Toyota GR engine

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Toyota GR engine
Toyota 1GR-FE engine 001.JPG
1GR-FE engine in a Toyota FJ Cruiser
ManufacturerToyota Motor Corporation
Configuration60° V6
Block materialDie-cast aluminium
Head materialAluminium
ValvetrainDOHC 4 valves/cyl with VVT-i
Fuel typeGasoline
Cooling systemWater cooled
Power output236–317 hp (176–236 kW; 239–321 PS)
Torque output266–295 lb⋅ft (361–400 N⋅m)
PredecessorToyota MZ engine
Toyota JZ engine (I6)
Toyota VZ engine

The Toyota GR engine family is a gasoline, open-deck, piston V6 engine series. The GR series has a 60° die-cast aluminium block and aluminium DOHC cylinder heads. This engine series also features 4 valves per cylinder, forged steel connecting rods and crankshaft, one-piece cast camshafts, and a cast aluminium lower intake manifold. Some variants use multi-port fuel injection, some have D4 direct injection, and others have a combination of direct injection and multi-port fuel injection or D4-S.

The GR series replaces the previous MZ V6 and JZ inline-6, and in the case of light trucks the VZ V6.

Note: Power ratings have changed due to SAE measurement changes for 2006 model year vehicles. Toyota rates engines on 87 pump octane, Lexus rates engines on 91 pump octane.



1GR-FE engine in a 2007 Toyota FJ Cruiser
1GR-FE engine in a 2009 Toyota Prado

The 1GR-FE is the 4.0 L (3,956 cc) version, designed for longitudinal mounting in RWD and 4WD pickup applications. It has a bore and a stroke of 94 mm × 95 mm (3.70 in × 3.74 in). Output is 236 hp (176 kW; 239 PS) at 5200 rpm with 266 lb⋅ft (361 N⋅m; 37 kg⋅m) of torque at 4000 rpm when tuned for 87 octane, and 240 hp (179 kW; 243 PS) at 5200 rpm with 278 lb⋅ft (377 N⋅m; 38 kg⋅m) at 3700 rpm when tuned for 91 octane. This engine features Toyota's VVT-i, variable valve timing system on the intake cam and a compression ratio of 10.0:1. Service weight, including fluids, is 166 kg (366 lb).

An updated version of this engine features Dual VVT-i, increasing output to 270 hp (201 kW; 274 PS) at 5600 rpm and 278 lb⋅ft (377 N⋅m; 38 kg⋅m) at 4400 rpm on 87 octane.[citation needed] Inside, the 1GR uses a "taper-squish" combustion chamber design with matching pistons to improve anti-knocking and engine performance, while also improving intake and fuel efficiency. Toyota adopted a siamese-type intake port, which reduces the surface area of the port walls and prevents fuel from adhering to such walls. This engine has special cast-iron cylinder liners cast into the block, which are a spiny type to improve adhesion between the liner and cylinder block. In the event of cylinder wall damage (scoring, deep protrusions, etc.), the entire cylinder block must be replaced. For increased block rigidity, the 1GR also receives a high temperature plastic insulator/protector, which fills the empty space between the outer portion of the cylinders and block material common to open deck engines. For increased cooling efficiency, the 1GR employs water passages between the bores of the engine. There are two such passages for each bank for a total of four. This reduces cylinder hot-spotting and keeps combustion chamber temperatures more uniform.

A bolt-on TRD supercharger kit was available on the Tacoma and FJ Cruiser but has been discontinued by Toyota.

The new 2015 Toyota HiLux receives a slightly different version of the single VVT-i engine, with the only change being a removal of an air intake baffle tank being replaced by a conventional air filter housing to intake pipe to surge tank style. The new intake pipe now contains resonators. Power output is unchanged.

