Werner Erhard

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Werner Erhard
Werner Hans Erhard-2.jpg
Erhard in 2015
Born
John Paul Rosenberg

(1935-09-05) September 5, 1935 (age 87)
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
United States
OccupationAuthor, lecturer
Spouse(s)Patricia Fry, 1953–1960 (divorced)
Ellen Erhard (June Bryde), 1960–1983 (divorced)
Children7
Websitewernererhard.net

Werner Hans Erhard (born John Paul Rosenberg; September 5, 1935[1]: 7 ) is an American author and lecturer known for founding est, which operated from 1971 to 1984.[2]: xiv [3] He has written, lectured, and taught on self-improvement.

In 1977 Erhard, with the support of John Denver, Robert W. Fuller and others, founded The Hunger Project,[4][5] an NGO accredited by the United Nations[6] in which more than four million people have participated with the goal of establishing "the end of hunger as an idea whose time has come".[7][8]

In 1991 Erhard retired from business and sold his existing intellectual property to his employees, who then adopted the name Landmark Education, renamed in 2013 Landmark Worldwide.

Early life[edit]

John Paul Rosenberg was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, on September 5, 1935.[1]: 6 [9] His father was a small-restaurant owner who left Judaism for a Baptist mission before joining his wife in the Episcopal Church,[1]: 6 [9] where she taught Sunday School.[1]: 6  They agreed that their son should choose his religion when he was old enough.[1]: 6  He chose to be baptized in the Episcopal Church, served there for eight years as an acolyte,[1]: 6  and has been an Episcopalian ever since.[10]

Rosenberg attended Norristown High School in Norristown, Pennsylvania, where he received the English award in his senior year.[1]: 25, 29  He graduated in June 1953, along with his future wife Patricia Fry,[1]: 30  whom he married on September 26, 1953;[1]: 40  they had four children.[1][page needed]

From the early mid-1950s until 1960, Rosenberg worked in various automobile dealerships (starting at a Ford dealership where he was trained by Lee Iacocca, then Lincoln Mercury, and finally Chevrolet), with a stint managing a nearly defunct medium-duty industrial equipment firm, which became successful under his management.[1]: 42 [11]

In 1960, Rosenberg left Patricia and their children in Philadelphia, traveled to Indianapolis with June Bryde,[1]: 57  and changed his name to "Werner Hans Erhard";[12] he chose the name from Esquire magazine articles he had read about West German economics minister Ludwig Erhard and physicist Werner Heisenberg.[1]: 57–58  Bryde changed her name to Ellen Virginia Erhard.[1]: 53  The Erhards moved to St. Louis, where Werner took a job as a car salesman.[1]: 54, 55 

Patricia Rosenberg and their four children initially relied on welfare and help from family and friends. After five years without contact, Patricia Rosenberg divorced Erhard for desertion and remarried.[1]: 226 

In October 1972, a year after creating Erhard Seminars Training, Erhard contacted his first wife and family, arranged to provide support and college education for the children, and repaid Patricia's parents for their financial support.[1]: 335  Between 1973 and 1975, members of his extended family took the est training, and Patricia and his younger siblings took jobs in the est organization.[1]: 242, 243 

Career[edit]

Parents Magazine Cultural Institute[edit]

In 1961, Erhard began selling correspondence courses in the Midwest. He then moved to Spokane, Washington,[1]: 85  where he worked at Encyclopædia Britannica's "Great Books" program as an area training manager. In January 1962, Erhard began working at Parents Magazine Cultural Institute, a division of W.R. Grace & Co.[1]: 112 [13] In the summer of 1962, he became territorial manager for California, Nevada, and Arizona, and moved to San Francisco and in the spring of 1963 to Los Angeles.[1]: 82–106  In January 1964, Parents transferred him to Arlington, Virginia, as the southeast division manager, but after a dispute with the company president he returned to his previous position as west coast division manager in San Francisco.[1]: 53 : 117–138  Over the next few years, Erhard brought on as Parents staff many people who later became important in est, including Elaine Cronin, Gonneke Spits, and Laurel Scheaf.

