberts Steiner's Fleurette.[42]
  • John Philip Sousa's "The Washington Post" establishes his reputation as the country's foremost composer of marches.[58]
  • Ethnologist J. Walter Fewkes becomes the first to use a phonograph, a treadle-run machine, to record Native American music and speech[59]
  • Harriett Gibbs Marshall becomes the first African American woman to graduate with a degree in music from Oberlin College. She will go on to found the Washington Conservatory of Music.[60]
  • Louis Glass installs a coin-operated phonograph in a saloon in San Francisco,[61] the first predecessor of the jukebox.[62]
  • Columbia Records releases the first catalog of recordings, consisting of ten pages worth of cylinder recordings. The catalog is intended primarily for jukeboxes.[63]



  • George Washington Johnson became the first African-American to make commercial records.[70]
  • The Chicago Symphony Orchestra forms, with income from backers who pledged $1000 for each of three years. The backers formed an Orchestral Association, which hired a music director. Many cities subsequently used the same model, including Pittsburgh, Philadelphia, St. Louis, Cincinnati and Minneapolis.[6][7]
  • Leopold Vincent publishes the Alliance and Labor Songster, a pioneering early collection of labor songs.[71]
  • Carnegie Hall is built in New York City as a venue for classical performances.[72] It will become the foremost concert stage in the city.[73]
  • Changes in copyright law under the International Copyright Act of 1891 make it impossible to publish foreign music without payment to the original composer or publisher.[74] This stimulates the establishment of American subsidiaries of foreign publishing companies.[75]
  • A Trip to Chinatown is first published; it can be considered one of the first examples of American musical theater, as it consists of a single plot that the entire production revolves around.[7]
  • Charles Davis Tillman (1861–1943) publishes "The Old Time Religion" to his largely white audience.[76]


  • Bohemian composer Antonín Dvořák arrives for a stay in the United States as director of the National Conservatory in New York.[77] He becomes a fierce advocate for cultural and musical nationalism, and is very interested in American music incorporating African American and Native American music.[7][11]
  • Papa Jack Laine, a white drummer and saxophonist from New Orleans, claims that he is the first to use the first saxophone in the proto-jazz bands of New Orleans. He is sometimes said to have formed the first ragtime band as well.[78] Laine is considered one of the first white jazz musicians.[79]
  • John Philip Sousa forms a band that set a new standard for American professional bands, having left the U.S. Marine Band.[80] He and his band will be the most prominent and influential professional symphonic group at the peak of popularity for bands of that sort.[7]
  • Charles K. Harris premiers "After the Ball", a waltz typical of the time,[8] which is said to be the most popular song of the decade,[81] and the biggest hit of the century.[82] It is interpolated into a play, and the sheet music is said to have sold more than five million copies.[8]
  • Harry Lawrence Freeman becomes the first African American to have an opera he wrote produced, his first work, Epthelia. He will become known for combining secular and sacred African American music with traditional Western opera.[83]
Early 1890s music trends


  • Alice Fletcher begins her prolific scholarly career with a study of the music of the Omaha tribe of Native Americans.[86][87] The study, done with the assistance of Francis La Flesche, took ten years to complete.[24]
  • The World's Columbian Exposition, a watershed in American culture,[88] attracts attention to the Chicago ragtime scene, led by patriarch Plunk Henry and exemplified in performance at the Exposition by Johnny Seymour[89] and Scott Joplin[90] Violinist Joseph Douglass achieves wide recognition after his performance there, and will become the first African American violinist to conduct a transcontinental tour, and the first to tour as a concert violinist.[91][92] The first Indonesian music performance in the United States is believed to occur at the Exposition.[93] At the same event, an ensemble of musicians with a dancer known as Little Egypt, is the first exposure to Middle Eastern culture for many Americans,[94] while a group of hula dancers leads to an increased awareness of Hawaiian music among Americans throughout the country.[37]
  • Katherine Lee Bates writes "America the Beautiful" at Pike's Peak, Colorado. Though "The Star-Spangled Banner" will be chosen, "America the Beautiful" will be the other major option for a national anthem when it is chosen in 1931.[95]
  • Czech composer Antonín Dvořák calls spirituals "all that is needed for a great and noble school of music".[96]
  • Jane Addams' Hull House in Chicago is the first music school connected to the settlement work.[97]
  • Philosopher Richard Wallaschek sparks the "origins" controversy when he puts forth the claim that African American spirituals are primarily derived from European music.[98] This will not be solved conclusively until the 1960s, when scholars showed that spirituals were "grounded in African-derived music values yet shaped into its distinctiveness as a direct result of the North American sociocultural experience".[99]
  • The first Chinese opera theater in New York City is opened in Chinatown.[19]
  • The murder of Ellen Smith in Mount Airy, North Carolina leads to the composition of "Poor Ellen Smith", set to the melody of "How Firm a Foundation"; the subsequent controversy regarding the trial of Peter DeGraff for her murder leads to the song's spread across the state, so much so that Forsyth County, North Carolina banned the singing of "Poor Ellen Smith".[100]
  • Ruthven Lang's Dramatic Overture is presented by the Boston Symphony Orchestra, marking the first time that institution had performed the work of an American woman composer.[101]
Mid 1890s music trends
  • The massacres of numerous Armenians in Turkey leads to the first wave of large-scale Armenian immigration to the United States, and the beginning of Armenian American music.[94]
  • The public exhibition of motion pictures, almost always with live music played locally, begins.[102]
  • The bands of John Robichaux and Buddy Bolden in New Orleans become the top dance bands of the era, and frequently competitive, both economically and in actual performances. These bands are a significant precursor of jazz.[103]




