Tremella

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Tremella
Tremella mesenterica JPG1.jpg
Gelatinous fruit body of Tremella mesenterica
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Fungi
Division: Basidiomycota
Class: Tremellomycetes
Order: Tremellales
Family: Tremellaceae
Genus: Tremella
Pers.
Type species
Tremella mesenterica
(Schaeff.) Retz.
Synonyms

Hormomyces Bonord. (anamorph)
Encephalium Link
Epidochium Fr.
Gyraria Nees
Naematelia Fr.
Nakaiomyces Kobayasi
Phaeotremella Rea

Tremella is a genus of fungi in the family Tremellaceae. All Tremella species are parasites of other fungi and most produce anamorphic yeast states. Basidiocarps (fruit bodies), when produced, are gelatinous and are colloquially classed among the "jelly fungi". Over 100 species of Tremella are currently recognized worldwide. Two species, Tremella fuciformis and Tremella aurantialba, are commercially cultivated for food.

Taxonomy[edit]

History[edit]

Tremella was one of the original genera created by Linnaeus in his Species Plantarum of 1753. The name comes from the Latin tremere meaning "to tremble".[1] Linnaeus placed Tremella in the algae, including within it a variety of gelatinous growths, including seaweeds, cyanobacteria, and myxomycetes, as well as fungi. Subsequent authors added additional species to this mix, until Persoon revised Tremella in 1794 and 1801, repositioning the genus within the fungi.[2]

Persoon's reinterpretation of Tremella was sufficiently radical to be considered a separate genus (Tremella Pers.) from that originally created by Linnaeus (Tremella L.).[2] Tremella Pers. has now been conserved under the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature, with Tremella mesenterica as the type species.[3]

Current status[edit]

Molecular research, based on cladistic analysis of DNA sequences, suggests that Tremella is polyphyletic (and hence artificial), the genus not being clearly separated from other genera within the Tremellaceae.[4][5][6][7] Comparatively few species, however, have yet been sequenced.

More than 500 species have been described in Tremella, but most of these are old names of doubtful application or old names for species later transferred to other genera. Over 100 species are currently accepted within the genus.[8]

Description[edit]

Fruit bodies (when present) are gelatinous. In some species they are small (under 5 mm across) and pustular to pulvinate (cushion-shaped). In others they are much larger (up to 150 mm across) and may be variously lobed, cephaliform (like a brain, with folds and ridges), or foliose (with leaf-like or seaweed-like fronds). Many Tremella species, however, are hymenial parasites, producing spores within the fruit bodies of their hosts, and are only visible microscopically.[4]

Microscopic characters[edit]

Tremella species produce hyphae that are typically (but not always) clamped and have haustorial cells from which hyphal filaments seek out and penetrate the hyphae of the host.[9] The basidia are "tremelloid" (globose to ellipsoid, sometimes stalked, and vertically or diagonally septate), giving rise to long, sinuous sterigmata or epibasidia on which the basidiospores are produced. These spores are smooth, globose to ellipsoid, and germinate by hyphal tube or by yeast cells. Conidiophores are often present, producing conidiospores that are similar to yeast cells.[4]

Habitat and distribution[edit]

Species are mainly parasitic on wood-rotting fungi in the phyla Ascomycota and Basidiomycota,[10] particularly on species that occur on dead attached branches. Hosts include members of the corticioid fungi, polypores, and Dacrymycetales in the Basidiomycota and species of Diaporthe, other Sordariomycetes, and lichens in the Ascomycota. Some Tremella species parasitize the fruit bodies of their hosts (sometimes incorporating host hyphae), others parasitize the mycelium within the wood.

As a group, Tremella species occur worldwide, though individual species may have a more restricted distribution.

