Treaty of Gyehae

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Treaty of Gyehae
Japanese name
Kanji 嘉吉条約
Hiragana かきつじょうやく
Korean name
Hangul 계해조약
Hanja 癸亥條約

The Gyehae Treaty was signed in 1443 ("gyehae" is the Korean name of the year in the sexagenary cycle) between the Joseon dynasty and Sō Sadamori as a means of controlling Japanese piracy and legitimizing trade between Tsushima island and three Korean ports.[1] It is also called Kakitsu Treaty (嘉吉条約, Kakitsu Jōyaku); 1443 is the third year of the Kakitsu era in the Japanese calendar.


Tsushima was an important trade center during this period. The private trade started between Goryeo, Tsushima, Iki, and Kyūshū, but halted during the Mongol invasions of Japan between 1274 and 1281. The Goryeosa, a history of the Goryeo dynasty, mentions that in 1274, an army of Mongol troops that included many Korean soldiers killed a great number of Japanese on the islands.

Tsushima became one of the major bases of the Wokou, Japanese pirates, also called wakō, along with the Iki and Matsuura. Due to repeated pirate raids, the Goryeo dynasty and the subsequent Joseon dynasty, at times placated the pirates by establishing trade agreements, as well as negotiating with the Muromachi shogunate and its deputy in Kyūshū, and at times used force to neutralize the pirates. In 1389, General Pak Wi (朴威) of Goryeo attempted to clear the island of Wokou pirates, but uprisings in Korea forced him to return home.

On June 19, 1419, the recently abdicated king Taejong of Joseon sent general Yi Jongmu to an expedition to Tsushima island to clear it of the Wokou pirates, using a fleet of 227 vessels and 17,000 soldiers, known in Japanese as the Ōei Invasion. The Korean army returned to the Korean Peninsula on July 3, 1419,[2] and Korea gave up occupation of Tsushima.[3] In 1443, the Daimyo of Tsushima, Sō Sadamori proposed a Gyehae treaty. The number of trade ships from Tsushima to Korea was decided by this treaty, and the Sō clan monopolized the trade with Korea.[4]

Treaty terms[edit]

This treaty was signed by Joseon dynasty king Sejong the Great and the Lord of Tsushima island in 1443, and the daimyō of the So clan of Tsushima island was granted rights to conduct trade with Korea in fifty ships per year, in exchange for receiving a substantial stipend from the Korean government and aiding to stop any Japanese coastal pirate raids on Korean ports.[5][6] This Treaty was discarded by the revolt of the Sampo in 1510.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Pratt, Keith L.; Rutt, Richard; Hoare, James (September 1999). Korea: a historical and cultural dictionary. Routledge. p. 255. ISBN 978-0-7007-0463-7. 
  2. ^ "朝鮮王朝実録世宗4卷1年7月3日" Annals of the Joseon DynastyKing SejongVol.4 July 3 [1]
  3. ^ "朝鮮王朝実録世宗4卷1年7月9日" Annals of the Joseon DynastyKing SejongVol.4 July 9 [2] "세종 4권, 1년(1419 기해 / 명 영락(永樂) 17년) 7월 9일(임자) 5번째기사이원이 막 돌아온 수군을 돌려 다시 대마도 치는 것이 득책이 아님을 고하다"
  4. ^ Tsushima tourist Association WEB site [3]"1443 嘉吉条約(発亥約定)- 李氏朝鮮と通交条約である嘉吉条約を結び、歳遣船の定数を定める。これにより、宗家が朝鮮貿易の独占的な地位を占めるようになる。"
  5. ^ Swope, Kenneth M. (2013). A Dragon's Head and a Serpent's Tail: Ming China and the First Great East Asian War, 1592-1598. University of Oklahoma Press. p. 47. ISBN 0806185023. 
  6. ^ John W. Hall.; et al. (April 27, 1990). The Cambridge history of Japan [Medieval Japan]. 3. Cambridge University Press. p. 442. ISBN 0-521-22354-7.