Influences[edit]

While largely self-educated,[14][15][16] Erhard was influenced by or worked closely with philosophers,[17][18] leadership and business academics,[19][20] physicists,[21][22][23] and Zen masters.[24][25] Philosopher Michael E. Zimmerman said of Erhard, "He had no particular formal training in anything, but he understood things as well as anyone I'd ever seen; and I've been around a lot of smart people in academia."[26] During his time in St. Louis, he read two books that had a marked effect on him: Think and Grow Rich by Napoleon Hill (1937) and Psycho-Cybernetics by Maxwell Maltz (1960).[1]: 122  When a member of his staff at Parents Magazine introduced him to the ideas of Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers, both key figures in the Human Potential Movement, he became more interested in personal fulfillment than sales success.[27]

After moving to Sausalito, he attended seminars by Alan Watts, a Western interpreter of Zen Buddhism, who introduced him to the distinction between mind and self;[27] Erhard subsequently became close friends with Watts.[1]: 117–138  Erhard also studied in Japan with Zen rōshi Yamada Mumon.[28] In Bartley's biography, Werner Erhard: The Transformation of a Man, the Founding of est (1978), Bartley quotes Erhard as acknowledging Zen as an essential contribution that "created the space for" est.[1]: 146, 147 

Erhard attended the Dale Carnegie Course in 1967.[27] He was sufficiently impressed by it to make his staff attend the course, and began to think about developing a course of his own.[27] Over the following years, Erhard investigated a wide range of movements, including Encounter, Transactional Analysis, Enlightenment Intensive, Subud and Scientology.[27]

In 1970 Erhard became involved in Mind Dynamics and began teaching his own version of Mind Dynamics classes in San Francisco and Los Angeles.[1]: 136–137  The directors of Mind Dynamics eventually invited him into their partnership, but Erhard rejected the offer, saying he would rather develop his own seminar program—est, the first program of which he conducted in October 1971.[1]: 178  John Hanley, who later founded Lifespring, was also involved at this time. In their 1992 book Perspectives on the New Age, James R. Lewis and J. Gordon Melton write that Mind Dynamics, est, and LifeSpring have "striking" similarities, as all used "authoritarian trainers who enforce numerous rules," require applause from participants, and de-emphasize reason in favor of emotion. The authors also describe graduates recruiting heavily on behalf of the companies, thereby eliminating marketing expenses.[29]

est (1971–1984)[edit]

Starting in 1971, est, short for Erhard Seminars Training and also Latin for "it is", offered in-depth personal and professional development workshops, the initial program of which was called "The est Training".[30] The est Training's purpose was to transform the way one sees and makes sense of life so that the situations one had been trying to change or tolerating clear up in the process of living itself.[9] The point was to leave participants free to be, while increasing their effectiveness and the quality of their lives.[31] The est Training was experiential and transformational in nature.[32]

The workshops were offered until 1984, when the est training was replaced by the Forum. As of 1984, 700,000 people had completed the est training.[33] American ethicist, philosopher, and historian Jonathan D. Moreno has described the est training as "the most important cultural event after the human potential movement itself seemed exhausted"[34] and a form of "Socratic interrogation". Erhard challenged participants to be themselves and live in the present[35] instead of playing a role imposed on them[34] by their past, and to move beyond their current points of view into a perspective from which they could observe their own positionality.[34] The author Robert Hargrove said, "you're going to notice that things do begin to clear up, just in the process of life itself".[35]

The first est course was held in San Francisco, California, in October 1971.[36] Erhard led all the early est courses himself, but by the mid-1970s he had trained ten others (doctors, attorneys, and businessmen and -women) to do so.[27]: 384  Est centers opened in Los Angeles, Aspen, Honolulu, New York, and many other cities, and est was enthusiastically endorsed by celebrities and people of influence such as leadership and business academic Warren Bennis, philosopher Walter Kaufmann, social activist Jerry Rubin, business magnate David Geffen, author and businesswoman Arianna Huffington, artist and peace activist Yoko Ono, singer-songwriter John Denver, and actress Valerie Harper.[27]: 384 

Werner Erhard Foundation (1973–1991)[edit]

In the early 1970s the est Foundation became the Werner Erhard Foundation,[37] with the aim of "providing financial and organizational support to individuals and groups engaged in charitable and educational pursuits—research, communication, education, and scholarly endeavors in the fields of individual and social transformation and human well-being." The foundation supported projects launched by people committed to altering what is possible for humanity, such as The Hunger Project, The Mastery Foundation, The Holiday Project, and the Youth at Risk Program, programs that continue to be active. It also organized presentations by scholars and humanitarians such as the Dalai Lama and Buckminster Fuller[38] and hosted an annual conference in theoretical physics, a science in which Erhard was especially interested.[39] The annual conference was designed to give physicists an opportunity to work with their colleagues on what they were developing before they published, and was attended by such physicists as Richard Feynman, Stephen Hawking,[39] and Leonard Susskind.[40]

Werner Erhard and Associates (1981–1991) and "The Forum"[edit]

In the 1980s Erhard created a new program called the Forum, which began in January 1985. Also during that period he developed and presented a series of seminars, broadcast via satellite, that included interviews with contemporary thinkers in science, economics, sports, and the arts on topics such as creativity, performance, and money.