Late 1890s music trends
  • The first music festival celebrating Finnish American culture are organized by various Finnish temperance societies.[21]




  • Scott Joplin's "Maple Leaf Rag" is published by John Stillwell Stark in Sedalia, Missouri; the song is a "landmark in American music history" and is a great commercial success, unprecedented for a black composer.[157][158] It remains the most famous and popular piano rag,[127] and "establishe(s) a model for classic ragtime that (will be) emulated by all rag composers interested in serious composition". Since its first publication, Maple Leaf Rag has never been out of print.[159][160]
  • The wildly popular "My Wild Irish Rose" continues the popular Irish song tradition within the United States.[7]
  • Eubie Blake's "Charleston Rag" is published; it is his "first and most famous ragtime piece", and it will establish his career as one of the top composers of Eastern ragtime.[161]
  • African-English composer Samuel Coleridge-Taylor attends a concert held by the Fisk Jubilee Singers, inspiring him to create a collection of African-derived melodies, arranged for the piano. The Bamboula becomes the most popular, and his works make a "marked impression on the American public, particularly in black communities".[162]
  • Perry J. Lowery becomes the "first black musician to take his vaudeville acts into the circus", with his group's performance in Madison Square Garden for the Sells and Forepaugh Brothers Circus.[163]
  • The Jewish chorister's union strikes for wages rather than profit shares.[164]


Early 1900s music trends






  • Victor Herbert, a popular songwriter, publishes the operetta Mlle. Modiste, which is successful and launches the hit song "Kiss Me Again".[8]
  • Most blues performers born before this year generally considered themselves musicians whose repertoire included a wide variety of musical styles; those born later will mostly view themselves as playing a distinct genre.[204]
  • The first large-scale Filipino immigration to the United States begins, thus beginning the Filipino American musical tradition.[205]
  • Hawaiian music is commercially recorded by Columbia and Victor Records, achieving surprising success throughout the country.[37]
  • Arthur Farwell publishes Folk-Songs of the West and South, a collection of songs that include "The Lone Prairee", which Farwell called the first cowboy song to be printed, both words and music".[206]
  • Robert Motts founds the first permanent black theater, in Chicago, the Pekin Theatre.[207]
  • The Philadelphia Concert Orchestra becomes the first black symphony in the North.[186]
  • Ernest Hogan creates a vaudeville act that is the "first syncopated music concert in history".[208] The performers are the Memphis Students, organized by James Reese Europe and later led by Will Marion Cook. The show featured a '"dancing conductor", Will Dixon, who danced rhythms to keep the band performing tightly, and the band's drummer, Buddy Gilmore, used unusual noisemaking devices besides drummers. Unorthodox folk instruments are also used in place of the traditional brass and woodwind lineup. The group was the first to "introduce the concept of the 'singing band' to the entertainment world", and performed in a style now known as barbershop music for some songs.[209]
  • Hallie Anderson begins promoting a well-attended Annual Reception and Ball. She is the first major American woman conductor.[210]
  • Harvard University grants the first PhD in music in the country.[152]
  • A standardized piano roll, capable of being fitted to any model of instrument, is introduced.[29]




  • Arturo Toscanini becomes the conductor of the Metropolitan Opera; he is lauded for "his energy, the command he brought to the podium, his demands for perfection, and his uncanny musical memory."[226]
  • Scott Joplin publishes the education School of Ragtime, "a landmark in the development and diffusion of classic ragtime".[158]
  • The first black bandmasters are appointed to the U.S. Army, for the Ninth and Tenth Cavalry and the Twenty-Fourth and Twenty-Fifth Infantry regiments.[186]
  • Edward L. Gruber composes "The Caissons Go Rolling Along", which, as "The Army Goes Rolling Along", will become the official song of the U.S. Army.[227]
  • Frederick Converse's Iolan, Or, the Pipe of Desire is the first American full opera scores to be published abroad.[42]
  • N. Howard "Jack" Thorp's Songs of the Cowboys is the first published collection of cowboy music.[228]
  • Sound recordings, along with photography and cinematography, are added to the Berne Convention, an international copyright agreement which the United States is not yet a signatory to.[46]



