Timeline of music in the United States (1880–1919)

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Timeline of music in the United States
Music history of the United States
Colonial erato the Civil WarDuring the Civil WarLate 19th centuryEarly 20th century40s and 50s60s and 70s80s to the present

This is a timeline of music in the United States from 1880 to 1919.


  • George Upton's "Women in Music" is the "first of many articles and reviews by prominent male critics which sought to trivialize and undermine the achievements of what was considered an alarming number of new women composers in the realm of 'serious' classical music".[1]
  • The Native American Sun Dance is banned.[2]
  • John Knowles Paine's second symphony, In Spring, premiers in Boston, and is "received with unparalleled success".[3]
  • Gussie Lord Davis has his first hit with "We Sat Beneath the Maple on the Hill", making him the first African American songwriter to succeed in Tin Pan Alley.[4]
  • Patrick Gilmore's Twenty-Second Regimental Band becomes the first fully professional ensemble of any kind in the country to be engaged in performances full-time, year-round.[5]


  • Henry Lee Higginson forms the Boston Symphony Orchestra; Higginson would personally run the Orchestra for almost four decades.[6][7]
  • The Thomas B. Harms music publishing company is established solely to publish popular music, then referring to parlor music.[8]
  • Tony Pastor becomes an established theater owner on 14th Street in New York City, where he becomes the first person "to bid... for women customers in the variety theater", bringing that field out of "disreputable saloons" and transforming it "into decent entertainment that respectable women could enjoy".[9][10]


Mid-1880s music trends
  • The Office of Indian Affairs outlaws a wide range of Native American customs and rituals, having begun with the Sun Dance in 1880.[2]
  • Norwegian American choirs begin to form organizations, putting together festivals and other periodic gatherings to celebrate Norwegian culture and music.[21]


  • The Metropolitan Opera opens in New York City.[7][22][23]
  • C. C. Perkins and J. S. Dwight publish the first history of a musical society in the United States, that of the Handel and Haydn Society of Boston.[24][25]
  • John Slocum, who began preaching revelations the year before, is seen as being healed by his wife Mary's prayers; the Slocums' followers come to create the Shaker Church, of which music is an integral part.[26]
  • F. L. Ritter publishes the first comprehensive music history of the United States, Music in America.[27]
  • The Freeman, an Indianapolis, Indiana-based periodical, is founded, soon becoming the primary trade paper for African American theatrical groups.[28]
  • Gretsch becomes the first drum manufacturer in the United States.[29]
  • J. S. Putnam's "New Coon in Town" is one of the first hit coon songs to be published.[30]



  • Charles Fletcher Lummis begins one of the earliest collections of Spanish folk songs soon after he arrives in Los Angeles.[36]
  • M. Wittmark and Sons is formed to focus exclusively on publishing popular parlor music.[8]
  • A Hawaiian schoolboy named Joseph Kekuku is credited with inventing the Hawaiian guitar, in which strings are melodically picked and stopped by a metal bar, with the guitar held across the lap.[37][38]
  • Scott Joplin arrives in St. Louis, Missouri and soon becomes a fixture at the Silver Dollar Saloon, beginning his career which will put "his creative stamp on that great body of music that came to be known as classic ragtime".[39][40] The Saloon is owned by John Turpin, an important patron of ragtime whose son, Thomas Million Turpin is known as the "Father of St. Louis Ragtime".[41]
  • The Chicago Music Company releases the first opera by an American woman to be published, The Joust, Or, The Tournament, by G. Estabrook[42]
  • The Anglo-Canadian Music Publishers' Association is formed to protect the copyrights of European music publishers.[43]


  • (Approximate) Wovoka, a medicine man of the Northern Paiute, articulates the messianic message of the Ghost Dance spiritual movement, which fused Christian (particularly Presbyterian and Mormon) teachings with those of Wovoka's father, Ta'vibo, which revolved around traditionalism and resurrection.[44]
  • Several Swedish American choirs join together to form the Union of Scandinavian Singers, which becomes a major part of the Swedish American music industry.[21]
  • John Philip Sousa's "The Gladiator March" sells more than a million copies, marking a turning point in his career.[45]
  • The principal international agreement on copyright, the Berne Convention, is signed; the United States will not sign until 1989.[46]



Late 1880s music trends


  • Antoni Mallek forms the Polish Singers Alliance, an influential national Polish American organization.[54]
  • The composer Edward McDowell premiers his Piano Concerto No. 2 in New York, establishing him as one of the most prominent composers of the era.[55]
  • W. S. B. Matthews' A Hundred Years of Music in America is the first attempt at a history of "popular and the higher music education" in the country; it hails Lowell Mason as the founder of American music.[24][56]
  • The first African American woman to compose a produced opera is Louisa Melvin Delos Mars, with Leoni, the Gypsy Queen.[57] She is also one of the three women who each became the first to have an operetta they composed produced, along with Emma Marcy Raymond's Dovetta and Emma Roberts Steiner's Fleurette.[42]
  • John Philip Sousa's "The Washington Post" establishes his reputation as the country's foremost composer of marches.[58]
  • Ethnologist J. Walter Fewkes becomes the first to use a phonograph, a treadle-run machine, to record Native American music and speech[59]
  • Harriett Gibbs Marshall becomes the first African American woman to graduate with a degree in music from Oberlin College. She will go on to found the Washington Conservatory of Music.[60]
  • Louis Glass installs a coin-operated phonograph in a saloon in San Francisco,[61] the first predecessor of the jukebox.[62]
  • Columbia Records releases the first catalog of recordings, consisting of ten pages worth of cylinder recordings. The catalog is intended primarily for jukeboxes.[63]