First generation 1GR-FE variants with single VVT-i features Toyota's Acoustic Control Induction System. This system consists of a bulkhead to divide the intake manifold into two sections, and an intake air control valve (in the bulkhead) to control its effective length. When the engine is operating at moderate revolutions and under high load, an actuator closes the intake air control valve to increase the effective length of the intake manifold. At other operating conditions, the intake air control valve opens up to reduce the effective length of the intake manifold.[1]

2016 Toyota Hilux V6 engine bay

Applications with VVT-i (calendar years):

Applications with Dual VVT-i (calendar years):



2GR-FE engine in the 2008 Lexus RX 350

The 2GR-FE is a 3.5 L (3,456 cc) version.[2] Bore remains at 94 mm (3.7 in); but stroke is reduced to 83 mm (3.27 in). Reported output varies depending on the vehicle application, but is approximately 270 hp (201 kW; 274 PS) to 314 hp (234 kW; 318 PS) at 6200 rpm with 248 lb⋅ft (336 N⋅m) to 260 lb⋅ft (353 N⋅m) of torque at 4700 rpm on 87 octane (R+M/2).[3] This version features Toyota's Dual VVT-i, variable valve timing on both the intake and exhaust cams. The cams are driven using a timing chain.

Valves are driven by roller-follower rocker arms with low friction roller bearings, and a unique, concave cam lobe design to increase valve lift over the traditional shimless lifter type system of the 1GR-FE. This increases overall cylinder head height to accommodate the slightly taller roller rocker system. Moreover, the cylinder head is segmented into 3 parts: valve cover, camshaft sub-assembly housing, and cylinder head sub-assembly. As such, this valvetrain is used across all other GR engines with Dual VVT-i. Its service weight is 163 kg (359 lb).

Applications (calendar years):

Supercharged (calendar years):


2GR-FSE engine in the 2008 Crown

The 2GR-FSE is a 3.5 L (3,456 cc) engine used in the Lexus IS, GS, Mark X and Crown and incorporates Toyota's latest D-4S twin injection fuel system. This system combines direct injection (949 cc (57.9 cu in)/min injectors) with traditional port injection (298 cc (18.2 cu in)/min injectors). Direct injection lowers the tendency to knock (detonation) and increases performance by reducing the charge intake temperature. Traditionally, direct injection engines require an in-engine mechanism such as swirl ports or specific piston crown shapes to increase air turbulence in the engine. These are in place to help achieve a homogeneous air-fuel mixture inside the cylinder at low RPM and high load, but these mechanisms inhibit performance at higher engine speeds. In the 2GR-FSE, port injection is used considerably to achieve the correct mixture without having in-engine restrictions, meaning the engine achieves specific power near the top of all naturally aspirated production gasoline engines in the world (68 kW (92.5 PS; 91.2 hp)/L, 234 kW (318 PS; 314 hp) in the Mark X). Toyota also developed a new type of injector for this engine. The dual fan spray pattern of the direct injectors is perpendicular to the piston travel with wide dispersion in the cylinder, which aids air and fuel mixture and therefore increases power and efficiency. The port injectors not only help improve the power and efficiency but they also help improve emissions, especially in the first 20 seconds after start-up (when the catalytic converter is in its warm-up stage). Compression ratio is 11.8:1.

The 2GR-FSE engine is rated at 227–236 kW (309–321 PS; 304–316 hp) at 6,400 RPM and 377–380 N⋅m (38–39 kg⋅m; 278–280 lb⋅ft) at 4,800 RPM.

The engine's service weight is 174 kg (384 lb).

The 2GR-FSE was on the Ward's 10 Best Engines list for 2006, 2007, 2008 and 2009.[6][7][8][9]

Applications (calendar years):


  • 2009 Toyota Mark X +M Supercharger (265 kW (360 PS; 355 hp))[10]


Atkinson cycle, VVT-i, uses cooled EGR system.

For the Lexus RX 450h, the compression ratio was 12.5:1. For the Lexus GS 450h, the compression ratio was 13.0:1.[11]

Applications (calendar years):

  • 2010 Lexus RX 450h, (GYL10/15/16), without D-4S (conventional multi-port indirect injection) 245 bhp (183 kW; 248 PS)
  • 2010 Toyota Highlander Hybrid, without D-4S (conventional multi-port indirect injection) 245 bhp (183 kW; 248 PS)
  • 2012 Lexus GS 450h (GWL10), with D-4S (both multi-port indirect and direct injection) 292 bhp (218 kW; 296 PS)
  • 2013 Toyota Crown Majesta, with D-4S (both multi-port indirect and direct injection) 292 bhp (218 kW; 296 PS)


The 2GR-FKS is a 3.5 litres (3,456 cc), 24-valve DOHC (with VVT-iW and VVT-i) V6 engine that combines the D-4S system from the 2GR-FSE with the simulated on-demand Atkinson cycle used in the 2UR-GSE and 8AR-FTS engines.[12] The 2GR-FKS and the 2GR-FXS selectively use direct and port injection.[13][14] This engine first appeared in the 2015 Lexus RX350.