Early 1910s music trends




  • The word jazz is used in print for the first time, in San Francisco in reference to "speed and excitement" in a game of baseball.[281] The word's first use to describe a genre of music this year as well, in the catalogue for the International Exhibition of Modern Art (Armory Show) in New York,[282] and in reference to US Army musicians "trained in ragtime and 'jazz'".[235]
  • Frances Densmore's research constitutes the most extensive description of traditional Ojibwe music,[283] and the "largest collection ever published from one tribe".[113]
  • Ragtime is a major part of a brief craze for social and ballroom dancing, which spurs the rise of two well-known dancers, Vernon and Irene Castle, especially after their performance in Watch Your Step the following year.[284] They work with James Reese Europe, whose band becomes the first all-African American dance band to receive a commercial recording contract,[237] recording "Down Home Rag" this year.[127] Europe and the Castles are best known for introducing the castle walk, turkey trot, bunny-hug, Castle rock and fox trot.[284][285]
  • The Italian Luigi Russolo publishes L'arte dei rumori, "in which he (views) the evolution of modern music as parallel to that of industrial machinery", a basis for futurism, a movement "identified with technology and the urban-industrial environment... "seeking to enlarge and enrich the domain of sounds in all categories".[286] The foremost proponent of futurism in the United States is Leo Ornstein, who composes Dwarf Suite this year; it is the first of his "anarchistic" and highly dissonant pieces.[287]
  • The "first black theater circuit" is founded by Sherman H. Dudley. It will lead to the creation of the Theater Owners Bookers Association (TOBA).[288]
  • Robert Nathaniel Dett becomes the first African American director of music at Hampton Institute in Virginia.[289]
  • James Mundy begins founding community groups in Chicago, and staging "mammoth concerts" at the Coliseum and Orchestra Hall. Choruses led by Mundy and J. Wesley Jones will sing at "all important occasions in Chicago that called for the participation of blacks" into the 1930s, when the duo's choruses attracted wide attention for their rivalry.[162]
  • Bill Johnson founds the Original Creole Orchestra featuring Freddie Keppard, who become the first African American dance band to make transcontinental tours, on the vaudeville circuit. This band carries the "jazz of New Orleans to the rest of the nation".[290]
  • Harry Pace and W.C. Handy found the first black-owned music publishing firm.[132]
  • Thomas Edison forms a disc company, essentially conceding to the new format rather than his long-time business of cylinders.[291]
  • Billboard begins publishing information on the relative success of sheet music for various songs.[75]
  • The Lyric Theater opens in Miami, soon becoming one of the pre-eminent African American music venues in the area.[292]
  • The Apollo Theatre in New York opens, eventually becoming a music venue and cultural symbol of unparalleled importance in African American music.[293]



Mid-1910s music trends



Alton Adams, the first black bandmaster in the United States Navy
  • The U.S. Navy appropriates the St. Thomas Juvenile Band, led by Alton Adams; this is the first black band and bandmaster in the Navy.[326][327][328]
  • The Original Dixieland Jazz Band makes the first jazz recordings,[132][282][329][330] though the white band's style is meant for white audiences with little awareness of African American music practices, and the band is unable to impress black audiences or jazz enthusiasts.[295][331][332]
  • English folk song collector Cecil Sharp publishes an anthology of songs from western North Carolina, Folk Songs of the Southern Appalachians, with Olive Dame Campbell;[333] this is the "first major scholarly collection of the mountain people's music".[334]
  • The October Revolution in Russia leads to political change, soon resulting in state support for professional, virtuoso balalaika orchestras; these groups come to be seen as "role models" by similar groups in the United States.[247]
  • The Supreme Court rules that the "public performance of music contributed to the ability of an establishment to make profits even if no special admission was charged for that music".[74]
  • With the United States' entry into World War 1, warrior customs among the Plains Native Americans are briefly revived, as many ceremonies and rituals are allowed, after many years of being banned, for the duration of the war.[2]
  • Harry T. Burleigh, one of the most prominent African American composers of his time, publishes "Deep River", the first of many classically arranged spirituals.[83]
  • George M. Cohan writes "Over There", which will become the most popular song of World War I.[335]
  • W. Benton Overstreet's "Jazz Dance", popularized by vaudevillean Estelle Harris at Chicago's Grand Theatre, is an early use of the word jazz and is used by "more black vaudeville acts than any other song ever published".[282]
  • The Navy shuts down Storyville, the prostitution district of New Orleans, because the Secretary of the Navy believed it threatened the moral integrity of the armed forces;[330] the result is an exodus of black musicians, who had played in the bars and clubs of Storyville, to cities like Memphis and Chicago.[314] Many of the musicians are hired by Northern bands because their style was considered a novelty that is thought to increase an ensemble's commercial potential; the Northerners, however, tended to adopt the "hot", bluesy style themselves.[285]
  • Leo Sowerby, bandmaster of service bands during World War I composes "Tramping Tune".[328]
  • W. C. Handy's band makes some of the earliest major recordings by African American artists at a session for the Columbia Phonograph Company.[264]
  • The most famous riverboat bandleader of the early jazz era, Fate Marable, forms his first band. He will play with a wealth of well-remembered recording artist, though he will only play on one record, from 1924.[336]
  • Art Hickman, a San Francisco bandleader, publishes "Rose Room". Hickman and his pianist-arranger, Ferde Grofé, are influential figures, who "are generally given credit for inventing the type of dance band which" dominates American popular music for the first half of the 20th century; they were among the earliest to "write separate music for the reed and brass sections, combining the higher and lower instruments in each section into choirs... for dancing rather than listening." Hickman was also probably the first to hire three saxophones, enabling the use of more complex and richer harmonies.[337]


Late 1910s music trends
  • The wind ensembles that have dominated local community bands since the Civil War begin to decline in importance.[80]
  • More than 60,000 African Americans from Texas, Arkansas, Alabama, Louisiana and Texas move to Chicago, especially in the city's South Side. The black population boom "ushered in the city's jazz age, widening the market for black musical entertainment", including cabarets, dance halls, and vaudeville and movie theaters.[338]
  • Tin Pan Alley songwriters capitalize on the Hawaiian music fad, creating songs with thematic elements evoking Hawaii.[37]
  • Stride piano grows popular in New York City.[339]


