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Tremella mesenterica JPG1.jpg
Gelatinous fruit body of Tremella mesenterica
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Fungi
Division: Basidiomycota
Class: Tremellomycetes
Order: Tremellales
Family: Tremellaceae
Genus: Tremella
Type species
Tremella mesenterica

Epidochium Fr.
Gyraria Nees
Nakaiomyces Kobayasi

Tremella is a genus of fungi in the family Tremellaceae. All Tremella species are parasites of other fungi and most produce anamorphic yeast states. Basidiocarps (fruit bodies), when produced, are gelatinous and are colloquially classed among the "jelly fungi". Over 100 species of Tremella (in its wide sense) are currently recognized worldwide. One species, Tremella fuciformis, is commercially cultivated for food.



Tremella was one of the original genera created by Linnaeus in his Species Plantarum of 1753. The name comes from the Latin tremere meaning "to tremble".[1] Linnaeus placed Tremella in the algae, including within it a variety of gelatinous growths, including seaweeds, cyanobacteria, and myxomycetes, as well as fungi. Subsequent authors added additional species to this mix, until Persoon revised Tremella in 1794 and 1801, repositioning the genus within the fungi.[2]

Persoon's reinterpretation of Tremella was sufficiently radical to be considered a separate genus (Tremella Pers.) from that originally created by Linnaeus (Tremella L.).[2] Tremella Pers. has now been conserved under the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants, with Tremella mesenterica as the type species.[3]

Current status[edit]

Molecular research, based on cladistic analysis of DNA sequences, has shown that Tremella (as previously understood) is polyphyletic (and hence artificial), with most species not closely related to the type.[4][5][6][7] Accordingly, some species have been transferred to new genera and new families: Tremella foliacea and related species are now placed in the genus Phaeotremella within the family Phaeotremellaceae; Tremella encephala and related species are now placed in the genus Naematelia within the Naemateliaceae; Tremella moriformis and related species are now placed in the genus Pseudotremella within the Bulleraceae; and Tremella polyporina is now placed in the genus Carcinomyces within the Carcinomycetaceae.[8] Several other species groups have not yet been renamed, pending further research.[8]

More than 500 species have been described in Tremella, but most of these are old names of doubtful application or old names for species later transferred to other genera. In its strict sense, the genus Tremella now contains some 30-40 species, including the type Tremella mesenterica and the cultivated species T. fuciformis.[9]


Fruit bodies (when present) are gelatinous. In some species they are small (under 5 mm across) and pustular to pulvinate (cushion-shaped). In others they are much larger (up to 150 mm across) and may be variously lobed, cephaliform (like a brain, with folds and ridges), or foliose (with leaf-like or seaweed-like fronds). Many Tremella species, however, are hymenial parasites, producing spores within the fruit bodies of their hosts, and are only visible microscopically.[4]

Microscopic characters[edit]

Tremella species produce hyphae that are typically (but not always) clamped and have haustorial cells from which hyphal filaments seek out and penetrate the hyphae of the host.[10] The basidia are "tremelloid" (globose to ellipsoid, sometimes stalked, and vertically or diagonally septate), giving rise to long, sinuous sterigmata or epibasidia on which the basidiospores are produced. These spores are smooth, globose to ellipsoid, and germinate by hyphal tube or by yeast cells. Conidiophores are often present, producing conidiospores that are similar to yeast cells.[4]

Habitat and distribution[edit]

Species are mainly parasitic on wood-rotting fungi in the phyla Ascomycota and Basidiomycota,[11] particularly on species that occur on dead attached branches. Hosts include members of the corticioid fungi and Dacrymycetales in the Basidiomycota and species of Diaporthe, other Sordariomycetes, and lichens in the Ascomycota. Some Tremella species parasitize the fruit bodies of their hosts, others parasitize the mycelium within the wood.

As a group, Tremella species occur worldwide, though individual species may have a more restricted distribution.

Species and hosts[edit]

The list below includes species of Tremella (in the wide sense) that have recently been described or redescribed based on fruit bodies. Species based on yeasts are not included. Some additional older species may also be valid, but lack a modern description. The type locality (but not the wider distribution) is given for each species together with the host fungus, where known. Species belonging to Tremella in the strict sense are marked as such, as are those that have been transferred to new genera.