  • The Chicago Symphony Orchestra forms, with income from backers who pledged $1000 for each of three years. The backers formed an Orchestral Association, which hired a music director. Many cities subsequently used the same model, including Pittsburgh, Philadelphia, St. Louis, Cincinnati and Minneapolis.[6][7]
  • Leopold Vincent publishes the Alliance and Labor Songster, a pioneering early collection of labor songs.[70]
  • Carnegie Hall is built in New York City as a venue for classical performances.[71] It will become the foremost concert stage in the city.[72]
  • Changes in copyright law under the International Copyright Act of 1891 make it impossible to publish foreign music without payment to the original composer or publisher.[73] This stimulates the establishment of American subsidiaries of foreign publishing companies.[74]
  • A Trip to Chinatown is first published; it can be considered one of the first examples of American musical theater, as it consists of a single plot that the entire production revolves around.[7]
  • Charles Davis Tillman (1861–1943) publishes "The Old Time Religion" to his largely white audience.[75]


  • Bohemian composer Antonín Dvořák arrives for a stay in the United States as director of the National Conservatory in New York.[76] He becomes a fierce advocate for cultural and musical nationalism, and is very interested in American music incorporating African American and Native American music.[7][11]
  • Papa Jack Laine, a white drummer and saxophonist from New Orleans, claims that he is the first to use the first saxophone in the proto-jazz bands of New Orleans. He is sometimes said to have formed the first ragtime band as well.[77] Laine is considered one of the first white jazz musicians.[78]
  • John Philip Sousa forms a band that set a new standard for American professional bands, having left the U.S. Marine Band.[79] He and his band will be the most prominent and influential professional symphonic group at the peak of popularity for bands of that sort.[7]
  • Charles K. Harris premiers "After the Ball", a waltz typical of the time,[8] which is said to be the most popular song of the decade,[80] and the biggest hit of the century.[81] It is interpolated into a play, and the sheet music is said to have sold more than five million copies.[8]
  • Harry Lawrence Freeman becomes the first African American to have an opera he wrote produced, his first work, Epthelia. He will become known for combining secular and sacred African American music with traditional Western opera.[82]
Early 1890s music trends


  • Alice Fletcher begins her prolific scholarly career with a study of the music of the Omaha tribe of Native Americans.[85][86] The study, done with the assistance of Francis La Flesche, took ten years to complete.[24]
  • The World's Columbian Exposition, a watershed in American culture,[87] attracts attention to the Chicago ragtime scene, led by patriarch Plunk Henry and exemplified in performance at the Exposition by Johnny Seymour[88] and Scott Joplin[89] Violinist Joseph Douglass achieves wide recognition after his performance there, and will become the first African American violinist to conduct a transcontinental tour, and the first to tour as a concert violinist.[90][91] The first Indonesian music performance in the United States is believed to occur at the Exposition.[92] At the same event, an ensemble of musicians with a dancer known as Little Egypt, is the first exposure to Middle Eastern culture for many Americans,[93] while a group of hula dancers leads to an increased awareness of Hawaiian music among Americans throughout the country.[37]
  • Katherine Lee Bates writes "America the Beautiful" at Pike's Peak, Colorado. Though "The Star-Spangled Banner" will be chosen, "America the Beautiful" will be the other major option for a national anthem when it is chosen in 1931.[94]
  • Czech composer Antonín Dvořák calls spirituals "all that is needed for a great and noble school of music".[95]
  • Jane Addams' Hull House in Chicago is the first music school connected to the settlement work.[96]
  • Philosopher Richard Wallaschek sparks the "origins" controversy when he puts forth the claim that African American spirituals are primarily derived from European music.[97] This will not be solved conclusively until the 1960s, when scholars showed that spirituals were "grounded in African-derived music values yet shaped into its distinctiveness as a direct result of the North American sociocultural experience".[98]
  • The first Chinese opera theater in New York City is opened in Chinatown.[19]
  • The murder of Ellen Smith in Mount Airy, North Carolina leads to the composition of "Poor Ellen Smith", set to the melody of "How Firm a Foundation"; the subsequent controversy regarding the trial of Peter DeGraff for her murder leads to the song's spread across the state, so much so that Forsyth County, North Carolina banned the singing of "Poor Ellen Smith".[99]
  • Ruthven Lang's Dramatic Overture is presented by the Boston Symphony Orchestra, marking the first time that institution had performed the work of an American woman composer.[100]
Mid 1890s music trends
  • The massacres of numerous Armenians in Turkey leads to the first wave of large-scale Armenian immigration to the United States, and the beginning of Armenian American music.[93]
  • The public exhibition of motion pictures, almost always with live music played locally, begins.[101]
  • The bands of John Robichaux and Buddy Bolden in New Orleans become the top dance bands of the era, and frequently competitive, both economically and in actual performances. These bands are a significant precursor of jazz.[102]