  • Popular bandleader James Reese Europe is murdered; he becomes the first African American honored with a public funeral in New York City.[353]
  • Tin Pan Alley publishes songs that spark a fad for blues-like music; these songs include syncopated foxtrots like "Jazz Me Blues", pop songs that were marketed as blues like "Wabash Blues", as well as actual blues songs.[354]
  • Prohibition begins, driving the consumption of alcohol into secret clubs and other establishments, many of which became associated with the developing genre of jazz.[355]
  • The first permanent orchestra is established in Los Angeles.[7][258]
  • Carl Seashore's Measures of Musical Talent is a system of assessing musical aptitude that becomes widely adopted but also inspires controversy.[32][152]
  • Merle Evans begins leading the Ringling-Barnum Band, becoming the most famous circus bandleader in the country, especially known for leading the other performers with one hand while simultaneously playing the cornet.[356]
  • Canadian-born black composer R. Nathaniel Dett is the first to arrange a spiritual in a classical oratorio, with Chariot Jubilee.[83]
  • Irving Berlin's "You Cannot Make Your Shimmy Shake on Tea" is one of many songs from the era that expressed opposition to Prohibition. Other songs, like "Drivin' Nails in My Coffin (Every Time I Drink a Bottle of Booze)" expressed support for the abolition of alcohol.[357]
  • James Sylvester Scott publishes three rags, "which are among the most demanding of all published piano ragtime": "New Era Rag", "Troubadour Rag" and "Pegasus: A Classic Rag".[358]
  • George Gershwin's "Swanee", performed by Al Jolson, becomes a "tremendous hit" and Gershwin's "big breakthrough".[359]
  • The National Association of Negro Musicians is founded, after Nora Holt organizes a black musicians summit in Chicago.[360]
  • Ryles Jazz Club opens in Cambridge, Massachusetts. It will become the oldest and most renowned jazz club in Cambridge, and the second-most in the Boston area.[361]