Image Name Current Status Type Locality Host
Tremella anomala Brazil Hypoxylon spp[12]
Tremella arachispora Cameroon unknown[13]
Tremella armeniaca Costa Rica Xylaria sp?[14]
Tremella aurantia 13102008a.jpg Tremella aurantia Naematelia aurantia USA Stereum hirsutum[4][15]
Tremella aurantialba Naematelia aurantialba China Stereum hirsutum[16]
Tremella australe Tremella sensu stricto China unknown[17]
Tremella australiensis Australia Stereum spp[4]
Tremella brasiliensis Tremella sensu stricto Brazil unknown[4][15][18]
Tremella callunicola Scotland Aleurodiscus norvegicus[19]
Tremella caloceraticola Denmark Calocera cornea[20]
Tremella caloplacae Greece Caloplaca spp[21](as Tremella sp. 1)
Tremella candelariellae Luxembourg Candelariella spp[21]
Tremella cephalodiicola Papua New Guinea Psoroma pannarioides[21]
Tremella cerebriformis Tremella sensu stricto Taiwan unknown[4]
Tremella cetrariicola Scotland Cetraria spp[21]
Tremella cheejenii Tremella sensu stricto China unknown[9]
Tremella christiansenii Denmark Physcia spp[21]
Tremella cinnabarina Tremella sensu stricto Tahiti unknown[22]
Tremella cladoniae Germany Cladonia spp[21]
Tremella coalescens Tremella sensu stricto USA unknown[4]
Tremella coccocarpiae Philippines Coccocarpia rottleri[21]
Tremella coffeicolor Bermuda unknown[12][15](as T. auricularia)
Tremella colpomaticola Denmark Colpoma quercinum[20]
Tremella compacta Brazil unknown[22]
Tremella coppinsii Sarawak Platismatia spp[21]
Tremella dendrographae USA Dendrographa minor[21]
Tremella dactylobasidia Spain Dendrothele macrosporae[23]
Tremella discicola Belgium Mollisia and Pyrenopeziza spp[24]
Tremella dysenterica Tremella sensu stricto Brazil unknown[12][15]
Ajukõhrik.JPG Tremella encephala Naematelia encephala Europe Stereum sanguinolentum[4][25]
Tremella erythrina Tremella sensu stricto China unknown[9]
Tremella everniae China Evernia mesomorpha[21]
Tremella exigua France Diaporthe spp[4]
Tremella fibulifera Tremella sensu stricto Brazil unknown
Tremella fimbriata Phaeotremella fimbriata Europe Stereum rugosum
Tremella foliacea Phaeotremella foliacea Europe Stereum sanguinolentum
Tremella flava Tremella sensu stricto Taiwan Hypoxylon spp[4]
Phaeotremella foliacea (Pers.) Wedin, J.C. Zamora & Millanes 885447.jpg Tremella frondosa Phaeotremella frondosa Europe Stereum spp
Tremella fuciformis 337510.jpg Tremella fuciformis Tremella sensu stricto Brazil Annulohypoxylon archeri[26][27] and other Annulohypoxylon and/or Hypoxylon spp.[4][15][27]
Tremella fungicola Denmark Mollisia cinerea[28]
Tremella fuscosuccinea Phaeotremella fuscosuccinea Taiwan unknown[4]
Tremella giraffa Germany Dacrymyces spp[4][29]
Tremella globispora D.A. Reid 393505 2013-12-22.jpg Tremella globispora Tremella sensu stricto England Diaporthe spp[4]
Tremella graphidastrae Papua New Guinea Graphidastra multiformis[21]
Tremella guangxiensis Tremella sensu stricto China unknown[17]
Tremella guttiformis Sri Lanka unknown[30]
Tremella haematommatis USA Haematomma puniceum[21]
Tremella harrisii USA Polymeridium catapastum[21]
Tremella huuskonenii Raesaenenia huuskonenii[31]
Tremella hymenophaga Spain Scytinostroma odoratum[32]
Tremella hypocenomycis Finland Hypocenomyce spp[21][33]
Tremella hypogymniae France Hypogymnia spp[21]
Tremella indecorata Norway Diatrype bullata[33]
Tremella invasa Denmark Trechispora spp[19]
Tremella karstenii Finland Colpoma juniperi[20][33]
Tremella latispora Tremella sensu stricto China unknown[17]
Tremella leptogii Peru Leptogium sp.[21]
Tremella lethariae Canada Letharia vulpina[34]
Tremella lichenicola Luxembourg Mycoblastus fucatus[21]
Tremella lilacea Costa Rica Diaporthe sp?[14]
Tremella lloydiae-candidae Tremella sensu stricto unknown unknown
