A Soviet stamp of 1983, dedicated to the Urengoy-Uzhgorod transcontinental export pipeline
|From||Urengoy gas field|
|Passes through||Izhevsk, Yelets, Kursk, Romny, Zhmerynka, Bohorodchany, Ivano-Frankivsk|
|Runs alongside||Progress pipeline, Soyuz pipeline, Bratstvo pipeline|
|Length||4,500 km (2,800 mi)|
|Maximum discharge||32×109 m3 (1.1×1012 cu ft) per year|
The Urengoy–Pomary–Uzhgorod pipeline (also known as the West-Siberian Pipeline, or Trans-Siberian Pipeline or Brotherhood Pipeline) is one of Russia's main natural gas export pipelines, partially owned and operated by Ukraine.
The pipeline project was proposed in 1978 as an export pipeline from Yamburg gas field, but was later changed to the pipeline from Urengoy field, which was already in use. In July 1981, a consortium of German banks, led by Deutsche Bank, and the AKA Ausfuhrkredit GmbH agreed to provide 3.4 billion Deutsche Mark in credits for the compressor stations. Later finance agreements were negotiated with a group of French banks and the Japan Export-Import Bank (JEXIM). In 1981-1982, contracts were signed with compressors and pipes suppliers Creusot-Loire, John Brown Engineering, Nuovo Pignone, AEG-Telefunken, Mannesmann, Dresser Industries, and Japan Steel Works. Pipe-layers were bought from Caterpillar Inc. and Komatsu.
The pipeline was constructed in 1982-1984. It complemented the transcontinental gas transportation system Western Siberia-Western Europe which existed since 1973. The official inauguration ceremony took place in France.
The pipeline runs from Siberia's Urengoy gas field to Uzhgorod in Western Ukraine. From there, the natural gas is transported to Central and Western European countries. It crosses the Russian–Ukrainian border north of Sumy. In Ukraine, it takes gas to the Uzhgorod pumping station on the Ukrainian border with Slovakia and to smaller pumping stations on the Hungarian and Romanian borders. The pipeline crossed the Ural Carpathian mountains and more than 600 rivers including Ob, Volga, Don and Dnepr rivers.
The pipeline is 4,500 kilometres (2,800 mi) long and has a diameter of 56 inches (1,420 mm). The annual capacity of the pipeline is 32 billion cubic metres (1.1 trillion cubic feet) of natural gas per year. It has 42 compressor stations. The length in Ukraine is 1,160 kilometres (720 mi) and it served by nine compressor stations.
Disagreement among the allies
The Soviet plans to build the pipeline were considered a threat to the balance of energy trade in Europe, and were strongly opposed by the Reagan administration. The United States prevented U.S. companies from selling supplies to the Soviets for the pipeline, as part of what was also retribution against the Soviets for their policies towards Poland.
America's Western European allies, however, refused to bow to U.S. pressure to boycott the pipeline, insisting that contracts already signed between the Soviets and European companies needed to be honored. This led to several European companies being sanctioned by the U.S. Government. Reagan reportedly said "Well, they can have their damned pipeline. But not with American equipment and not with American technology." The efforts by the U.S. pressure to prevent the construction of the pipeline, and its export embargo of supplies for the pipeline (1980–1984) constituted one of the most severe transatlantic crises of the Cold War.
The pipeline's first accident occurred even before the commissioning of the pipeline. On 15 December 1983, a fire broke out at a compressor station in Urengoy, destroying electronic monitoring devices and control panels, but no one was injured.
A terrorist explosion damaged the pipeline in Rozhniativ district in Ivano-Frankivsk Oblast in May 2014. According to the Russian government owned radio station Voice of Russia terrorist threats against the pipeline were made by Right Sector leader Dmytro Yarosh in March 2014. However, such information may not be considered reliable, taking into account recent Russian annexation of Ukrainian Crimea and aggression [the claim of "aggression" lacks unbiased citation] towards sovereignty of Ukraine, as extensive propaganda became an integral part of such aggression. [This statement is extremely partisan, and injects a deliberate bias into the article. In the current crisis, any claim, or assertion of "fact," whether from Voice of Russia, BBC, US Department of State, etc., cannot be considered reliable. Wikipedia moderators are requested to review this article.]
