Attwater's prairie chicken
|Attwater's prairie chicken|
Critically Imperiled (NatureServe)
T. c. attwateri
|Tympanuchus cupido attwateri|
Attwater's prairie chicken measures 17-18 in (43-45.5 cm) and weighs roughly 1.5 to 2.0 lb (0.7 to 0.9 kg). It has a 28-in (70-cm) wingspan. These grouse have strong vertical bars of dark brown and buff-white pattern over the mantle, flanks, and underparts. The species exhibits sexual dimorphism, with the males having elongated feathers, called pinnae, erected to form what looks like ear-like structures. The male also has as a bright orange or golden air sac on either side of his neck, which he inflates during mating displays. They have a lifespan of two to five years.
Habitat and range
T. c. attwateri is endemic to the Western Gulf coastal grasslands. Its range historically stretched west from Bayou Teche in Louisiana to the Nueces River in Texas, possibly as far south as Tamaulipas, Mexico, and inland for 75 mi (121 km). This covered an area of 6 million acres (24,000 km²). Today, populations exist in the wild at two locations: the Attwater Prairie Chicken National Wildlife Refuge near Eagle Lake, Texas, and on private lands in Goliad County.
The mating display can be seen January through mid-May, peaking in mid-March, when the birds gather in small groups on short grass, bare ground, or hilly areas to choose a mate. This area is called a lek or "booming ground." In these areas, the females watch the males and choose their mate. The male emits a booming, "woo-woo" sound from his neck sack, causing it to inflate, and struts around to attract a female. Some of the traditional dances of the North American Plains Indians are based on this booming display.
In late spring, the hens lay 10 to 14 eggs in nests on the ground, hidden in tall grass. The eggs hatch about 26 days later. Only about 3 in 10 eggs hatch and the others are lost to predators. The chicks stay with the hen for about six weeks.
Diet and predation
This species has a diverse diet, eating grass shoots, petals of flowers, seeds, and insects such as grasshoppers. Their predators include hawks, owls, coyotes, raccoons, skunks, opossums, and snakes. Chicks are susceptible to flooding.
In 1900, up to 1,000,000 Attwater's prairie chickens inhabited the coastal grasslands. Loss of habitat is believed to be the prime reason for their decline. One of the major factors contributing to the habitat loss was the widespread planting, beginning in the early 1900s, of Chinese tallow trees (Triadica sebifera) to establish a soapmaking industry. Since that time, T. sebifera has proven to be an aggressive invader of the coastal grasslands, where it displaces the diverse native plant assemblage that was dominated by prairie grasses and forbs with dense, near-monospecific stands that significantly alter biotic and abiotic ecosystem processes. Urbanization further contributes to habitat loss. As a result of these changes over the last 100 years, the entire grassland ecosystem where Attwater's prairie chicken once thrived exists in small, scattered patches whose continued existence is threatened. Where once grazing plains bison and periodic wildfires due to lightning reduced brush, the birds now have difficulty making their way through thick undergrowth. Other, less-apparent changes in the ecosystem possibly have had an effect, as well.
A 1937 study recorded about 8,700 Attwater's prairie chickens remaining in four Texas counties. Attwater's prairie chicken has been on the endangered species list since March 1967 when an estimated 1,070 birds were left in the wild. By 2003, there were fewer than 50 birds left in the wild.
In 2014, an estimated 260 birds remained, with about 100 living in the wild. Captive-breeding programs are underway at places such as Fossil Rim Wildlife Center, Abilene Zoo, and Caldwell Zoo (Tyler, TX). Through a partnership with the Houston Zoo, a captive-breeding flock is residing on the grounds of the NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center near Clear Lake.
In 2016, the population declined to 42 birds following heavy spring floods, which wiped out an entire generation of eggs. Hurricane Harvey in 2017 was even more disastrous, likely killing at least 32 birds, with only five females found during the post-hurricane survey of the area. However, in the spring of 2018, the estimated wild population was 12.
|Wikispecies has information related to Tympanuchus cupido attwateri|
- "Attwater's Prairie-Chicken". Society of Tympanuchus Cupido Pinnatus, Ltd. Retrieved 29 October 2016.
- "Tympanuchus cupido attwateri". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 2010-11-24.
- "Attwater's Prairie Chicken". Texas Parks and Wildlife Department. Retrieved 2010-11-25.
- "Attwater's Prairie Chicken History of Species Decline Historic Populations". Texas Parks and Wildlife Department. Retrieved 2010-11-25.
- Silvy, Nova J.; Brown, Dennis L.; Labuda, Jr., Stephen E.; Teer, James G.; Williams, Dennis (1996). "Attwater's Prairie Chicken Recovery Plan" (PDF). United States Fish and Wildlife Service.
- "Attwater's Prairie Chicken History of Species Decline Current Range". Texas Parks and Wildlife Department. Retrieved 2010-11-25.
- Flack, S. & E. Furlow. 1996. "America's least wanted "purple plague", "green cancer" and 10 other ruthless environmental thugs". Nature Conservancy Magazine. Vol. 46, No. 6 November/December.
- Bruce, K. A., G. N. Cameron, & P. A. Harcombe. 1995. "Initiation of a new woodland type on the Texas coastal prairie by the Chinese tallow tree (Sapium sebiferum (L.) Roxb.)". Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 122:215-225.
- "Animal Conservation". Fossil Rim Wildlife Center. Archived from the original on 2011-07-19. Retrieved 2010-11-24.
- "Attwater's Prairie Chicken Recovery Program". Houston Zoo. Archived from the original on 22 June 2009. Retrieved 2009-08-06.
- "How Hurricane Harvey Affected Birds and Their Habitats in Texas". Audubon. 2017-09-25. Retrieved 2017-09-29.