In the Tacoma the engine specifications are 278 hp (207 kW; 282 PS) at 6000 rpm and 265 lb⋅ft (359 N⋅m) at 4600 rpm.[15] In the Lexus RX 350 the engine specifications are 295 hp (220 kW; 299 PS) at 6300 rpm and 267 lb⋅ft (362 N⋅m) at 4700 rpm respectively. In the Lexus IS350 and GS350 the engine specifications are 311 hp (232 kW; 315 PS) at 6600 rpm and 280 lb⋅ft (380 N⋅m) at 4800 rpm respectively.

Applications (calendar years):


The 2GR-FXS is the hybrid version of the 2GR-FKS.

Applications (calendar years):



3GR-FE engine in the 2007 IS 300

The 3GR-FE is a 3.0 L (2,994 cc) version with Dual VVT-i, designed for RWD longitudinal mounting. Bore is 87.5mm while stroke is shared with the 2GR at 83 mm, with a compression ratio of 10.5:1. Output is 170 kW (228 hp; 231 PS) at 6,400 RPM, and 300 N⋅m (221 lb⋅ft) at 4,800 RPM.

Applications (calendar years):


The 3GR-FSE adds D-4 direct injection. The 3GR-FSE engine is rated at 256 PS (188 kW; 252 hp) at 6,200 RPM and 32 kg⋅m (314 N⋅m; 231 lb⋅ft) at 3,600 RPM.

Applications (calendar years):




2004 Toyota 4GR-FSE engine.

The 4GR-FSE is a 2.5 L (2,499 cc) version. Bore is 83 mm (3.27 in)[19]   while stroke is reduced to 77 mm (3.03 in)[19] with a compression ratio of 12.0:1. Output is 203–215 PS (149–158 kW; 200–212 hp) at 6,400 RPM and 24.78–26.5 kg⋅m (243–260 N⋅m; 179–192 lb⋅ft) at 3,800 RPM. This version also features Dual VVT-i, variable valve timing on both the intake and exhaust cams and an improved D4 direct injection system.

Applications (calendar years):



The 5GR-FE is a 2.5 L (2,497 cc) version. Bore is 87.5 mm (3.44 in) while stroke is 69.2 mm (2.72 in) with a compression ratio of 10.0:1. Output is 145 kW (194 hp; 197 PS) at 6,200 RPM and 24.7 kg⋅m (242 N⋅m; 179 lb⋅ft) at 4,400 RPM. This version does not include direct injection, but does include Dual VVT-i. The 5GR-FE engine is only built in China for vehicles for the Chinese market. Using the same bore as the 3GR-FE which is also built in China it can be built on the same production line, thus reducing production cost.

Applications (calendar years):



The 6GR-FE is a 4.0 L (3,956 cc) version. Bore is 94 mm (3.7 in) while stroke is 95 mm (3.74 in). This version does not include direct injection, but does include Dual VVT-i and is similar to the updated Dual VVT-i 1GR-FE, engine output is 229 hp (171 kW; 232 PS) at 5,000 RPM and 345 N⋅m (35.2 kg⋅m; 254 lb⋅ft) at 4,400 RPM.

Applications (calendar years):



The 7GR-FKS is a 3.5 L (3,456 cc) version. Bore and stroke is 94 mm × 83 mm (3.70 in × 3.27 in). This version features a D-4S combined injection system, and includes Dual VVT-i and is similar to the 2GR-FKS, engine output is 276 hp (206 kW; 280 PS) at 6,000 RPM and 365 N⋅m (37.2 kg⋅m; 269 lb⋅ft) at 4,500 RPM.

Applications (calendar years):



The 8GR-FKS is a 3.5 L (3,456 cc) version. Bore and stroke is 94 mm × 83 mm (3.70 in × 3.27 in). The 8GR-FKS includes on-demand Atkinson cycle, engine output is 311 hp (232 kW; 315 PS) at 6,600 RPM and 380 N⋅m (39 kg⋅m; 280 lb⋅ft) at 4,800 RPM.