Another section of the pipeline exploded in the Poltava region on June 17, 2014, one day after Russia limited the supply of gas to Ukrainian customers due to non-payment. Ukraine's Interior Minister Arsen Avakov said the next day, that the explosion had been caused by a bomb.
- John Hardt; Donna L. Gold (1982-08-10). "Soviet gas pipeline: U.S. Options". Retrieved 2008-05-30.
- "History of the gas branch". Gazprom. Archived from the original on 2007-06-13. Retrieved 2008-05-30.
- "Ukraine Launches Modernization Of Urengoy-Pomary-Uzhhorod Gas Pipeline". Ukrainian News Agency. 2011-07-19. Retrieved 2011-07-20.
- "The Mineral Industry of the U.S.S.R.". Bureau of Mines / Minerals yearbook area reports. 1981. Retrieved 2008-05-29.
- Pirani, Simon (2007). Ukraine's gas sector (PDF). Oxford Institute for Energy Studies. p. 76. ISBN 978-1-901795-63-9. Retrieved 2008-05-30.
- Afzal, Amina (2004). "The Caspian region: competition for pipeline routes". Strategic Studies (The Institute of Strategic Studies) XXIV (3). Retrieved 2008-05-30.[dead link]
- I.V. Belousenko (1997). "Energy converters prove most reliable for Gazprom". Pipeline & Gas Journal. Retrieved 2008-05-30.
- NSC Meetings Box 91282 (169).JPG
- Ronald Reagan... National Defense
- "CBS Evening News: Trans-Siberian Pipeline". 1982-02-26. CBS. Missing or empty
- Lewis, Paul (1982-01-11). "U.S. asks its allies to deny to Soviet parts for pipeline". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-05-29.
- "Alexander Haig". Time. 1984-04-09. Retrieved 2010-05-27.
- Gwertzman, Bernard (1982-02-11). "U.S. asserts gap on gas pipeline bars on accord". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-05-29.
- Gelb, Leslie H. (1982-07-09). "Reagan is seeking ways to moderate Poland sanctions". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-05-29.
- Rattner, Steven (1982-08-03). "Britain defying U.S. restriction in Soviet project". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-05-29.
- Lewis, Flora (1982-07-23). "France defies ban by U.S. on supplies for Soviet pipeline". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-05-29.
- Hershey Jr, Robert D. (1982-09-02). "Regan asserts U.S. will sharply ease pipeline sanctions". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-05-29.
- The inside story of the Soviet downfall, by Wes Vernon
- "Energy Security Policy as Economic Statecraft: A Concise Historical Overviewof the Last 100 Years" (PDF). Agora Without Frontiers (Institute of International Economic Relations, Greece) 9 (4): 307–329. 2004. Retrieved 2008-05-29.
- Human-rights consequences of the proposed trans-Siberian natural gas pipeline
- "Incident at Urengoi". Time. 1984-01-23. Retrieved 2008-05-30.
- "Ukraine Pipeline Explosion". Overseas Security Advisory Council. 2007-05-07. Retrieved 2008-05-30.
- "Ukrtranshaz Resumes Gas Transit To Europe Via Urengoy-Pomary-Uzhhorod Pipeline". Pro-Consulting. 2007-12-19. Retrieved 2008-05-30.
- СБУ увидела теракт во взрыве газопровода под Ивано-Франковском [SBU saw a terrorist attack in the explosion of the gas pipeline under the Ivano-Frankivsk]. vesti.ua (in Russian). May 14, 2014.
- "THREE EXPLOSIONS AT INTERNATIONAL GAS PIPELINE, AUTHORITIES SUSPECT TERRORISTS". Channel 24. 15.05.14. Check date values in:
- Moore, Jack (March 17, 2014). "Ukraine: Neo-Fascist Leader Dmitry Yarosh Vows to Destroy Russia's Gas Pipelines to Stop 'World War III'". International Business Times.
- Roy, Avik (September 17, 2014). "Ukraine: The Media Has Swallowed Five Russian Myths That Have Helped Putin Win In Ukraine". Forbes.
- "Gas transit pipeline explodes in Ukraine". RT. June 17, 2014.
- Blast at Ukraine gas pipeline said due to bomb, security increased. Reuters. June 18, 2014