Species and hosts[edit]

The list below includes species that have recently been described or redescribed. Some additional older species may also be valid, but lack a modern description. The type locality (but not the wider distribution) is given for each species together with the host fungus, where known.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Rea C. (1922). 'British Basidiomycetaceae. A handbook of the larger British fungi. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 799. 
  2. ^ a b Donk MA. (1958). "The generic names proposed for hymenomycetes – VIII". Taxon. 7 (8): 236–250. doi:10.2307/1217280. JSTOR 1217280. 
  3. ^ International Code of Botanical Nomenclature, Appendix III http://ibot.sav.sk/icbn/main.htm
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x Chen C-J. (1998). Morphological and molecular studies in the genus Tremella. Berlin: J. Cramer. p. 225. ISBN 3-443-59076-4. 
  5. ^ Fell JW, Boekhout T, Fonseca A, Scorzetti G, Statzell-Tallman A (2000). "Biodiversity and systematics of basidiomycetous yeasts as determined by large-subunit rDNA D1/D2 domain sequence analysis" (PDF). International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 50 (3): 1351–1371. doi:10.1099/00207713-50-3-1351. PMID 10843082. Retrieved 2010-04-21. 
  6. ^ Sampaio JP, Weiss M, Gadanho M, Bauer R (2002). "New taxa in the Tremellales: Bulleribasidium oberjochense gen. et sp. nov., Papiliotrema bandonii gen. et sp. nov. and Fibulobasidium murrhardtense sp. nov". Mycologia. 94 (5): 873–887. doi:10.2307/3761703. JSTOR 3761703. PMID 21156562. 
  7. ^ Findley K, Rodriguez-Carres M, Metin B, Kroiss J, Fonseca A, Vilgalys R, Heitman J (2009). "Phylogeny and Phenotypic Characterization of Pathogenic Cryptococcus Species and Closely Related Saprobic Taxa in the Tremellales". Eukaryotic Cell. 8 (3): 353–361. doi:10.1128/EC.00373-08. PMC 2653247Freely accessible. PMID 19151324. 
  8. ^ http://www.indexfungorum.org/Names/genusrecord.asp?RecordID=18665 Tremella
  9. ^ Zugmaier W, Bauer R, Oberwinkler F (1994). "Mycoparasitism of some Tremella species". Mycologia. 86 (1): 49–56. doi:10.2307/3760718. JSTOR 3760718. 
  10. ^ Bills GF, Mueller GM, Foster MS (2004). Biodiversity of Fungi: Inventory and Monitoring Methods. Amsterdam: Elsevier Academic Press. p. 359. ISBN 0-12-509551-1. Retrieved 2010-05-18. 
  11. ^ a b c Bandoni RJ, Oberwinkler F (1983). "On some species of Tremella described by Alfred Möller". Mycologia. 75 (5): 854–863. doi:10.2307/3792776. JSTOR 3792776. 
  12. ^ Roberts P. (2003). "Tremella arachispora: a new species from Mount Cameroon". Kew Bulletin. 58 (3): 763–764. doi:10.2307/4111158. JSTOR 4111158. 
  13. ^ a b c d Bandoni R, Carranza J, Bandoni AA (1996). "Four new species of Tremella (Tremellales: Basidiomycotina) from Costa Rica". Revista de Biologia Tropical. 44 (Suppl. 4): 15–24. 
  14. ^ a b c d e f g Roberts P, de Meijer AA (1997). "Macromycetes from the state of Paraná, Brazil. 6. Sirobasidiaceae & Tremellaceae". Mycotaxon. 64: 261–283. 
  15. ^ Bandoni RJ, Zang M (1990). "On an undescribed Tremella from China". Mycologia. 82 (2): 270–273. doi:10.2307/3759859. JSTOR 3759859. 
  16. ^ a b c Bandoni R, Ginns J (1998). "Notes on Tremella mesenterica and related species". Canadian Journal of Botany. 76 (9): 1544–1557. doi:10.1139/cjb-76-9-1544. 