  1. ^ Hinkle-Turner, pg. 1
  2. ^ a b c d e Gooding, Erik D. (440–450). "Plains". The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music.
  3. ^ Chase, pg. 342
  4. ^ Southern, pg. 242
  5. ^ Hansen, pg. 223
  6. ^ a b c Crawford, pg. 311
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Kearns, Williams. "Overview of Music in the United States". The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music. pp. 519–553.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i Cockrell, Dale and Andrew M. Zinck, "Popular Music of the Parlor and Stage", pgs. 179–201, in the Garland Encyclopedia of World Music
  9. ^ Chase, pgs. 363–364
  10. ^ Hansen, pg. 233
  11. ^ a b c Crawford, pg. 383
  12. ^ Chase, pg. 395 calls it the "first quasi-scientific treatise on North American Indian music".
  13. ^ Levine, pg. xxxv
  14. ^ Nicholls, pg. 28
  15. ^ President Bush Honors Black Music Month
  16. ^ a b Seeger, Anthony and Paul Théberg, "Technology and Media", pgs. 235–249, in the Garland Encyclopedia of World Music
  17. ^ Darden, pg. 126
  18. ^ Burk, Meierhoff and Phillips, pg. 183
  19. ^ a b Zheng, Su. "Chinese Music". The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music. pp. 957–966.
  20. ^ Heskes, pg. 86
  21. ^ a b c d e f g Levy, Mark; Carl Rahkonen and Ain Haas. "Scandinavian and Baltic Music". The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music. pp. 866–881.
  22. ^ a b c Crawford, pg. 525
  23. ^ Burk, Meierhoff and Phillips, pg. 229
  24. ^ a b c d e Blum, Stephen. "Sources, Scholarship and Historiography" in the Garland Encyclopedia of World Music, pgs. 21–37
  25. ^ Perkins, C. C.; J. S. Dwight (1883). History of the Handel and Haydn Society of Boston, Massachusetts. Boston: Stone & Forell.
  26. ^ a b c d Levine, Victoria Lindsay; Judith A. Gray. "Musical Interactions". The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music. pp. 480–490.
  27. ^ Reyes, Adelaida. "Identity, Diversity, and Interaction". The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music. pp. 504–518.
  28. ^ Southern, pg. 237
  29. ^ a b Bastian, Vanessa. "Instrument Manufacture". The Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World. pp. 526–529.
  30. ^ Clarke, pg. 62
  31. ^ Elson, pg. 116
  32. ^ a b c d Campbell, Patricia Sheehan and Rita Klinger, "Learning", pgs. 274–287, in the Garland Encyclopedia of World Music
  33. ^ Birge, pg. 139
  34. ^ a b Asai, Susan M. "Japanese Music". The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music. pp. 967–974.
  35. ^ Birge, pg. 133
  36. ^ Crawford, pg. 437
  37. ^ a b c d e f Stillman, Amy Ku'uleialoha. "Polynesian Music". The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music. pp. 1047–1053.
  38. ^ Koskoff, pg. 130
  39. ^ Chase, pg. 415; Chase indicates that the year, 1885, is approximate.
  40. ^ Southern, pg. 324; Southern does not refer to any ambiguity in the year of Joplin's arrival in St. Louis.
  41. ^ Southern, pgs. 324–325
  42. ^ a b c d e f g h Kirk, pg. 386
  43. ^ Laing, Dave; David Sanjek and David Horn. "Music Publishing". The Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music. pp. 595–599.
  44. ^ a b Romero, Brenda M. "Great Basin". The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music. pp. 420–427.
  45. ^ Chase, pg. 323
  46. ^ a b Laing, Dave. "Berne Convention". The Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World. pp. 480–481.
  47. ^ Southern, pg. 309
  48. ^ a b Linehan, Andrew. "Soundcarrier". Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World. pp. 359–366.
  49. ^ Heskes, pg. 75
  50. ^ Gronow, Pekka. "Phonograph". The Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World. pp. 517–518.
  51. ^ Crawford, pg. 604
  52. ^ Malone and Stricklin, pg. 29
  53. ^ Chase, pg. 383
  54. ^ Greene, pg. 97
  55. ^ Crawford, pg. 373
  56. ^ Matthews, W. S. B. (1889). A Hundred Years of Music in America. Chicago: G. L. Howe.
  57. ^ a b Riis, Thomas L. "Musical Theater". The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music. pp. 614–623.
  58. ^ Chase, pg. 324
  59. ^ Chase, pg. 398
  60. ^ Southern, pg. 288
  61. ^ a b c Clarke, pg. 229
  62. ^ Laing, Dave. "Jukebox". The Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World. pp. 513–515.
  63. ^ Laing, Dave; Paul Oliver. "Catalog". The Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World. p. 535.
  64. ^ a b Crawford, pg. 352
  65. ^ Crawford, pg. 389
  66. ^ Crawford, pg. 471
  67. ^ Oliver, Paul. "Field Recording". The Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World. pp. 25–26.
  68. ^ Southern, pg. 301
  69. ^ Birge, pg. 142
  70. ^ "Honoring George W. Johnson - At Last" (PDF). Arsc-audio.org. Retrieved 23 July 2014.
  71. ^ Crawford, pg. 449
  72. ^ a b c Crawford, pg. 497
  73. ^ a b Bird, pg. 133
  74. ^ a b c d Sanjek, David and Will Straw, "The Music Industry", pgs. 256–267, in the Garland Encyclopedia of World Music
  75. ^ a b Horn, David; David Sanjek. "Sheet Music". The Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music. pp. 599–605.
  76. ^ Tillman's Revival songbook for 1891, where it appears as Item 223.
  77. ^ Southern, pg. 267
  78. ^ Hardie, pg. 175; Hardie notes some doubt about Laine's claims, but acknowledges that Laine is a key figure in the transition to white jazz.
  79. ^ Bird, pg. 24
  80. ^ a b Crawford, pg. 455
  81. ^ Crawford, pg. 479
  82. ^ Chase, pg, 337
  83. ^ a b c d e f Wright, Jacqueline R. B. "Concert Music". The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music. pp. 603–613.
  84. ^ Crawford, pg. 484
  85. ^ Gates and Appiah, pg. 560
  86. ^ Crawford, pg. 396
  87. ^ Chase, pg. 396
  88. ^ Clarke, pg. 58
  89. ^ Southern, pg. 329
  90. ^ Crawford, pg. 539
  91. ^ a b Southern, pg. 283
  92. ^ Caldwell Titcomb (Spring 1990). "Black String Musicians: Ascending the Scale". Black Music Research Journal. 10 (1): 107–112. doi:10.2307/779543. JSTOR 779543.
  93. ^ Diamond, Beverly; Barbara Benary. "Indonesian Music". The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music. pp. 1011–1023.
  94. ^ a b Rasmussen, Anne K. "Middle Eastern Music". The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music. pp. 1028–1041.
  95. ^ Clarke, pg. 16
  96. ^ Darden, pg. 7
  97. ^ Burk, Meierhoff and Phillips, pg. 284
  98. ^ Burnim and Maultsby, pg. 11
  99. ^ Maultsby, Portia K.; Mellonee V. Burnin and Susan Oehler. "Overview". The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music. pp. 572–591.
  100. ^ Erbsen, pg. 134
  101. ^ a b c Chase, pg. 384
  102. ^ a b Steiner, Fred; Martin Marks. "Film music". New Grove Dictionary of Music, Volume II: E - K.
  103. ^ a b c Southern, pg. 343
  104. ^ Darden, pg. 148
  105. ^ Darden, pg. 156
  106. ^ Chase, pg. 352
  107. ^ a b Malone and Stricklin, pg. 10
  108. ^ Southern, pg. 344
  109. ^ Marks, Edward B.; A.J. Liebling (1934). They All Sang: from Tony Pastor to Rudy Vallee. The Viking Press. p. 321.
  110. ^ "Music Video 1900 Style". PBS. 2004. Archived from the original on 2010-01-04. Retrieved 2009-12-20.