Applications (calendar years):



The 8GR-FXS is a 3.5 L (3,456 cc) version. Bore and stroke is 94 mm × 83 mm (3.70 in × 3.27 in) with a compression ratio of 13.0:1. Used in hybrid applications, and including on-demand Atkinson cycle, engine output is 295 hp (220 kW; 299 PS) at 6,600 RPM and 350 N⋅m (36 kg⋅m; 260 lb⋅ft) at 5,100 RPM. The 8GR-FXS uses a similar fuel setup to the 2GR-FKS, combining the D-4S system and the simulated on-demand Atkinson cycle used in the 2UR-GSE and 8AR-FTS engines. The intake camshafts are equipped with VVT-iW and the exhaust camshafts are equipped with VVT-i.

Applications (calendar years):

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "1GR-FE Toyota engine". Australian Car Reviews. Retrieved 2020-10-01.
  2. ^ "2013 Highlander Manual" (PDF). US: Toyota. p. 628 (11 on PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-01-16. Retrieved 2014-01-16.
  3. ^ "Avalon Specifications". Bahrain: Toyota. Archived from the original on 2012-03-03. Retrieved 2012-01-27.
  4. ^ "Lexus - LM". Hong Kong: Lexus. Retrieved 2020-06-06.
  5. ^ Padeanu, Adrian (2021-07-06). "Lotus Emira Mid-Engined Sports Car Debuts With AMG And Toyota Power". Motor1. US. Retrieved 2021-07-24.
  6. ^ "Ward's Announces 2009 10 Best Engines Winners". Ward's AutoWorld. 2008-12-05. Archived from the original on 2011-09-26. Retrieved 2009-07-25.
  7. ^ "Ward's 10 Best Engines Winners Reflect Fuel-Economy Focus (2008)". Ward's AutoWorld. 2007-12-13. Archived from the original on 2008-08-21. Retrieved 2009-07-25.
  8. ^ "Ward's Announces 10 Best Engines Winners for 2007". Ward's AutoWorld. 2006-12-05. Archived from the original on 2009-07-22. Retrieved 2009-07-25.
  9. ^ "Ward's 10 Best Engines for 2006". Ward's AutoWorld. 2006-01-04. Archived from the original on 2009-08-23. Retrieved 2009-07-25.
  10. ^ "Mark X +M Supercharger specs" (in Japanese). 2009. Retrieved 2010-03-13.
  11. ^ Lithgow, Ian. "2GR-FXE Toyota engine". AustralianCar.Reviews. Retrieved 2015-08-28.
  12. ^ "New Features – 2GR-FKS Engine" (PDF). Retrieved 2022-02-21 – via Toyota Reference.
  13. ^ Matsui, Jun; Koyama, Hiroyasu; Goto, Yuichi; Kawai, Hidetoshi (2015-09-01). Development of 3.5L V6 Gasoline Direct Injection Engine - ESTEC 2GR-FKS/FXS. JSAE/SAE 2015 International Powertrains, Fuels & Lubricants Meeting. US: Society of Automotive Engineers. doi:10.4271/2015-01-1972.
  14. ^ Why Some Engines Have Both Port and Direct Injection
  15. ^ a b "Tacoma Spec". US: Toyota. Retrieved 2015-08-15.
  16. ^ "2016 Lexus GS 200t / GS 350 Product Information" (Press release). US: Toyota. 2015-08-13. Archived from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2015-08-15.
  17. ^ a b "2016 Lexus RX Redefines Segment with Style, Ride Comfort and Luxury Utility" (Press release). US: Toyota. 2015-09-08. Retrieved 2015-09-10.
  18. ^ "Lexus LM 350 | 4 Seater". Indonesia: Lexus. Retrieved 2020-06-06.
  19. ^ a b "techdoc". Toyota Motor Europe. Retrieved 2012-01-27.
  20. ^ "Toyota's New Hiace Series for Overseas Markets Debuts in Philippines" (Press release). Japan: Toyota. 2019-02-18. Retrieved 2019-04-25.
  21. ^ "Lexus - LS Range - LS350". Lexus Hong Kong. Crown Motors Limited. Retrieved 2019-12-15.