Late 1890s music trends
  • The first music festival celebrating Finnish American culture are organized by various Finnish temperance societies.[21]





Early 1900s music trends






  • Victor Herbert, a popular songwriter, publishes the operetta Mlle. Modiste, which is successful and launches the hit song "Kiss Me Again".[8]
  • Most blues performers born before this year generally considered themselves musicians whose repertoire included a wide variety of musical styles; those born later will mostly view themselves as playing a distinct genre.[203]
  • The first large-scale Filipino immigration to the United States begins, thus beginning the Filipino American musical tradition.[204]
  • Hawaiian music is commercially recorded by Columbia and Victor Records, achieving surprising success throughout the country.[37]
  • Arthur Farwell publishes Folk-Songs of the West and South, a collection of songs that include "The Lone Prairee", which Farwell called the first cowboy song to be printed, both words and music".[205]
  • Robert Motts founds the first permanent black theater, in Chicago, the Pekin Theatre.[206]
  • The Philadelphia Concert Orchestra becomes the first black symphony in the North.[185]
  • Ernest Hogan creates a vaudeville act that is the "first syncopated music concert in history".[207] The performers are the Memphis Students, organized by James Reese Europe and later led by Will Marion Cook. The show featured a '"dancing conductor", Will Dixon, who danced rhythms to keep the band performing tightly, and the band's drummer, Buddy Gilmore, used unusual noisemaking devices besides drummers. Unorthodox folk instruments are also used in place of the traditional brass and woodwind lineup. The group was the first to "introduce the concept of the 'singing band' to the entertainment world", and performed in a style now known as barbershop music for some songs.[208]
  • Hallie Anderson begins promoting a well-attended Annual Reception and Ball. She is the first major American woman conductor.[209]
  • Harvard University grants the first PhD in music in the country.[151]
  • A standardized piano roll, capable of being fitted to any model of instrument, is introduced.[29]




  • Arturo Toscanini becomes the conductor of the Metropolitan Opera; he is lauded for "his energy, the command he brought to the podium, his demands for perfection, and his uncanny musical memory."[225]
  • Scott Joplin publishes the education School of Ragtime, "a landmark in the development and diffusion of classic ragtime".[157]
  • The first black bandmasters are appointed to the U.S. Army, for the Ninth and Tenth Cavalry and the Twenty-Fourth and Twenty-Fifth Infantry regiments.[185]
  • Edward L. Gruber composes "The Caissons Go Rolling Along", which, as "The Army Goes Rolling Along", will become the official song of the U.S. Army.[226]
  • Frederick Converse's Iolan, Or, the Pipe of Desire is the first American full opera scores to be published abroad.[42]
  • Antonio Maggio's "I Got the Blues" is the first published song to use the word blues.[131]
  • N. Howard "Jack" Thorp's Songs of the Cowboys is the first published collection of cowboy music.[227]
  • Sound recordings, along with photography and cinematography, are added to the Berne Convention, an international copyright agreement which the United States is not yet a signatory to.[46]



Early 1910s music trends






Mid-1910s music trends



Alton Adams, the first black bandmaster in the United States Navy
  • The U.S. Navy appropriates the St. Thomas Juvenile Band, led by Alton Adams; this is the first black band and bandmaster in the Navy.[325][326][327]
  • The Original Dixieland Jazz Band makes the first jazz recordings,[131][281][328][329] though the white band's style is meant for white audiences with little awareness of African American music practices, and the band is unable to impress black audiences or jazz enthusiasts.[294][330][331]
  • English folk song collector Cecil Sharp publishes an anthology of songs from western North Carolina, Folk Songs of the Southern Appalachians, with Olive Dame Campbell;[332] this is the "first major scholarly collection of the mountain people's music".[333]
  • The October Revolution in Russia leads to political change, soon resulting in state support for professional, virtuoso balalaika orchestras; these groups come to be seen as "role models" by similar groups in the United States.[246]
  • The Supreme Court rules that the "public performance of music contributed to the ability of an establishment to make profits even if no special admission was charged for that music".[73]
  • With the United States' entry into World War 1, warrior customs among the Plains Native Americans are briefly revived, as many ceremonies and rituals are allowed, after many years of being banned, for the duration of the war.[2]
  • Harry T. Burleigh, one of the most prominent African American composers of his time, publishes "Deep River", the first of many classically arranged spirituals.[82]
  • George M. Cohan writes "Over There", which will become the most popular song of World War I.[334]
  • W. Benton Overstreet's "Jazz Dance", popularized by vaudevillean Estelle Harris at Chicago's Grand Theatre, is an early use of the word jazz and is used by "more black vaudeville acts than any other song ever published".[281]
  • The Navy shuts down Storyville, the prostitution district of New Orleans, because the Secretary of the Navy believed it threatened the moral integrity of the armed forces;[329] the result is an exodus of black musicians, who had played in the bars and clubs of Storyville, to cities like Memphis and Chicago.[313] Many of the musicians are hired by Northern bands because their style was considered a novelty that is thought to increase an ensemble's commercial potential; the Northerners, however, tended to adopt the "hot", bluesy style themselves.[284]
  • Leo Sowerby, bandmaster of service bands during World War I composes "Tramping Tune".[327]
  • W. C. Handy's band makes some of the earliest major recordings by African American artists at a session for the Columbia Phonograph Company.[263]
  • The most famous riverboat bandleader of the early jazz era, Fate Marable, forms his first band. He will play with a wealth of well-remembered recording artist, though he will only play on one record, from 1924.[335]
  • Art Hickman, a San Francisco bandleader, publishes "Rose Room". Hickman and his pianist-arranger, Ferde Grofé, are influential figures, who "are generally given credit for inventing the type of dance band which" dominates American popular music for the first half of the 20th century; they were among the earliest to "write separate music for the reed and brass sections, combining the higher and lower instruments in each section into choirs... for dancing rather than listening." Hickman was also probably the first to hire three saxophones, enabling the use of more complex and richer harmonies.[336]