  17. ^ a b c d e Roberts P. (2001). "British Tremella species III: Tremella callunicola sp, nov., T. invasa, T. sarniensis sp, nov.,T. simplex & T. versicolor". Mycologist. 15 (4): 146–150. doi:10.1016/S0269-915X(01)80002-1. 
  18. ^ a b c d Hauerslev K. (1999). "New and rare species of heterobasidiomycetes". Mycotaxon. 72: 465–486. 
  19. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao Diederich P. (1996). The lichenicolous heterobasidiomycetes. Berlin: J. Cramer. p. 198. 
  20. ^ a b Bandoni RJ. (1958). "Some tremellaceous fungi in the C.G. Lloyd collection". Lloydia. 21: 137–151. 
  21. ^ Zamora JC. (2009). "Tremella dactylobasidia, una nueva especie de Tremella con basidios de morfología peculiar". Boletín de la Sociedad Micológica de Madrid (in Spanish). 33: 49–58. 
  22. ^ Van de Put K. (2004). "Drie nieuwe heterobasidiomyceten uit Noord-België". Sterbeeckia. 24: 12–16. 
  23. ^ a b c Roberts P. (1999). "British Tremella species II: T. encephala, T. steidleri & T. foliacea". Mycologist. 13 (3): 127–131. doi:10.1016/S0269-915X(99)80044-5. 
  24. ^ Stamets, Paul (2000). "Chapter 21: Growth Parameters for Gourmet and Medicinal Mushroom Species". Growing gourmet and medicinal mushrooms = [Shokuyo oyobi yakuyo kinoko no sabai] (3rd ed.). Berkeley, California, USA: Ten Speed Press. pp. 402–405. ISBN 978-1-58008-175-7. 
  25. ^ a b Hsieh, Huei-Mei; Ju, Yu-Ming; Rogers, Jack D. (July–August 2005). Natvig, Don, ed. "Molecular phylogeny of Hypoxylon and closely related genera". Mycologia. Lawrence, Kansas, USA: The Mycological Society of America. 97 (4): 844–865. doi:10.3852/mycologia.97.4.844. ISSN 1557-2536. PMID 16457354. Print ISSN: 0027-5514. Retrieved 31 January 2012. 
  26. ^ Hauerslev K. (1976). "New and rare Tremellaceae on record from Denmark". Friesia. 11: 94–115. 
  27. ^ a b c d Roberts P. (2007). "British Tremella species IV: Tremella obscura, T. penetrans, T. giraffa & T. polyporina". Field Mycology. 8 (4): 127–133. doi:10.1016/S1468-1641(10)60385-4. 
  28. ^ a b Bandoni RJ. (1961). "The genus Naematelia". American Midland Naturalist. 66 (2): 319–328. doi:10.2307/2423032. JSTOR 2423032. 
  29. ^ a b Dueñas M. (2001). "Iberian intrahymenial species of Platygloeales, Tremellales and Tulasnellales". Nova Hedwigia. 72: 441–459. 
  30. ^ a b c Pippola E, Kotiranta H (2008). "The genus Tremella (Basidiomycota, Tremellales) in Finland". Annales Botanici Fennici. 45 (6): 401–434. doi:10.5735/085.045.0601. 
  31. ^ Diederich P. (2003). "Neue Arten und neue Funde von amerkanischen lichenicolen Pilzen". Herzogia. 16: 41–90. 
  32. ^ a b c d Bandoni R, Ginns J (1993). "On some species of Tremella associated with Corticiaceae". Transactions of the Mycological Society of Japan. 34: 21–36. 
  33. ^ a b c Diederich P. (2007). "New or interesting lichenicolous heterobasidiomycetes". Opuscula Philolichenum. 4: 11–22. 
  34. ^ Chen C-J.; Oberwinkler, Franz; Chen, Zuei-Ching (1999). "Tremella occultifuroidea sp. nov., a new mycoparasite of Dacrymyces". Mycoscience. 40 (2): 137–143. doi:10.1007/BF02464292. 
  35. ^ Van Ryckegem G, Van de Put K, Roberts P (2002). "Tremella spicifera sp. nov., a parasite of Massarina arundinacea". Mycotaxon. 81: 185–189. 
  36. ^ a b Bandoni RJ, Buchanan PK (1990). "Two new species of Tremella from New Zealand". New Zealand Journal of Botany. 28 (4): 451–454. doi:10.1080/0028825X.1990.10412328. 
  37. ^ Bandoni RJ. (1985). "Sirotrema: a new genus in the Tremellaceae". Canadian Journal of Botany. 64 (3): 668–676. doi:10.1139/b86-085.