Timeline of plastic development
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This is a timeline of the development of plastics, comprising key discoveries and developments in the production of plastics.
Pre 19th century
|1600BC||Mesoamericans used natural rubber for balls, bands, and figurines.|||
|1000BC||First written evidence of Shellac|
|Middle Ages||Europeans used treated cow horns as translucent material for windows.|
|1839||Eduard Simon, a German apothecary, discovers polystyrene|
|1844||Thomas Hancock patents the vulcanization of rubber in Britain immediately followed by Charles Goodyear in United States.|||
|1856||Parkesine, the first member of the Celluloid class of compounds and considered the first man-made plastic patented by Alexander Parkes.|||
|1869||John Wesley Hyatt discovers a method to simplify the production of celluloid, making industrial production possible.|
|1872||PVC was accidentally synthesized in 1872 by German chemist Eugen Baumann.|||
|1889||Eastman Kodak successfully filed a patent for the celluloid film|||
|1890s||Casein, a plastic derived from milk proteins developed by Wilhelm Krische and Adolph Spitteler.|||
|1890s||Auguste Trillat discovered the means to insolubilize casein by immersion in formaldehyde, producing material marketed as galalith.|||
|1894||Shellac phonograph records are developed and soon become an industry standard.|
|1898||Polyethylene was first synthesized by the German chemist Hans von Pechmann while investigating diazomethane.|||
|1907||Bakelite, the first fully synthetic thermoset, was reported by Leo Baekeland using phenol and formaldehyde.|
|1912||After over 10 years research, Jacques E. Brandenberger develops a method for producing cellophane and secures a patent.|||
|1926||Waldo Semon and the B.F. Goodrich Company developed a method in 1926 to plasticize PVC by blending it with various additives.|
|1930||Neoprene produced for the first time in DuPont|||
|1930s||Polystyrene first produced by BASF|||
|1931||RCA Victor introduced their vinyl-based Victrolac compound for records. Vinyl records have twice the groove density of shellac records with good sound quality.|
|1933||The first industrially practical polyethylene synthesis discovered by Eric Fawcett and Reginald Gibson at the Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI) works in Northwich, England.|||
|1935||Nylon is invented and patented by DuPont|||
|1938||Nylon is first used for bristles in toothbrushes. It features at the 1939 worlds fair and is famously used in stockings in 1940|
|1938||Polytetrafluoroethylene (commonly known as teflon), discovered by Roy Plunkett at DuPont.|
|1941||Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) is discovered at the Calico Printers' Association in Britain. Expanded polistyrene first produced|
|1950||DuPont begin the manufacture of polyester.|
|1951||J. Paul Hogan and Robert L. Banks from Phillips polymerized propylene for the first time to produce polypropylene|
|1953||Polycarbonate independently developed by Hermann Schnell at Bayer and Daniel Fox at General Electric|
|1954||Polypropylene was discovered by Giulio Natta with production starting in 1957|||
|1954||Expanded polystyrene, used for building insulation, packaging, and cup, was invented by Dow Chemical.|||
|1957||Italian firm Montecatini begin large-scale commercial production of isotactic polypropylene.|
|1960s||High-density polyethylene bottles introduced and soon replace glass bottles in most applications|||
|1965||Kevlar developed at DuPont by Stephanie Kwolek|
|1980s||Polyester film stock replaces cellulose acetate for photographic film and computer tapes.|
|1988||First polymer bank notes issued in Australia|
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- 1493: Uncovering the New World Columbus Created. Random House Digital, Inc. pp. 244–245.
- UK Patent office (1857). Patents for inventions. UK Patent office. p. 255.
- Baumann, E. (1872) "Ueber einige Vinylverbindungen" (On some vinyl compounds), Annalen der Chemie und Pharmacie, 163 : 308-322.
- Hart-Davis, Adam (2012). Written at London. Science: the definitive visual guide. 80 Strand, London WC2R 0RL, Great Britain: Dorling Kindersley. pp. 284, 336. ISBN 978-1-4093-8314-7.
- Christel Trimborn (August 2004). "Jewelry Stone Make of Milk". GZ Art+Design. Retrieved 2010-05-17.
- H. von Pechmann (1898) "Ueber Diazomethan und Nitrosoacylamine," Berichte der Deutschen chemischen Gesellschaft zu Berlin, 31 : 2640–2646; see especially page 2643. From page 2643: "Erwähnt sei noch, dass aus einer ätherischen Diazomethanlösung sich beim Stehen manchmal minimale Quantitäten eines weissen, flockigen, aus Chloroform krystallisirenden Körpers abscheiden; … " (It should be mentioned that from an ether solution of diazomethane, upon standing, sometimes small quantities of a white, flakey substance, which can be crystallized from chloroform, precipitate; … )
- Carlisle, Rodney (2004). Scientific American Inventions and Discoveries, p.338. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New Jersey. ISBN 0-471-24410-4.
- "Winnington history in the making". This is Cheshire. 23 August 2006. Archived from the original on 21 January 2010. Retrieved 20 February 2014.
- "The History of soft drink Timeline". Retrieved 2008-04-23.