Late 1910s music trends
  • The wind ensembles that have dominated local community bands since the Civil War begin to decline in importance.[79]
  • More than 60,000 African Americans from Texas, Arkansas, Alabama, Louisiana and Texas move to Chicago, especially in the city's South Side. The black population boom "ushered in the city's jazz age, widening the market for black musical entertainment", including cabarets, dance halls, and vaudeville and movie theaters.[337]
  • Tin Pan Alley songwriters capitalize on the Hawaiian music fad, creating songs with thematic elements evoking Hawaii.[37]
  • Stride piano grows popular in New York City.[338]


  • Popular bandleader James Reese Europe is murdered; he becomes the first African American honored with a public funeral in New York City.[352]
  • Tin Pan Alley publishes songs that spark a fad for blues-like music; these songs include syncopated foxtrots like "Jazz Me Blues", pop songs that were marketed as blues like "Wabash Blues", as well as actual blues songs.[353]
  • Prohibition begins, driving the consumption of alcohol into secret clubs and other establishments, many of which became associated with the developing genre of jazz.[354]
  • The first permanent orchestra is established in Los Angeles.[7][257]
  • Carl Seashore's Measures of Musical Talent is a system of assessing musical aptitude that becomes widely adopted but also inspires controversy.[32][151]
  • Merle Evans begins leading the Ringling-Barnum Band, becoming the most famous circus bandleader in the country, especially known for leading the other performers with one hand while simultaneously playing the cornet.[355]
  • Canadian-born black composer R. Nathaniel Dett is the first to arrange a spiritual in a classical oratorio, with Chariot Jubilee.[82]
  • Irving Berlin's "You Cannot Make Your Shimmy Shake on Tea" is one of many songs from the era that expressed opposition to Prohibition. Other songs, like "Drivin' Nails in My Coffin (Every Time I Drink a Bottle of Booze)" expressed support for the abolition of alcohol.[356]
  • James Sylvester Scott publishes three rags, "which are among the most demanding of all published piano ragtime": "New Era Rag", "Troubadour Rag" and "Pegasus: A Classic Rag".[357]
  • George Gershwin's "Swanee", performed by Al Jolson, becomes a "tremendous hit" and Gershwin's "big breakthrough".[358]
  • The National Association of Negro Musicians is founded, after Nora Holt organizes a black musicians summit in Chicago.[359]
  • Ryles Jazz Club opens in Cambridge, Massachusetts. It will become the oldest and most renowned jazz club in Cambridge, and the second-most in the Boston area.[360]