In October 1987 Erhard hosted a televised broadcast with sports coaches John Wooden, Red Auerbach, Tim Gallwey and George Allen to discuss principles of coaching across all disciplines. They sought to identify distinctions found in coaching regardless of the subject being coached. Jim Selman moderated the discussion and in 1989 documented the outcome in an article, "Coaching and the Art of Management."[41]

Subsequent work[edit]

After retiring from Werner Erhard & Associates, Erhard continued to make public appearances. One of these was the December 8, 1993, episode of CNN's Larry King Live, "Whatever Happened to Werner Erhard?" Erhard participated via satellite from Moscow, where he was working with the All Union Knowledge Society[42] and a number of the members of the newly formed Russian parliament.[15] During this time he worked on peace and reconciliation in Northern Ireland, and on some occasions with author Peter Block.[43][44][45]

Erhard has devoted his time to scholarly research, writing, and teaching his ideas on integrity, leadership, performance, and transformation.[46][47][48] He authored a paper on integrity with Michael C. Jensen and Steve Zaffron.[49][50] Author Bartley J. Madden wrote of Erhard's, Jensen's, and their colleagues' new paradigm of individual, group, and organizational performance that it "emphasizes how one's worldview shapes and constrains each individual's perceptions. The paradigm takes one to the source of performance, which is not available by merely explaining performance through linear cause and effect analysis", that "the source of performance resides in how actions correlate naturally with the way circumstances occur", and that "language (including what is said and unsaid in conversations) plays a dominant role in how situations occur and so is instrumental in improving performance".[51]

A major part of Erhard's current work is devoted to the creation and development of the course "Being A Leader and The Effective Exercise of Leadership: An Ontological/Phenomenological Model", which he and his colleagues have led at numerous universities and is taught by 34 professors at their own schools.[51][52] The Financial Times management editor Andrew Hill wrote that the course contributes to the field of business education and furthers academic research.[53]

Erhard is the author of the final chapter of Hayek: A Collaborative Biography, a book about economist Friedrich Hayek, edited by Robert Leeson.[14]

Critics and disputes[edit]

Erhard became the object of popular fascination and criticism, with the media tending to vilify him over several decades.[34] Moreno has written, "Allegations of all sorts of personal and financial wrongdoing were hurled at him, none of which were borne out and some [of which] were even publicly retracted by major media organizations."[34] Various skeptics have questioned or criticized the validity of Erhard's work and his motivations. Psychiatrist Marc Galanter called Erhard "a man with no formal experience in mental health, self-help, or religious revivalism, but a background in retail sales".[54] Michael E. Zimmerman, chair of the philosophy department at Tulane University, wrote "A Philosophical Assessment of the est Training",[55] in which he calls Erhard "a kind of artist, a thinker, an inventor, who has big debts to others, borrowed from others, but then put the whole thing together in a way that no one else had ever done."[56][57] Sacramento City College philosophy professor Robert Todd Carroll has called est a "hodge-podge of philosophical bits and pieces culled from the carcasses of existential philosophy, motivational psychology."[58] Social critic John Bassett MacCleary called Erhard "a former used-car salesman" and est "just another moneymaking scam."[59] NYU psychology professor Paul Vitz called est "primarily a business" and said its "style of operation has been labeled as fascist."[60]

In 1991 Erhard "vanished amid reports of tax fraud (which proved false and won him $200,000 from the IRS[15][61]) and allegations of incest (which were later recanted)."[62] The March 3, 1991, episode of 60 Minutes covered these allegations and was later removed by CBS due to factual inaccuracies.[33] On March 3, 1992, Erhard sued CBS, San Jose Mercury News reporter John Hubner and approximately 20 other defendants for libel, defamation, slander, invasion of privacy, and conspiracy.[63][64] On May 20, 1992, he filed for dismissal of his own case and sent each of the defendants $100 to cover their filing fees in the case.[65] Erhard told Larry King in an interview that he dropped the suit after receiving legal advice telling him that in order to win it, he would have to prove not just that CBS knew the allegations were false but that CBS acted with malice.[66] Erhard told King that his family members[61] had since retracted their allegations, which according to Erhard had been made under pressure from the 60 Minutes producer.[66]

