21st Century Medicine
21st Century Medicine (21CM) is a California cryobiological research company which has as its primary focus the development of perfusates and protocols for viable long-term cryopreservation of human organs, tissues and cells at cryogenic temperatures (temperatures below −100 °C) through the use of vitrification. 21CM was founded in 1993.
Dr. Gregory M. Fahy, who pioneered the use of vitrification in reproductive cryopreservation, serves on the company’s Board of Directors and prioritizes, develops and directs the company’s research activities. He also manages all extramural collaborative research projects with universities, industry and research institutions to create specific products and services.
The company holds a number of patents, most notably for cryoprotectant mixtures that greatly reduce ice formation while minimizing cryoprotectant toxicity, as well as for synthetic ice-blockers that inexpensively simulate the antifreeze protein found in arctic organisms. Their website lists peer-reviewed journal publications based on research conducted in their laboratories. In 2004 21CM received a $900,000 grant from the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) to study a preservation solution developed by the University of Rochester in New York for extending simple cold storage time of human hearts removed for transplant.
At the July 2005 annual conference of the Society for Cryobiology, 21st Century Medicine announced the vitrification of a rabbit kidney to -135 °C with their proprietary vitrification mixture. The kidney was successfully transplanted upon rewarming to a rabbit, the rabbit being euthanized on the 48th day for histological follow-up.
- Michael J. Taylor; Ying C. Song; Kelvin G.M. Brockbank (2004). Vitrification in Tissue Preservation: New Developments In: Life in the Frozen State (B.J. Fuller, N. Lane, and E.E. Benson, Eds.). CRC Press. pp. 603–641. ISBN 0-415-24700-4.
- Fahy, G.M.; Hirsh, A. (1982). Prospects for Organ Preservation by Vitrification. In: Organ Preservation, Basic and Applied Aspects (D.E. Pegg, I.A. Jacobsen and N.A. Halasz, Eds.). Springer. pp. 399–404. ISBN 0-85200-418-4.
- Fahy GM, MacFarlane DR, Angell CA, Meryman HT (1984). "Vitrification as an approach to cryopreservation". Cryobiology. 21 (4): 407–426. PMID 6467964. doi:10.1016/0011-2240(84)90079-8.
- Rall WF, Fahy GM (1985). "Ice-free cryopreservation of mouse embryos at -196 degrees C by vitrification". Nature. 313 (6003): 573–575. PMID 3969158. doi:10.1038/313573a0.
- Fahy GM (1986). "Vitrification: a new approach to organ cryopreservation". PROGRESS IN CLINICAL AND BIOLOGICAL RESEARCH. 224: 305–335. PMID 3540994.
- Fahy, Gregory M. (May 16, 2002). "Vitrification versus Freezing of Organs". Science E-Letter responses. American Association for the Advancement of Science. Retrieved 2010-10-22.
- Fahy, G.M.; Rall, W.F (2007). Vitrification: An overview. In: Vitrification in Assisted Reproduction: A User's Manual and Troubleshooting Guide (J. Liebermann and M.J. Tucker, Eds). Informa Healthcare. ISBN 0-415-40882-2.
- Mullen, S.F.; Fahy, G.M (February 28, 2011). Fundamental aspects of vitrification as a method of reproductive cell, tissue, and organ cryopreservation. In: Principles & Practice of Fertility Preservation (Donnez, J., and Kim, S.S., Eds.). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-19695-7.
- "Cryopreservation of embryos". The Lancet. 1 (8430): 678. 1985. PMID 2858625. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(85)91336-4.
- "21CM Publications". Archived from the original on 18 October 2006. Retrieved 2006-11-08.
- "NIH grant to be used for heart preservation research". Business Wire. October 31, 2004. Retrieved 2012-05-02.
- "Plenary Session: Fundamentals of Biopreservation". CRYO 2005 Scientific Program. Society for Cryobiology. July 24, 2005. Archived from the original on 2006-08-30. Retrieved 2006-11-08.
- Fahy GM, Wowk B, Pagotan R, Chang A, Phan J, Thomson B, Phan L (2009). "Physical and biological aspects of renal vitrification". ORGANOGENESIS. 5 (3): 167–175. PMC . PMID 20046680. doi:10.4161/org.5.3.9974.
After ensuring that the animal appeared capable of living indefinitely using the vitrified kidney as the sole renal support, it was euthanized for histological follow-up on day 48.