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  12. ^ Chase, pg. 395 calls it the "first quasi-scientific treatise on North American Indian music".
  13. ^ Levine, pg. xxxv
  14. ^ Nicholls, pg. 28
  15. ^ President Bush Honors Black Music Month
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  55. ^ Crawford, pg. 373
  56. ^ Matthews, W. S. B. (1889). A Hundred Years of Music in America. Chicago: G. L. Howe. 
  57. ^ a b Riis, Thomas L. "Musical Theater". The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music. pp. 614–623. 
  58. ^ Chase, pg. 324
  59. ^ Chase, pg. 398
  60. ^ Southern, pg. 288
  61. ^ a b c Clarke, pg. 229
  62. ^ Laing, Dave. "Jukebox". The Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World. pp. 513–515. 
  63. ^ Laing, Dave; Paul Oliver. "Catalog". The Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World. p. 535. 
  64. ^ a b Crawford, pg. 352
  65. ^ Crawford, pg. 389
  66. ^ Crawford, pg. 471
  67. ^ Oliver, Paul. "Field Recording". The Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World. pp. 25–26. 
  68. ^ Southern, pg. 301
  69. ^ Birge, pg. 142
  70. ^ Crawford, pg. 449
  71. ^ a b c Crawford, pg. 497
  72. ^ a b Bird, pg. 133
  73. ^ a b c d e Sanjek, David and Will Straw, "The Music Industry", pgs. 256–267, in the Garland Encyclopedia of World Music
  74. ^ a b Horn, David; David Sanjek. "Sheet Music". The Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music. pp. 599–605. 
  75. ^ Tillman's Revival songbook for 1891, where it appears as Item 223.
  76. ^ Southern, pg. 267
  77. ^ Hardie, pg. 175; Hardie notes some doubt about Laine's claims, but acknowledges that Laine is a key figure in the transition to white jazz.
  78. ^ Bird, pg. 24
  79. ^ a b Crawford, pg. 455
  80. ^ Crawford, pg. 479
  81. ^ Chase, pg, 337
  82. ^ a b c d e f Wright, Jacqueline R. B. "Concert Music". The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music. pp. 603–613. 
  83. ^ Crawford, pg. 484
  84. ^ Gates and Appiah, pg. 560
  85. ^ Crawford, pg. 396
  86. ^ Chase, pg. 396
  87. ^ Clarke, pg. 58
  88. ^ Southern, pg. 329
  89. ^ Crawford, pg. 539
  90. ^ a b Southern, pg. 283
  91. ^ Caldwell Titcomb (Spring 1990). "Black String Musicians: Ascending the Scale". Black Music Research Journal. Center for Black Music Research - Columbia College Chicago and University of Illinois Press. 10 (1): 107–112. doi:10.2307/779543. JSTOR 779543. 
  92. ^ Diamond, Beverly; Barbara Benary. "Indonesian Music". The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music. pp. 1011–1023. 
  93. ^ a b Rasmussen, Anne K. "Middle Eastern Music". The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music. pp. 1028–1041. 
  94. ^ Clarke, pg. 16
  95. ^ Darden, pg. 7
  96. ^ Burk, Meierhoff and Phillips, pg. 284
  97. ^ Burnim and Maultsby, pg. 11
  98. ^ Maultsby, Portia K.; Mellonee V. Burnin and Susan Oehler. "Overview". The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music. pp. 572–591. 
  99. ^ Erbsen, pg. 134
  100. ^ a b c Chase, pg. 384
  101. ^ a b Steiner, Fred; Martin Marks. "Film music". New Grove Dictionary of Music, Volume II: E - K. 
  102. ^ a b c Southern, pg. 343
  103. ^ Darden, pg. 148
  104. ^ Darden, pg. 156
  105. ^ Chase, pg. 352
  106. ^ a b Malone and Stricklin, pg. 10
  107. ^ Southern, pg. 344
  108. ^ Marks, Edward B.; A.J. Liebling (1934). They All Sang: from Tony Pastor to Rudy Vallee. The Viking Press. p. 321. 
  109. ^ "Music Video 1900 Style". PBS. 2004. Archived from the original on 2010-01-04. Retrieved 2009-12-20. 
  110. ^ Sanjek, David. "E. B. Marks". The Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music. pp. 588–589. Sanjek specifically names Bob Cole, James Weldon Johnson and J. Rosamond Johnson 
  111. ^ Darden, pg. 128
  112. ^ a b Chase, pg. 397
  113. ^ Chase, pg. 370
  114. ^ Hilts, Janet; David Buckley and John Shepherd. "Crime". The Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World. pp. 189–196. 
  115. ^ Chase, pg. 371
  116. ^ a b c Southern, pg. 221
  117. ^ Schrader, Barry. Electroacoustic music. New Grove Dictionary of American Music. pp. 30–35. 
  118. ^ Laing, Dave. "Musicians' Unions". The Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World. pp. 785–787. 
  119. ^ Crawford, pgs. 381–382
  120. ^ Chase, pg. 345
  121. ^ Crawford, pg. 476
  122. ^ Crawford, pgs. 540–541
  123. ^ Clarke, pg. 59
  124. ^ Miller, Terry, "Religion", pgs. 116–128, in the Garland Encyclopedia of Music
  125. ^ Southern, pg. 317
  126. ^ a b c d Monson, Ingrid. "Jazz". The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music. pp. 650–666. 
  127. ^ Southern, pg. 320
  128. ^ Erbsen, pg. 124
  129. ^ Struble, pg. 36
  130. ^ Chase, pg. 392
  131. ^ a b c d e Moore, pg. xii
  132. ^ Hansen, pg. 240
  133. ^ a b Hansen, pg. 241
  134. ^ a b Bergey, Barry, "Government and Politics", pgs. 288–303, in the Garland Encyclopedia of World Music
  135. ^ a b Peretti, pg. 50
  136. ^ Bird, pg. 28
  137. ^ Malone and Stricklin, pg. 52
  138. ^ Jones, pgs. 144–145
  139. ^ Chase, pg. 337
  140. ^ Klitz, pg. 56
  141. ^ Southern, pg. 320; Southern specifies Jasen and Tichenor, pg. 17 as among the scholars referred to.
  142. ^ Clarke, pgs. 59, 66
  143. ^ Komara, pg. 767
  144. ^ Fabbri, Franco; John Shepherd. "Genre". The Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World. pp. 401–404. 
  145. ^ Clarke, pg. 72
  146. ^ Bird, pg. 84
  147. ^ Crawford, pg. 541
  148. ^ Chase, pg. 368
  149. ^ Southern, pg. 303; Southern notes that A Trip to Coontown was actually off Broadway at a "rather obscure theater on Third Avenue".
  150. ^ Clarke, pg. 103
  151. ^ a b c d e f g Colwell, Richard; James W. Pruett and Pamela Bristah. "Education". New Grove Dictionary of Music. pp. 11–21. 
  152. ^ Sheehy, Daniel; Steven Loza. "Overview". The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music. pp. 718–733. 