Tremella lobariacearum Madeira Lobariaceae spp[21]
Tremella macroceratis Norway Cladonia macroceras[21]
Tremella mesenterella Canada Peniophora spp[18]
Lanaken Pietersembos gele trilzwam 2021-01-22 16-05-57.jpg Tremella mesenterica Tremella sensu stricto Sweden Peniophora spp[18]
Tremella microcarpa Papua New Guinea lichen sp.[21]
Tremella microspora Naematelia microspora South Africa Stereum spp[4]
Tremella monospora Peru Leptogium sp.[21]
Tremella montis-wilhelmii Papua New Guinea Normandina simodense sp.[21]
Tremella moriformis Pseudotremella moriformis England Diaporthe spp[4]
Tremella mycetophiloides Phaeotremella mycetophiloides Japan Aleurodiscus amorphus and A. grantii[35]
Tremella mycophaga Phaeotremella mycophaga USA Aleurodiscus amorphus and A. grantii[35]
Tremella nashii USA Usnea sorediifera[36]
Tremella neofoliacea Phaeotremella neofoliacea Taiwan Stereum sanguinolentum[4]
Tremella nephromatis Canada Nephroma parile[21]
Tremella nieblae USA Niebla cephalota[36]
Tremella nigrifacta Costa Rica Diatrypella sp.[14]
Tremella nivalis Pseudotremella nivalis Taiwan Diatrype spp[4]
Tremella normandinae Hawaii Normandina pulchella[21]
Tremella obscura USA Dacrymyces spp[29]
Tremella occultifuroidea Taiwan Dacrymyces spp[37]
Tremella olens Australia unknown[38]
Tremella papuana Papua New Guinea Hypogymnia pseudobitteriana[21]
Tremella parmeliarum Papua New Guinea Parmotrema spp[21]
Tremella parmeliellae Papua New Guinea Parmeliella foliicola[21]
Tremella penetrans Denmark Dacrymyces spp[29]
Tremella pertusariae Northern Ireland Pertusaria spp[21]
Tremella phaeographidis England Phaeographis spp[21]
Tremella phaeographinae USA Phaeographina spp[21]
Tremella phaeophysciae Denmark Phaeophyscia orbicularis[21]
Tremella polyporina Reid 311599 2012-09-13.jpg Tremella polyporina Carcinomyces polyporinus Scotland Postia spp[29]
Tremella protoparmeliae England Protoparmelia spp[21]
Tremella psoroglaenae Papua New Guinea Psoroglaena spp[21]
Tremella psoromicola Chile Psoroma spp[21]
Tremella ramalinae Mexico Ramalina spp[21]
Tremella roseolutescens Costa Rica unknown[14]
Tremella resupinata Tremella sensu stricto Taiwan Hypoxylon spp[4]
Tremella rinodinae Denmark Rinodina spp[21]
Tremella rosea Austria unknown
Tremella salmonea Tremella sensu stricto China unknown[9]
Tremella samoensis Tremella sensu stricto Samoa unknown
Tremella santessonii Zimbabwe Usnea spp[21]
Tremella sarniensis Guernsey Phanerochaete sordida[19]
Tremella silvae-dravedae Denmark unknown[20]
Tremella simplex Phaeotremella simplex Canada Aleurodiscus amorphus[19][35]
Tremella spicifera Belgium Massarina arundinacea[39]
Tremella steidleri Czech Republic Stereum hirsutum[25]
Tremella stevensiana Australia Usnea confusa[21]
Tremella stictae Rwanda Sticta weigelii[21]
Tremella subencephala Canada Acanthophysium lividocoeruleum[35]
Tremella subfibulifera Tremella sensu stricto Brazil unknown[17]
Tremella sulcariae China Sulcaria sulcata[21]
Tremella taiwanensis Tremella sensu stricto Taiwan unknown[4]
Tremella tawa New Zealand unknown[40]
Tremella telleriae Spain Postia spp[32]
Tremella translucens Scotland Lophodermium spp[41](as Sirotrema translucens)
Tremella tremelloides USA Stereum sp.[30]
Tremella tropica Tremella sensu stricto Taiwan unknown[4]
Tremella tuckerae USA Ramalina sinensis[36]
Tremella vasifera Germany unknown[4]
Tremella versicolor England Peniophora spp[19][35]
Tremella vesiculosa by Genaee Rhodes.jpg Tremella vesiculosa New Zealand Xylaria sp?[40]
Tremella wirthii Germany Protoparmelia sp.[21]
Tremella wrightii Cuba unknown[15]
Tremella zhejiangensis Tremella sensu stricto China unknown[42]


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