Victor Amadeus, Landgrave of Hesse-Rotenburg

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Landgrave of Hesse-Rotenburg
Victor Amadeus Landgraf zu Hessen-Rotenburg.jpg
Born 2 September 1780
Died 12 November 1834(1834-11-12) (aged 55)
Spouse Leopoldine of Fürstenberg
Elisabetha of Hohenlohe-Langenburg
Eleonora of Salm-Reifferscheidt-Krautheim and Gerlachsheim
House House of Hesse-Kassel
Father Charles Emmanuel of Hesse-Rotenburg
Mother Leopoldina of Liechtenstein

Victor of Hesse-Rotenburg (Victor Amadeus; 2 September 1779 – 12 November 1834) was the last Landgrave of Hesse-Rotenburg and also the Prince of Corvey from 1815 and Duke of Ratibor from 1821. His namesake was his second cousin King Victor Amadeus III of Sardinia.


Victor Amadeus was the son of Charles Emmanuel of Hesse-Rotenburg (1746–1812) and his wife Leopoldina of Liechtenstein (1754–1823), daughter of Prince Franz Josef I.

Jérôme Bonaparte, King of Westphalia, appointed him as his Chamberlain. Yet Victor Amadeus rejected this appointment by pointing out he was a subject of the Holy Roman Empire. Later he accused the king of felony and after that fled. Victor Amadeus was then forced to transfer to the king at the palace in Rotenburg in Kassel to cover his debt of 35,000 thalers. The king confirmed him on 10 July 1813 as Prince, and Victor Amadeus refused to continue service of the king.

In preparation of the new constitution on administrative reform in Hesse in 1821, he rejected any involvement. He regarded the provisions as binding on himself and his possessions. Repeatedly, there were negotiations with the Landgrave, to him an indemnity against Quantum, which was initially 450,000 dollars,[clarification needed] all of its rights and land in Sydney to move to the assignment. In 1815, Victor Amadeus came to Hesse-Rotenburg current territory on the Rhine (St. Goar and Rheinfels) to Prussia. In compensation, he received the principalities Ratibor and Corvey under Prussian sovereignty as Allodialvermögen.

During the years 1825 to 1833 he moved the Rotenburg court library of 36,000 volumes to Imperial Abbey of Corvey in Höxter, where it remains today as the "Fürstliche Bibliothek Corvey [Corvey Princely Library].

Marriages and Succession[edit]

In Prague on 20 October 1799, Victor Amadeus first married Princess Leopoldine of Fürstenberg (b. 10 April 1781 - d. Prague, 7 June 1806). This marriage was childless.

In Langenburg on 10 September 1812, Victor Amadeus married his second wife, which was his relative Princess Elisabeth of Hohenlohe-Langenburg (b. Langenburg, 22 November 1790 - d. Holitsch, 6 October 1830), daughter of Charles Louis, Prince of Hohenlohe-Langenburg. They had one child.

  • Stillborn daughter (Rotenburg, 1 September 1813).[1]

In Gerlachsheim on 19 November 1831 Victor Amadeus married a third time to Countess Eleonora of Salm-Reifferscheidt-Krautheim and Gerlachsheim (b. Heubach, 13 July 1799 - d. Raitz, 10 November 1851). This marriage was childless.

Without surviving issue, he bequeathed his possessions of Ratibor and Corvey to his nephew Victor, Prince of Hohenlohe-Schillingsfürst as were his titles of Duke of Ratibor and Prince of Corvey. The property belonged next to the former monastery of Corvey in Westphalia, the rule Ratibor in Upper Silesia. This area was 34,000 ha in size and consisted mostly of forests.


The "princely library" (Fürstliche Bibliothek), containing about 74,000 volumes, mainly in German, French, and English, and mainly from the period 1798-1834, has survived in Victor Amadeus's Imperial Abbey of Corvey:

The Corvey library, near Höxter in Germany, houses one of the largest collections of Romantic-era literature in the world. Thanks to the eccentric buying policy of the original owner, it also contains the best collection of popular fiction in English between 1798 and 1834 to be found anywhere. There are many rare works; several are unique. Novels which were generally treated as ephemera were here preserved virtually untouched for two centuries. It was only in the 1980s that the scholarly importance of Corvey was recognised.[2]

Titles, styles, honors and arms[edit]

Titles and styles[edit]

  • 2 September 1779 – 23 March 1812 His Serene Highness the Hereditary Prince of Hesse-Rotenburg
  • 23 March 1812 – 12 November 1834 His Serene Highness the Landgrave of Hesse-Rotenburg

External links[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Kleiner Führer durch die Rotenburger Quart 1627–1834 und das Fürstenhaus Hessen-Rotenburg [Small Guide to the Rotenburger Quart 1627-1834 and the Princely House of Hesse-Rotenburg]. Geschichtsverein Altkreis Rotenburg, ISBN 3-00-010155-1
  • Mitteilungen des Vereins für Hessische Geschichte und Landeskunde e.V. Kassel [Communications of the Association for History and Geography of Hesse e.V. Kassel]. ISSN 0176-3121