  153. ^ Southern, pg. 82
  154. ^ Southern, pg. 269
  155. ^ Laing, Dave. "Agent". The Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World. pp. 532–533. 
  156. ^ Crawford, pg. 543
  157. ^ a b Chase, pg. 416
  158. ^ Southern, pg. 322
  159. ^ Malone and Stricklin, pg. 41
  160. ^ Chase, pg. 424
  161. ^ a b Southern, pg. 295
  162. ^ Southern, pg. 300
  163. ^ Heskes, pg. 84
  164. ^ Bird, pg. 47
  165. ^ Crawford, pgs. 465–466
  166. ^ a b Crawford, pg. 478
  167. ^ Chase, pg. 338
  168. ^ Southern, pg. 299
  169. ^ Southern, pg. 319
  170. ^ a b c d e Paul C. Echols. "Early-music revival". The New Grove Dictionary of American Music, Volume II: E-K. pp. 2–6. 
  171. ^ Birge, pg. 145
  172. ^ Clarke, pg. 103-104
  173. ^ a b Crawford, pg. 438
  174. ^ Southern, pg. 268
  175. ^ Struble, pg. 71
  176. ^ Darden, pgs. 162–163
  177. ^ a b c Burnim, Mellonee V. "Religious Music". The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music. 
  178. ^ a b Southern, pg. 282
  179. ^ Laing, Dave. "Bootleg". The Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World. p. 481. 
  180. ^ Laing, Dave. "Label". The Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music. p. 620. 
  181. ^ Wisconsin Hometown Stories: Janesville. Wisconsin Public Television. WPNE-TV. 2008-01-17. 45 minutes in. See also reference to "A Perfect Day" published by Bond in 1910 infra.
  182. ^ Crawford, pg. 502
  183. ^ Brooks, David, cited in Chase, pg. 434
  184. ^ Bowers, Jane, Zoe C. Sherinian and Susan Fast, "Snapshot: Gendering Music", pgs. 103–115, in the Garland Encyclopedia of World Music
  185. ^ a b c d e f g h i Southern, pg. 222
  186. ^ Laing, Dave. "Record Industry". The Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music. pp. 637–641. 
  187. ^ Clarke, pg. 100
  188. ^ Crawford, pg. 534; Crawford calls it the "first black-produced show to run at a regular Broadway theater"
  189. ^ Peretti, pg. 51
  190. ^ Southern, pg. 304
  191. ^ Clarke, pg. 63
  192. ^ Burk, Meierhoff and Phillips, pg. 231
  193. ^ a b Horn, David; David Sanjek. "Victor". The Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World. pp. 768–769. 
  194. ^ Pruter, Robert; Paul Oliver and The Editors. "Chicago". The Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World. Retrieved July 9, 2008. 
  195. ^ Southern, pg. 308
  196. ^ a b Southern, pg. 310
  197. ^ Buckley, David; John Shepherd and Berndt Ostendorf. "Death". The Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World. pp. 200–204. 
  198. ^ Bird, pgs. 80-81
  199. ^ Abel, pgs. 50–51; William Lewis Cabell, the United Confederate Veterans' Vice-President denounced it as sacrilegious onstage at the convention, while others voiced similar sentiments to the newsmagazine Confederate Veteran
  200. ^ a b Loza, Steven. "Hispanic California". The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music. pp. 734–753. 
  201. ^ a b c d Southern, pg. 284
  202. ^ Théberge, Paul. "Amplifier". The Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World. pp. 505–506. 
  203. ^ Evans, David. "Blues". The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music. pp. 637–649. 
  204. ^ Trimillos, Ricardo D. "Filipino Music". The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music. pp. 1024–1027. 
  205. ^ Chase, pg. 355
  206. ^ Southern, pg. 296
  207. ^ Southern, pg. 302
  208. ^ Southern, pg. 345–346
  209. ^ a b Southern, pg. 349
  210. ^ Crawford, pg. 469
  211. ^ Chase, pg. 506, 508
  212. ^ Southern, pg. 291
  213. ^ a b Barnard, Stephen; Donna Halper and Dave Laing. "Radio". The Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World. pp. 451–461. 
  214. ^ Millard, Andre. "Gramophone". The Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World. p. 512. 
  215. ^ Laing, Dave. "Advertising of Popular Music". The Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World. pp. 530–532. 
  216. ^ Clarke, pg. 228
  217. ^ a b Crawford, pg. 526
  218. ^ Gedutis, pg. 42
  219. ^ Crawford, pgs. 541–542
  220. ^ Abel, pg. 47
  221. ^ Chase, pg. 373
  222. ^ Clarke, pg. 47
  223. ^ Struble, pg. 11
  224. ^ Bird, pg. 253
  225. ^ Crawford, pg. 583
  226. ^ U.S. Army Bands
  227. ^ a b Oliver, Paul. "Song Collecting". The Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World. pp. 43–46. 
  228. ^ a b Crawford, pg. 527
  229. ^ Laing, Dave. "Copyright". The Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World. pp. 481–485. 
  230. ^ Sanjek, David and Will Straw, "The Music Industry", pgs. 256–267, in the Garland Encyclopedia of World Music, Sanjek and Straw claim that this was the "first time in the country's history (that a) price for the use of a piece of private property was codified by federal law"
  231. ^ Clarke, pg. 229; Clarke says that this was the "first time in history that the government intervened directly between supplier and user of a product".
  232. ^ Southern, pg. 306
  233. ^ Oliver, Paul. "Circuit". The Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World. pp. 541–542. 
  234. ^ a b c Clarke, pg. 68; Clarke cites this to the Oxford English Dictionary
  235. ^ Crawford, pg. 552
  236. ^ a b Peretti, pg. 65
  237. ^ Chase, pg. 332
  238. ^ Elson, pg. 23
  239. ^ Sonneborn, D. Atesh. "Snapshot: Sufi Music and Dance". The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music. pp. 1042–1046. 
  240. ^ Clarke, pg. 40
  241. ^ Cusic, pg. 70
  242. ^ Lankford, pg. 6
  243. ^ Crawford, pg. 609
  244. ^ Chase, pg. 543
  245. ^ Leger, James K. "Música Nuevomexicana". The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music. pp. 754–769. 
  246. ^ a b Livingston, Tamara E. and Katherine K. Preston, "Snapshot: Two Views of Music and Class", pgs. 55–62, in the Garland Encyclopedia of World Music
  247. ^ Koskoff, pg. 70
  248. ^ Southern, pg. 453