Erhard's daughters retracted the allegations of sexual abuse they had made against him.[67][68] Celeste Erhard, one of the daughters featured on 60 Minutes, sued Hubner and the San Jose Mercury News for $2 million,[69] accusing the newspaper of having "defrauded her and invaded her privacy",[69] saying she had exaggerated information, been promised a $2 million book deal, and appeared on 60 Minutes to get publicity for the book.[69][70] Celeste claimed that her quotes in the Mercury News article were deceitfully obtained.[71] The case was dismissed in August 1993, the judge ruling that the statute of limitations had expired, that Celeste "had suffered no monetary damages or physical harm and that she failed to present legal evidence that Hubner had deliberately misled her",[69] which is legally required for damages.

CBS subsequently withdrew the video of the 60 Minutes program from the market.[72] A disclaimer said, "this segment has been deleted at the request of CBS News for legal or copyright reasons".[33]

In 1992 a court entered a default judgment of $380,000 against Erhard in absentia in a case alleging negligent injury.[73]: 262  The appellate court stated that he had not been personally served and was not present at the trial.[74]

In 1993 Erhard filed a wrongful disclosure lawsuit against the IRS, asserting that IRS agents had incorrectly and illegally revealed details of his tax returns to the media.[75] In April 1991, IRS spokesmen were widely quoted alleging that "Erhard owed millions of dollars in back taxes, that he was transferring assets out of the country, and that the agency was suing Erhard", branding Erhard a "tax cheat".[75] On April 15, the IRS was reported to have placed a lien of $6.7 million on Erhard's personal property.[76] In his suit Erhard stated that he had never refused to pay taxes that were lawfully due,[75] and in September 1996 he won the suit. The IRS paid him $200,000 in damages. While admitting that the media reports quoting the IRS on Erhard's tax liabilities had been false, the IRS took no action to have the media correct those statements.[75][77]

A private investigator quoted in the Los Angeles Times stated that by October 1989, Scientology had collected five filing cabinets' worth of materials about Erhard, many from certain graduates of est who had joined Scientology, and that Scientology was clearly in the process of organizing a "media blitz" aimed at discrediting him.[78] According to Erhard's brother Harry Rosenberg, "Werner made some very, very powerful enemies. They really got him."[67]

Impact[edit]

A 2012 Financial Times article stated that Erhard's influence "extends far beyond the couple of million people who have done his courses; there is hardly a self-help book or a management training programme that does not borrow some of his principles."[15] In 1995, Fortune magazine's 40th anniversary issue wrote that Erhard's ideas about methods for empowering people were one of the major innovations in management thinking of the previous two decades.[79][need quotation to verify] Erhard's work has impacted millions of people's lives[80] through his programs for individuals, organizations[81] and business leaders.[82] His work has been cited as having a significant cultural impact on America in the 1970s.[83] Erhard's teachings have influenced the field of professional coaching[84] and been noted as having a positive impact on society.[85]

Other organizations[edit]

The Hunger Project[edit]

In 1977, with the support of John Denver, former Oberlin College president Robert W. Fuller, and others, Erhard founded The Hunger Project, a nonprofit NGO accredited to the United Nations Economic and Social Council[5] in which more than four million people have participated. Erhard wrote the Hunger Project source document "The End of Starvation: Creating an Idea Whose Time Has Come."[86]

Landmark Education[edit]

In 1991 the group that later formed Landmark Education purchased the intellectual property of Erhard. In 1998, Time magazine published an article[87] about Landmark Education and its historical connection to Erhard. The article stated that: "In 1991, before he left the U.S., Erhard sold the 'technology' behind his seminars to his employees, who formed a new company called the Landmark Education Corp., with Erhard's brother Harry Rosenberg at the helm." Landmark Education states that its programs have as their basis ideas originally developed by Erhard, but that Erhard has no financial interest, ownership, or management role in Landmark Education.[88] In Stephanie Ney v. Landmark Education Corporation (1994), the courts determined Landmark Education Corporation did not have successor-liability to Werner Erhard & Associates, the corporation whose assets Landmark Education purchased.[89][non-primary source needed]