  111. ^ Sanjek, David. "E. B. Marks". The Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music. pp. 588–589. Sanjek specifically names Bob Cole, James Weldon Johnson and J. Rosamond Johnson
  112. ^ Darden, pg. 128
  113. ^ a b Chase, pg. 397
  114. ^ Chase, pg. 370
  115. ^ Hilts, Janet; David Buckley and John Shepherd. "Crime". The Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World. pp. 189–196.
  116. ^ Chase, pg. 371
  117. ^ a b c Southern, pg. 221
  118. ^ Schrader, Barry. Electroacoustic music. New Grove Dictionary of American Music. pp. 30–35.
  119. ^ Laing, Dave. "Musicians' Unions". The Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World. pp. 785–787.
  120. ^ Crawford, pgs. 381–382
  121. ^ Chase, pg. 345
  122. ^ Crawford, pg. 476
  123. ^ Crawford, pgs. 540–541
  124. ^ Clarke, pg. 59
  125. ^ Miller, Terry, "Religion", pgs. 116–128, in the Garland Encyclopedia of Music
  126. ^ Southern, pg. 317
  127. ^ a b c d Monson, Ingrid. "Jazz". The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music. pp. 650–666.
  128. ^ Southern, pg. 320
  129. ^ Erbsen, pg. 124
  130. ^ Struble, pg. 36
  131. ^ Chase, pg. 392
  132. ^ a b c d Moore, pg. xii
  133. ^ Hansen, pg. 240
  134. ^ a b Hansen, pg. 241
  135. ^ a b Bergey, Barry, "Government and Politics", pgs. 288–303, in the Garland Encyclopedia of World Music
  136. ^ a b Peretti, pg. 50
  137. ^ Bird, pg. 28
  138. ^ Malone and Stricklin, pg. 52
  139. ^ Jones, pgs. 144–145
  140. ^ Chase, pg. 337
  141. ^ Klitz, pg. 56
  142. ^ Southern, pg. 320; Southern specifies Jasen and Tichenor, pg. 17 as among the scholars referred to.
  143. ^ Clarke, pgs. 59, 66
  144. ^ Komara, pg. 767
  145. ^ Fabbri, Franco; John Shepherd. "Genre". The Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World. pp. 401–404.
  146. ^ Clarke, pg. 72
  147. ^ Bird, pg. 84
  148. ^ Crawford, pg. 541
  149. ^ Chase, pg. 368
  150. ^ Southern, pg. 303; Southern notes that A Trip to Coontown was actually off Broadway at a "rather obscure theater on Third Avenue".
  151. ^ Clarke, pg. 103
  152. ^ a b c d e f g Colwell, Richard; James W. Pruett and Pamela Bristah. "Education". New Grove Dictionary of Music. pp. 11–21.
  153. ^ Sheehy, Daniel; Steven Loza. "Overview". The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music. pp. 718–733.
  154. ^ Southern, pg. 82
  155. ^ Southern, pg. 269
  156. ^ Laing, Dave. "Agent". The Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World. pp. 532–533.
  157. ^ Crawford, pg. 543
  158. ^ a b Chase, pg. 416
  159. ^ Southern, pg. 322
  160. ^ Malone and Stricklin, pg. 41
  161. ^ Chase, pg. 424
  162. ^ a b Southern, pg. 295
  163. ^ Southern, pg. 300
  164. ^ Heskes, pg. 84
  165. ^ Bird, pg. 47
  166. ^ Crawford, pgs. 465–466
  167. ^ a b Crawford, pg. 478
  168. ^ Chase, pg. 338
  169. ^ Southern, pg. 299
  170. ^ Southern, pg. 319
  171. ^ a b c d e Paul C. Echols. "Early-music revival". The New Grove Dictionary of American Music, Volume II: E-K. pp. 2–6.
  172. ^ Birge, pg. 145
  173. ^ Clarke, pg. 103-104
  174. ^ a b Crawford, pg. 438
  175. ^ Southern, pg. 268
  176. ^ Struble, pg. 71
  177. ^ Darden, pgs. 162–163
  178. ^ a b c Burnim, Mellonee V. "Religious Music". The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music.
  179. ^ a b Southern, pg. 282
  180. ^ Laing, Dave. "Bootleg". The Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World. p. 481.
  181. ^ Laing, Dave. "Label". The Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music. p. 620.
  182. ^ Wisconsin Hometown Stories: Janesville. Wisconsin Public Television. WPNE-TV. 2008-01-17. 45 minutes in. See also reference to "A Perfect Day" published by Bond in 1910 infra.
  183. ^ Crawford, pg. 502
  184. ^ Brooks, David, cited in Chase, pg. 434
  185. ^ Bowers, Jane, Zoe C. Sherinian and Susan Fast, "Snapshot: Gendering Music", pgs. 103–115, in the Garland Encyclopedia of World Music
  186. ^ a b c d e f g h i Southern, pg. 222
  187. ^ Laing, Dave. "Record Industry". The Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music. pp. 637–641.
  188. ^ Clarke, pg. 100
  189. ^ Crawford, pg. 534; Crawford calls it the "first black-produced show to run at a regular Broadway theater"
  190. ^ Peretti, pg. 51
  191. ^ Southern, pg. 304
  192. ^ Clarke, pg. 63
  193. ^ Burk, Meierhoff and Phillips, pg. 231
  194. ^ a b Horn, David; David Sanjek. "Victor". The Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World. pp. 768–769.
  195. ^ Pruter, Robert; Paul Oliver and The Editors. "Chicago". The Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World. Retrieved July 9, 2008. {{cite book}}: |author2= has generic name (help)
  196. ^ Southern, pg. 308
  197. ^ a b Southern, pg. 310
  198. ^ Buckley, David; John Shepherd and Berndt Ostendorf. "Death". The Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World. pp. 200–204.
  199. ^ Bird, pgs. 80-81
  200. ^ Abel, pgs. 50–51; William Lewis Cabell, the United Confederate Veterans' Vice-President denounced it as sacrilegious onstage at the convention, while others voiced similar sentiments to the newsmagazine Confederate Veteran
  201. ^ a b Loza, Steven. "Hispanic California". The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music. pp. 734–753.
  202. ^ a b c d Southern, pg. 284
  203. ^ Théberge, Paul. "Amplifier". The Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World. pp. 505–506.
  204. ^ Evans, David. "Blues". The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music. pp. 637–649.
  205. ^ Trimillos, Ricardo D. "Filipino Music". The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music. pp. 1024–1027.
  206. ^ Chase, pg. 355
  207. ^ Southern, pg. 296
  208. ^ Southern, pg. 302
  209. ^ Southern, pg. 345–346
  210. ^ a b Southern, pg. 349
  211. ^ Crawford, pg. 469
  212. ^ Chase, pg. 506, 508
  213. ^ Southern, pg. 291
  214. ^ a b Barnard, Stephen; Donna Halper and Dave Laing. "Radio". The Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World. pp. 451–461.
  215. ^ Millard, Andre. "Gramophone". The Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World. p. 512.
  216. ^ Laing, Dave. "Advertising of Popular Music". The Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World. pp. 530–532.
  217. ^ Clarke, pg. 228
  218. ^ a b Crawford, pg. 526
  219. ^ Gedutis, pg. 42
  220. ^ Crawford, pgs. 541–542
  221. ^ Abel, pg. 47
  222. ^ Chase, pg. 373
  223. ^ Clarke, pg. 47
  224. ^ Struble, pg. 11
  225. ^ Bird, pg. 253
  226. ^ Crawford, pg. 583
  227. ^ U.S. Army Bands
  228. ^ a b Oliver, Paul. "Song Collecting". The Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World. pp. 43–46.
  229. ^ a b Crawford, pg. 527
  230. ^ Laing, Dave. "Copyright". The Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World. pp. 481–485.
  231. ^ Sanjek, David and Will Straw, "The Music Industry", pgs. 256–267, in the Garland Encyclopedia of World Music, Sanjek and Straw claim that this was the "first time in the country's history (that a) price for the use of a piece of private property was codified by federal law"