  249. ^ Moore, pg. 170
  250. ^ Wisconsin Hometown Stories: Janesville. Wisconsin Public Television. WPNE-TV. 2008-01-17. 0:45 minutes in. See also reference to Bond's "I Love You Truly" first published in 1901 supra.
  251. ^ Crawford, pg. 564
  252. ^ Crawford, pg. 399
  253. ^ Crawford, pg. 546
  254. ^ Chase, pg. 421
  255. ^ Southern, pg. 330
  256. ^ Crawford, pgs. 555–556
  257. ^ a b Crawford, pg. 581
  258. ^ a b Darden, pg. 135
  259. ^ Chase, pg. 457
  260. ^ Chase, pg. 544
  261. ^ a b U.S. Army Bands
  262. ^ a b Hansen, pg. 247
  263. ^ a b Spotlight Biography: William Christian Handy Archived 2008-07-24 at the Wayback Machine.
  264. ^ Malone and Stricklin, pg. 45
  265. ^ Street, John. "Politics". Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World. pp. 299–294. 
  266. ^ a b Southern, pg. 338
  267. ^ Southern, pg. 339
  268. ^ Some authors, like Upkopodu, pg. 75, call "The Memphis Blues" the first published blues composition.
  269. ^ Bird, pg. 45, Bird says that Handy began publishing the "first commercial blues"
  270. ^ Crawford, pg. 546; Crawford points out that this leads to dancing becoming an integral part of popular music in the United States, and that more than 100 new dances were introduced between 1912 and 1914.
  271. ^ Crawford, pg. 585
  272. ^ "Black Music Concerts in Carnegie Hall, 1912–1915". The Black Perspective in Music. 6: 71–88. 1978. doi:10.2307/1214304. 
  273. ^ Darden, pg. 71
  274. ^ Darden, pg. 143
  275. ^ Burk, Meierhoff and Phillips, pg. 280
  276. ^ Chase, pg. 390
  277. ^ a b Chase, pg. 423
  278. ^ Southern, pgs. 288–289
  279. ^ Southern, pg. 292
  280. ^ Crawford, pg. 566
  281. ^ a b c d e f Southern, pg. 366
  282. ^ Romero, Brenda M. "Great Lakes". The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music. pp. 451–460. 
  283. ^ a b Clarke, pg. 126
  284. ^ a b Jones, pg. 111
  285. ^ Chase, pg. 449
  286. ^ Chase, pg. 450
  287. ^ Southern, pg. 298
  288. ^ Southern, pg. 278
  289. ^ Southern, pg. 345
  290. ^ Millard, Andre. "Cylinders". The Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World. pp. 508–509. 
  291. ^ Bird, pgs.106-107
  292. ^ Bird, pg. 127
  293. ^ Darden, pg. 199
  294. ^ a b c Garofalo, Reebee. The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music. pp. 705–715. 
  295. ^ Crawford, pg. 538
  296. ^ Crawford, pg. 547
  297. ^ Chase, pg. 333
  298. ^ Southern, pg. 347
  299. ^ Crawford, pg. 569; Crawford notes that the event was so controversial that it was still a topic of conversation among the Harvard University faculty in 1919, when Virgil Thomson began studying there.
  300. ^ Darden, pgs. 134–135
  301. ^ Clarke, pgs. 72-73
  302. ^ Slobin, Mark. "Jewish Music". The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music. pp. 933–945. 
  303. ^ Souchon, pg. 43
  304. ^ Crawford, pg. 568; Crawford notes that this process was complete by the mid-1920s.
  305. ^ Crawford, pg. 759
  306. ^ Cowdery, James R. and Anne Lederman, "Blurring the Boundaries of Social and Musical Identities", pgs. 322–333, in the Garland Encyclopedia of World Music
  307. ^ Chase, pg. 375
  308. ^ Jones, pg. 146
  309. ^ Southern, pg. 382
  310. ^ Southern, pg. 286
  311. ^ Bird, pg. 223
  312. ^ Bird, pg. 234
  313. ^ a b Southern, pg. 367
  314. ^ Darden, pg. 163
  315. ^ Burk, Meierhoff and Phillips, pg. 268
  316. ^ Erbsen, pg. 13, quote cited to Sharp's diary
  317. ^ Rahkonen, Carl. "Overview". The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music. pp. 820–830. 
  318. ^ Levy, Mark. "Eastern European Music". The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music. pp. 908–918. 
  319. ^ Gedutis, pg. 149
  320. ^ Chase, pg. 472
  321. ^ Southern, pg. 458
  322. ^ Southern, pgs. 289–290; Southern lists Stanley Lee Henderson (Sumner High School), Walter Dyett (Wendell Phillips High School) and Lincoln High's Alonzo Lewis and William Levi Dawson, as those who followed in Smith's footsteps.
  323. ^ Southern, pg. 331
  324. ^ Bird, pgs. 24-25
  325. ^ Crawford, pg. 466
  326. ^ Southern, pg. 307
  327. ^ a b Hansen, pg. 249
  328. ^ Jones, pg. 143
  329. ^ a b Bird, pg. 17-19
  330. ^ Crawford, pgs. 566–567
  331. ^ Chase, pg. 507
  332. ^ Malone and Stricklin, pg. 31
  333. ^ Crawford, pgs. 600–601
  334. ^ Chase, pg. 374
  335. ^ Clarke, pg. 72; Clarke says that Marable sole recording "is said to be terrible".
  336. ^ Clarke, pg. 123
  337. ^ Crawford, pg. 627
  338. ^ Bird, pg. 116
  339. ^ Clarke, pgs. 185-186
  340. ^ Haskins, Rob, "Orchestral and Chamber Music in the Twentieth Century", pgs. 173–178, in the Garland Encyclopedia of World Music
  341. ^ "A Moment in Time". Kansas Historical Society. February 1997. Archived from the original on November 12, 2007. Retrieved February 12, 2008. 
  342. ^ Gates and Appiah, pg. 918
  343. ^ Chase, pg. 350–351
  344. ^ Chase, pg. 545
  345. ^ Southern, pg. 353
  346. ^ Laing, Dave; John Shepherd. "Tour". The Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World. pp. 567–568. 
  347. ^ Clarke, pg.100; Clarke notes that this music was called jazz, though it was not.
  348. ^ Peretti, pg. 66
  349. ^ a b Hansen, pg. 251
  350. ^ U.S. Army Bands
  351. ^ Smith, Jeff. "The Film Industry and Popular Music". The Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World. pp. 499–504. 
  352. ^ Crawford, pg. 554
  353. ^ Crawford, pg. 562
  354. ^ Crawford, pg. 567
  355. ^ Preston, Katherine K.; Susan Key, Judith Tick, Frank J. Cipolla and Raoul F. Camus. "Snapshot: Four Views of Music in the United States". The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music. pp. 554–569. 
  356. ^ Buckley, David; Dave Laing. "Alcohol". The Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World. pp. 149–152. 
  357. ^ Chase, pg. 419, citing William Bolcom
  358. ^ Chase, pg. 475
  359. ^ Southern, pg. 312
  360. ^ Bird, pg. 176

