Wawona Tunnel Tree, June 1918
|Species||Giant sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum)|
|Location||Mariposa Grove, Yosemite National Park, California, US|
|Date felled||February 1969|
The Wawona Tree, also known as the Wawona Tunnel Tree, was a famous giant sequoia that stood in Mariposa Grove, Yosemite National Park, California, USA, until February 1969. It had a height of 227 feet (69 m) and was 26 feet (7.9 m) in diameter at the base.
The origin of the word Wawona is not known. A popular story claims Wawō'na was the Miwok word for "big tree", or for "hoot of the owl", birds are considered the sequoia trees' spiritual guardian.
A tunnel was cut through the tree in 1881, enlarging an existing fire scar. Two men, the Scribner brothers, were paid $75 for the job (equivalent to $1,861 in 2016). The tree had a slight lean, which increased when the tunnel was completed. Created by the Yosemite Stage and Turnpike Company as a tourist attraction, this human-made tunnel became immensely popular. Visitors were often photographed driving through or standing in the tunnel.
Construction of the Wawona Tree was part of an effort by the Park Service to increase tourism in the age of the automobile. Stephen Mather, the first Director of the National Park Service, was a main supporter of building a tourist clientele for the parks, which would in turn attract increasing appropriations from Congress and establish the Park Service as a legitimate and noteworthy bureaucratic agency. Mather and his chief aide, Horace Albright, who would also be his successor, worked to make the parks as accessible as possible and, with drive-through attractions such as the Tunnel Tree, as memorable as possible. Mather and Albright had already worked on the "See America First" campaign, trying to connect with western railroads to increase visitation to the parks. In the 1920s, the Park Service actively promoted automobile tourism. Roads and roadside attractions bloomed on the sites of Yellowstone, the Grand Canyon, and Yosemite. Roads, they believed, would also increase accessibility for "those who are not as strong and agile as you and I, for they too are entitled to their inspiration and enjoyment," as Albright stated in a 1931 letter about roads in the Smokies. Around this time, the term 'scenic drive' became introduced into the national vocabulary. The Wawona Tree may also have served as the inspiration for the 1946 children's book, Big Tree, by Mary and Conrad Buff.
The Wawona Tree fell in February 1969 under a heavy load of snow on its crown. The giant sequoia is estimated to have been 2,300 years old. When the giant tree fell, there was much debate over what to do with it. It has remained where it fell primarily for ecological reasons, but still serves as a popular tourist destination. Because of their size, giant sequoias can create vast new ecosystems when they fall, providing habitat for insects and animals and allowing new plant growth. It is now known as the Fallen Tunnel Tree.
Visitors to nearby Sequoia National Park sometimes confuse Yosemite's Fallen Tunnel Tree with Sequoia National Park's Tunnel Log. A modest notice of both the Wawona Tree and another tunnel tree appears in the May 28, 1899 issue of a Sacramento Daily Union article: "In the lower grove there is another tree through which the wagon road runs. It is named California and is twenty-one feet in diameter at the base and 248 feet in height."
Other tunnel trees
A number of big trees in California had tunnels dug through them in the late 1800s and early 1900s. The tunnel allowed tourists to drive, bike, or walk through the tree. The tunneling inflicted severe damage to the health and strength of the trees. The tunnels were cut to stimulate automobile tourism; the cutters did not know or care about the profound damage they were inflicting on the trees. Because of the damaging effects of carving through trees, the trend of creating tunnel trees has long passed.
The other giant sequoia drive-through tree has also fallen:
But two walk-through tunnel trees still stand:
- California Tunnel Tree in Mariposa Grove, Yosemite National Park. The California Tunnel Tree's passageway was dug in 1895 to allow horse-drawn stagecoaches to pass through the tree. Today, people can walk or bike through it.
- A dead tunnel tree in Tuolumne Grove, Yosemite National Park. The dead tunnel tree in Tuolumne Grove was the first standing sequoia to be tunneled.
- Chandelier Tree – another tunnel tree, but a coast redwood, not a giant sequoia
- Two other drive-through coast redwood trees (taller and more slender than giant sequoias) still stand. These are along US 101 in northern California, in Klamath and Myers Flat.
- "Frequently Asked Questions, Tunnel Tree". Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks. National Park Service. Retrieved 2013-11-27.
- Farquhar, Francis P. "Place Names of the High Sierra". Yosemite Online. Retrieved 9 March 2016.
- Kroeber, Alfred J. (1916). "California Place Names of Indian Origin". American Archaeology and Ethnology. 12 (2): 66. Retrieved 9 March 2016.
- Clark, Galen (1904). Indians of the Yosemite Valley and Vicinity (1st ed.). Yosemite Valley, California. p. 109. Retrieved 9 March 2016.
-  Archived December 2, 2008, at the Wayback Machine.
- Allin, Craig W. (1987). "9: Wilderness Preservation as a Bureaucratic Tool". In Foss, Phillip O. Federal Lands Policy. New York: Greenwood Press. pp. 130–131.
- Pierce, Daniel S. (2003). "9: The Road to Nowhere Tourism Development versus Environmentalism in the Great Smoky Mountains". In Starnes, Richard D. Southern Journeys: Tourism, History, and Culture in the Modern South. Tuscaloosa, AL: University of Alabama Press. pp. 200–201.
- "When Giants Fall". American Forests. 117 (4): 12. Winter 2012.
- Johnson, Terrell (Feb 19, 2013). "The World's 20 Most Amazing Tunnels". weather.com Travel. Retrieved 2013-02-19.
- "Where is the tree you can drive through?" (PDF). United States Forest Service. Retrieved January 10, 2017.
- "The Myth of the Tree You Can Drive Through". National Park Service. Retrieved 2017-01-10.
[The Wawona Tree] was the second standing sequoia to be tunneled (the first, a dead tree, still stands in the Tuolumne Grove in Yosemite).
- Leitch, B. M. (28 May 1899). "California's Big Trees". Sacramento Daily Union (96). Retrieved 25 June 2014.
- Hilton, Spud (2016-06-17). "Original essays: Why they love the parks". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved 2017-01-09.
The iconic California Tunnel Tree, cut in 1895 to allow horse-drawn stages to pass through, at the Mariposa Grove of Giant Sequoias in Yosemite National Park.
- "Destination drive through trees". OhRanger.com. Retrieved January 9, 2017.