  232. ^ Clarke, pg. 229; Clarke says that this was the "first time in history that the government intervened directly between supplier and user of a product".
  233. ^ Southern, pg. 306
  234. ^ Oliver, Paul. "Circuit". The Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World. pp. 541–542.
  235. ^ a b c Clarke, pg. 68; Clarke cites this to the Oxford English Dictionary
  236. ^ Crawford, pg. 552
  237. ^ a b Peretti, pg. 65
  238. ^ Chase, pg. 332
  239. ^ Elson, pg. 23
  240. ^ Sonneborn, D. Atesh. "Snapshot: Sufi Music and Dance". The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music. pp. 1042–1046.
  241. ^ Clarke, pg. 40
  242. ^ Cusic, pg. 70
  243. ^ Lankford, pg. 6
  244. ^ Crawford, pg. 609
  245. ^ Chase, pg. 543
  246. ^ Leger, James K. "Música Nuevomexicana". The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music. pp. 754–769.
  247. ^ a b Livingston, Tamara E. and Katherine K. Preston, "Snapshot: Two Views of Music and Class", pgs. 55–62, in the Garland Encyclopedia of World Music
  248. ^ Koskoff, pg. 70
  249. ^ Southern, pg. 453
  250. ^ Moore, pg. 170
  251. ^ Wisconsin Hometown Stories: Janesville. Wisconsin Public Television. WPNE-TV. 2008-01-17. 0:45 minutes in. See also reference to Bond's "I Love You Truly" first published in 1901 supra.
  252. ^ Crawford, pg. 564
  253. ^ Crawford, pg. 399
  254. ^ Crawford, pg. 546
  255. ^ Chase, pg. 421
  256. ^ Southern, pg. 330
  257. ^ Crawford, pgs. 555–556
  258. ^ a b Crawford, pg. 581
  259. ^ a b Darden, pg. 135
  260. ^ Chase, pg. 457
  261. ^ Chase, pg. 544
  262. ^ a b U.S. Army Bands
  263. ^ a b Hansen, pg. 247
  264. ^ a b Spotlight Biography: William Christian Handy Archived 2008-07-24 at the Wayback Machine
  265. ^ Malone and Stricklin, pg. 45
  266. ^ Street, John. "Politics". Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World. pp. 299–294.
  267. ^ a b Southern, pg. 338
  268. ^ Southern, pg. 339
  269. ^ Some authors, like Upkopodu, pg. 75, call "The Memphis Blues" the first published blues composition.
  270. ^ Bird, pg. 45, Bird says that Handy began publishing the "first commercial blues"
  271. ^ Crawford, pg. 546; Crawford points out that this leads to dancing becoming an integral part of popular music in the United States, and that more than 100 new dances were introduced between 1912 and 1914.
  272. ^ Crawford, pg. 585
  273. ^ Walton, Lester A.; White, L. H.; A. W. K; White, Lucien H. (1978). "Black Music Concerts in Carnegie Hall, 1912–1915". The Black Perspective in Music. 6 (1): 71–88. doi:10.2307/1214304. JSTOR 1214304.
  274. ^ Darden, pg. 71
  275. ^ Darden, pg. 143
  276. ^ Burk, Meierhoff and Phillips, pg. 280
  277. ^ Chase, pg. 390
  278. ^ a b Chase, pg. 423
  279. ^ Southern, pgs. 288–289
  280. ^ Southern, pg. 292
  281. ^ Crawford, pg. 566
  282. ^ a b c d e f Southern, pg. 366
  283. ^ Romero, Brenda M. "Great Lakes". The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music. pp. 451–460.
  284. ^ a b Clarke, pg. 126
  285. ^ a b Jones, pg. 111
  286. ^ Chase, pg. 449
  287. ^ Chase, pg. 450
  288. ^ Southern, pg. 298
  289. ^ Southern, pg. 278
  290. ^ Southern, pg. 345
  291. ^ Millard, Andre. "Cylinders". The Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World. pp. 508–509.
  292. ^ Bird, pgs.106-107
  293. ^ Bird, pg. 127
  294. ^ Darden, pg. 199
  295. ^ a b c Garofalo, Reebee. The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music. pp. 705–715.
  296. ^ Crawford, pg. 538
  297. ^ Crawford, pg. 547
  298. ^ Chase, pg. 333
  299. ^ Southern, pg. 347
  300. ^ Crawford, pg. 569; Crawford notes that the event was so controversial that it was still a topic of conversation among the Harvard University faculty in 1919, when Virgil Thomson began studying there.
  301. ^ Darden, pgs. 134–135
  302. ^ Clarke, pgs. 72-73
  303. ^ Slobin, Mark. "Jewish Music". The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music. pp. 933–945.
  304. ^ Souchon, pg. 43
  305. ^ Crawford, pg. 568; Crawford notes that this process was complete by the mid-1920s.
  306. ^ Crawford, pg. 759
  307. ^ Cowdery, James R. and Anne Lederman, "Blurring the Boundaries of Social and Musical Identities", pgs. 322–333, in the Garland Encyclopedia of World Music
  308. ^ Chase, pg. 375
  309. ^ Jones, pg. 146
  310. ^ Southern, pg. 382
  311. ^ Southern, pg. 286
  312. ^ Bird, pg. 223
  313. ^ Bird, pg. 234
  314. ^ a b Southern, pg. 367
  315. ^ Darden, pg. 163
  316. ^ Burk, Meierhoff and Phillips, pg. 268
  317. ^ Erbsen, pg. 13, quote cited to Sharp's diary
  318. ^ Rahkonen, Carl. "Overview". The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music. pp. 820–830.
  319. ^ Levy, Mark. "Eastern European Music". The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music. pp. 908–918.
  320. ^ Gedutis, pg. 149
  321. ^ Chase, pg. 472
  322. ^ Southern, pg. 458
  323. ^ Southern, pgs. 289–290; Southern lists Stanley Lee Henderson (Sumner High School), Walter Dyett (Wendell Phillips High School) and Lincoln High's Alonzo Lewis and William Levi Dawson, as those who followed in Smith's footsteps.
  324. ^ Southern, pg. 331
  325. ^ Bird, pgs. 24-25
  326. ^ Crawford, pg. 466
  327. ^ Southern, pg. 307
  328. ^ a b Hansen, pg. 249
  329. ^ Jones, pg. 143
  330. ^ a b Bird, pg. 17-19
  331. ^ Crawford, pgs. 566–567
  332. ^ Chase, pg. 507
  333. ^ Malone and Stricklin, pg. 31
  334. ^ Crawford, pgs. 600–601
  335. ^ Chase, pg. 374
  336. ^ Clarke, pg. 72; Clarke says that Marable sole recording "is said to be terrible".
  337. ^ Clarke, pg. 123
  338. ^ Crawford, pg. 627
  339. ^ Bird, pg. 116
  340. ^ Clarke, pgs. 185-186
  341. ^ Haskins, Rob, "Orchestral and Chamber Music in the Twentieth Century", pgs. 173–178, in the Garland Encyclopedia of World Music
  342. ^ "A Moment in Time". Kansas Historical Society. February 1997. Archived from the original on November 12, 2007. Retrieved February 12, 2008.
  343. ^ Gates and Appiah, pg. 918
  344. ^ Chase, pg. 350–351
  345. ^ Chase, pg. 545
  346. ^ Southern, pg. 353
  347. ^ Laing, Dave; John Shepherd. "Tour". The Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World. pp. 567–568.
  348. ^ Clarke, pg.100; Clarke notes that this music was called jazz, though it was not.
  349. ^ Peretti, pg. 66
  350. ^ a b Hansen, pg. 251
  351. ^ U.S. Army Bands
  352. ^ Smith, Jeff. "The Film Industry and Popular Music". The Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World. pp. 499–504.
  353. ^ Crawford, pg. 554
  354. ^ Crawford, pg. 562
  355. ^ Crawford, pg. 567
  356. ^ Preston, Katherine K.; Susan Key, Judith Tick, Frank J. Cipolla and Raoul F. Camus. "Snapshot: Four Views of Music in the United States". The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music. pp. 554–569.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  357. ^ Buckley, David; Dave Laing. "Alcohol". The Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World. pp. 149–152.
  358. ^ Chase, pg. 419, citing William Bolcom
  359. ^ Chase, pg. 475
  360. ^ Southern, pg. 312
  361. ^ Bird, pg. 176

