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References[edit]

US Department of Energy. (November, 2012). Gas technology institute R&D project. Retrieved from, http://www1.eere.energy.gov/biomass/pdfs/ibr_arra_gti.pdf.

Balagurumurthy, B., Oza T. S., Bhaskar, T., Kumar Adhikari D. (November, 2012). Renewable hydrocarbons through biomass hydropyrolysis process: challenges and opportunities.

Marker, T. L., Felix, L. G., Linck, M. B., Roberts M. J. (December, 2011). Integrated hydropyrolysis and hydroconversion (IH2) for the direct production of gasoline and diesel fuels or blending components from biomass, part 1: Proof of principle testing. Environmental progress & sustainable energy. (31, 2)

Rodden, G. (2012). Catalysts are the key. PPI, 54(12), 13-18. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/1282443179?accountid=10353


DRAFT[edit]

Gas Technology Institute (GTI) developed a catalytic process called integrated hydropyrolysis and hydroconversion (IH2) that directly turns biomass(feedstock) into a useable fuel, gasoline and diesel [1] . The process can use a considerably wide variety of types of biomass ranging from wood to algae. GTI is receiving funding from the United States Government through the Department of energy with hopes that IH2 will reduce the U.S’ dependence on foreign oil imports, reduce greenhouse gasses and permanent employment [2]. IH2 is still being tested before going commercial, but is on the fast track to building larger facilities and starting mass production. GTI has a small facility at their research campus in Des Plaines, Ill., that can process one ton of biomass per day, which is being used for testing of the product fuel and aiding with design a pilot facility capable of processing fifty tons of biomass per day [2]. The quality of fuel that IH2 produces is very clean and the types of fuel it can produce ranges from gasoline and diesel, to jet fuel [1].

IH2 is the use of two processes, hydropyrolysis and hydroconversion. Hydropyrolysis is the first processed used to turn biomass into usable fuel. The biomass is being fed into a chamber full of hydrogen gas under pressure (14-35 bar), intense heat (300-700℃), and at the bottom of the chamber there is a liquid catalyst that is specially made for this process [1]. This is the same process that is used for pyrolysis under atmospheric pressure, only under hydrogen atmosphere. Doing pyrolysis under a hydrogen atmosphere creates water and compounds of CO, reducing the amount of oxygen in the fuel product and minimizing acidity of the final fuel product [3]. The gasses, along with char, from pyrolysis go to a container where the char drops out and the gasses continue to the hydroconversion step of the process where the hydrogen reacts with the product gasses and creates hydrocarbons that are cooled and condensed in to a knockout pot that collects the hydrocarbons and water. Lighter gasses are also created and are condensed in a second stage chiller and go into a second knockout pot where the hydrocarbons and water separate because the hydrocarbons, fuel, is less dense than water [3]

Process[edit]

IH2 is the use of two processes, hydropyrolysis and hydroconversion. Hydropyrolysis is the first process used to turn biomass into usable fuel. The biomass is fed into a chamber full of hydrogen gas under pressure (14-35 bar) and intense heat (300-700℃), and at the bottom of the chamber there is a bubbling fluid bed that contains the catalyst specially made for this process [1] [4]. This is the same process that is used for pyrolysis under atmospheric pressure, only under hydrogen atmosphere. Doing pyrolysis under a hydrogen atmosphere creates water and compounds of CO, reducing the amount of oxygen in the fuel product and minimizing acidity of the final fuel product [3]. The gases, which contains different lengths of hydrocarbons, water, and char, from pyrolysis go to a cyclone that collects about 10-12% of the char out and the gases continue to the hydroconversion step of the process where the hydrogen reacts with the product gasses and creates lighter hydrocarbons that are then cooled and condensed in to a knockout pot that collects the hydrocarbons and water [1] [4]. The lighter gasses that are created and are condensed in a second stage chiller and go into a second knockout pot where the hydrocarbons, in both knockout pots, and water separate because the hydrocarbon, fuel, is less dense than water [3].

GTI studied how different temperatures and pressures affect the quality and quantity of fuel being produced. When the pressure of the hydrogen is increased it was found that the amount of hydrocarbons being produced was greater, and the fuel being produced contained less oxygen [3]. This adjustment made the process much more effective, not only by reducing the char byproduct, but by also more completely using the biomass, increasing the hydrogen atmosphere increased the amount of carbon from the biomass being used to greater than 70% [3]. Even thought not all the carbon from the biomass being supplied is being used, the return in mass is greater than what is put in to IH2. The weight reconvered at the end of the process is over 100% the weight put in because of the hydrogen being added during hydopyrolysis and hydroconversion [1]. Temperature also plays a factor into the result of the final product. When the temperature is more intense, the amount of char produced in the hydropyrolysis process is reduced on a linear scale, and the same is true that, the percent weight of hydrocarbons being produced increases on a linear scale when the temperature is increased [1] IH2 is almost completely self-sufficient. Only natural gas is needed to start the process, but after that the process creates the heat it needs to continue operating [4]. The hydrogen used for this process is not being supplied by an external source. It is created in the process on hydropyrolysis. The light ends (lighter hydrocarbons) can be reacted with CO by increasing the temperature of the process thus producing even more light ends and more hydrogen for the system [1].

Fuel Properties[edit]

The fuel produced is very clean and has very desirable properties, and is a promising possible alternative to fossil fuels. IH2 produces oils with a low total acidic number of less than one percent for all the different biomass sources, and has a low oxygen level that so small it can not be detected [4]. The fuel produced is not limited to one use, and can be used in various applications for transportation and energy generation. The majority of fuel produced has a boiling point in the range from gasoline and diesel, and in there is the range for jet fuel [1].

The biomass being used affects the resultant of the process. The initial ratio of hydrogen to carbon in the mass can increase or reduce the amount of weight liquid yield that will be produced. Seaweed and algae have higher hydrogen to carbon ration than wood and corn, thus the weight of the liquid produced by seaweed and algae have a higher percent weight of the original biomass than wood, corn, and other biomasses tested with a lesser hydrogen to carbon ratio [1].

Possible Plant Locations[edit]

The main issue is getting the biomass from its origin to the IH2 plant. It is being speculated that the IH2 plant could become an integrated part of paper mills and other factories that use a organic substance for a product. The IH2 process produces steam that can be used for the factory, making the process even more efficient by reducing/eliminating the need for a separate piece of equipment (boiler) [4].


References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Marker, T. L., Felix, L. G., Linck, M. B., Roberts M. J. (December, 2011). Integrated hydropyrolysis and hydroconversion (IH2) for the direct production of gasoline and diesel fuels or blending components from biomass, part 1: Proof of principle testing. Environmental Progress & Sustainable Energy. (31, 2)
  2. ^ a b US Department of Energy. (November, 2012). Gas technology institute R&D project. Retrieved from, http://www1.eere.energy.gov/biomass/pdfs/ibr_arra_gti.pdf.
  3. ^ a b c d e f Balagurumurthy, B., Oza T. S., Bhaskar, T., Kumar Adhikari D. (November, 2012). Renewable hydrocarbons through biomass hydropyrolysis process: challenges and opportunities. J. Mater. Cycles Waste Manag. 15, 9-15
  4. ^ a b c d e Rodden, G. (2012). Catalysts are the key. PPI, 54(12), 13-18. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/1282443179?accountid=10353