Further reading[edit]

  • Baker, Theodore (1881). Uber die Musik der nordamerikanischen Wilden (in German). Liepzig: Breitkopf u. Härtel. 
  • Berry, Jason; Jonathan Foose and Tad Jones (1986). Up from the Cradle of Jazz. Athens, Georgia: University of Georgia Press. 
  • Densmore, Frances (1913). "Chippewa Music". Bureau of American Ethnology. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution. 2 (53). 
  • Samuel A. Floyd, ed. (1990). Black Music in the Harlem Renaissance: A Collection of Essays. New York: Greenwood Press. 
  • Herzog, George (1935). "Plains Ghost Dance and Great Basin Music". American Anthropologist. 38 (3): 403–419. doi:10.1525/aa.1935.37.3.02a00040. 
  • Howard, James H. (1955). "The Pan-Indian Culture of Oklahoma". Scientific Monthly. 18 (5): 215–220. 
  • David Jasen; Trebor Tichenor (1978). Rags and Ragtime. New York. p. 17. 
  • Lomax, John Avery (1938 (1911)). Cowboy Songs and Other Frontier Ballads. New York: Macmillan.  Check date values in: |year= (help)
  • Marks, Martin (1997). Music and the Silent Film: Contexts and Case Studies, 1895–1924. New York: Oxford University Press. 
  • Helen Myers, ed. (1993). Ethnomusicology: Historical and Regional Studies. New York: Norton. 
  • Oakley, Giles (1976). The Devil's Music: A History of the Blues. New York: Taplinger. 
  • Schuller, Gunther. Early Jazz: Its Roots and Musical Development. New York: Oxford University Press. 
  • Fife, Austin E.; Alta S. Fife (1966). Songs of the Cowboys, by n. Howard ('Jack') Thorp: Variants, Commentary, Notes and Lexicon. New York: C.N. Potter. 
  • Sharp, Cecil J.; Maud Karpeles (1960 (1924)). English Folk Songs From the Southern Appalachians. London: Oxford University Press.  Check date values in: |year= (help)