Further reading[edit]

  • Baker, Theodore (1881). Uber die Musik der nordamerikanischen Wilden (in German). Liepzig: Breitkopf u. Härtel.
  • Berry, Jason; Jonathan Foose and Tad Jones (1986). Up from the Cradle of Jazz. Athens, Georgia: University of Georgia Press.
  • Densmore, Frances (1913). "Chippewa Music". Bureau of American Ethnology. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution. 2 (53).
  • Samuel A. Floyd, ed. (1990). Black Music in the Harlem Renaissance: A Collection of Essays. New York: Greenwood Press.
  • Herzog, George (1935). "Plains Ghost Dance and Great Basin Music". American Anthropologist. 38 (3): 403–419. doi:10.1525/aa.1935.37.3.02a00040.
  • Howard, James H. (1955). "The Pan-Indian Culture of Oklahoma". Scientific Monthly. 18 (5): 215–220. Bibcode:1955SciMo..81..215H.
  • David Jasen; Trebor Tichenor (1978). Rags and Ragtime. New York. pp. 17. ISBN 9780816493418.
  • Lomax, John Avery (1911). Cowboy Songs and Other Frontier Ballads. New York: Macmillan.
  • Marks, Martin (1997). Music and the Silent Film: Contexts and Case Studies, 1895–1924. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Helen Myers, ed. (1993). Ethnomusicology: Historical and Regional Studies. New York: Norton.
  • Oakley, Giles (1976). The Devil's Music: A History of the Blues. New York: Taplinger.
  • Schuller, Gunther (1968). Early Jazz: Its Roots and Musical Development. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Fife, Austin E.; Alta S. Fife (1966). Songs of the Cowboys, by n. Howard ('Jack') Thorp: Variants, Commentary, Notes and Lexicon. New York: C.N. Potter.
  • Sharp, Cecil J.; Maud Karpeles (1924). English Folk Songs From the Southern Appalachians. London: Oxford University Press.