According to Steven Pressman in the 1993 book Outrageous Betrayal, Landmark Education further agreed to pay Erhard a long-term licensing fee for the material used in the Forum and other courses. Erhard stood to earn up to $15 million over the next 18 years."[73]: 253–255  However, Arthur Schreiber's declaration of May 3, 2005 states: "Landmark Education has never paid Erhard under the license agreements (he assigned his rights to others)." [90][non-primary source needed]

In 2001, New York Magazine reported that Landmark Education's CEO, Harry Rosenberg, said that the company had bought outright Erhard's license and his rights to the business in Japan and Mexico.[91] From time to time Erhard consults with Landmark Education.[92]

Further reading[edit]

Bartley, William Warren III: Werner Erhard The Transformation of a Man: The Founding of est, New York: Clarkson N. Potter Inc. (1978) ISBN 0-517-53502-5.

Speaking Being: Werner Erhard, Martin Heidegger, and a New Possibility of Being Human, Hyde, Bruce and Drew Kopp: Wiley (2019) ISBN 978-1119549901.

"Being Well" Chapter 5 in Beyond Health and Normality: Explorations of Exceptional Psychological Well-Being, edited by Roger Walsh and Deane H. Shapiro Jr., Van Nostrand. 1983.

"est: Communication in a Context of Compassion" with Victor Gioscia, The Journal of Current Psychiatric Therapies, Volume 18. 1978.

The est Standard Training with Victor Gioscia. Biosciences Communication 3:104-122. 1977.

Works[edit]

Creating Leaders: An Ontological/Phenomenological Model with Michael C. Jensen, Chapter 16 in Handbook For Teaching Leadership: Knowing, Doing, and Being, edited by Scott A. Snook, Rakesh Khurana, and Nitin Nohria, Harvard Business School. SAGE Publications, 2012

Four Ways of Being that Create the Foundations of A Great Personal Life, Great Leadership and A Great Organization with Michael C. Jensen, Jesse Isidor Straus Professor of Business Administration, Emeritus Harvard Business School, 2013

The Hunger Project Source Document, The End of Starvation: Creating an Idea Whose Time Has Come 1977

Integrity: A Positive Model that Incorporates the Normative Phenomena of Morality, Ethics and Legality with Michael C. Jensen, and Steve Zaffron. Harvard Business School NOM Working Paper No. 06-11; Barbados Group Working Paper No. 06-03; Simon School Working Paper No. FR 08-05.

Putting Integrity Into Finance: A Purely Positive Approach with Michael C. Jensen. Journal: Capitalism and Society, Issue 12, Volume 1, May 2017; National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER) #19986, March 2014;[82] European Corporate Governance Institute (ECGI) Finance Working Paper No. 417/2014; and Harvard Law School Forum on Corporate Governance and Financial Regulation.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa Bartley, William Warren III (1978). Werner Erhard: The Transformation of a Man, the Founding of est. New York: Clarkson N. Potter. ISBN 0-517-53502-5.
  2. ^ Bartley, William Warren III (1978). Werner Erhard: The Transformation of a Man, the Founding of est. New York: Clarkson N. Potter. ISBN 0-517-53502-5. est is a training program in the expansion and transformation of consciousness which was founded by Werner Erhard in California in 1971.
  3. ^ Erhard, Werner. "Curriculum Vitae". Werner Erhard. Retrieved February 2, 2017. These companies were: Erhard Seminars Training Inc. (1971–1975); est, an educational corporation (1975–1981), and Werner Erhard and Associates (1981–1991).
  4. ^ Amor, Ben (2017). The Urban Shepherd: chasing the American Dream. [S.l.]: Dog Ear Publishing. p. 66. ISBN 978-1457545344. OCLC 985912622. The founders included Werner Erhard (the founder of EST), John Denver, Bob Fuller, Dana Meadows, and Roy Prosterman.
  5. ^ a b "The Hunger Project". CSO-Net. Economic and Social Council. Retrieved 30 Nov. 2015.
  6. ^ Encyclopedia of human rights. Lawson, Edward (Edward H.), Bertucci, Mary Lou (2nd ed.). Washington, DC: Taylor & Francis. 1996. p. 744. ISBN 1560323620. OCLC 34731141. Hunger Project has consultative status with the UN Economic and Social Council [...].{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: others (link)
  7. ^ Amor, Ben (2017). Urban Shepard : Chasing the American Dream. [S.l.]: Dog Ear Publishing. p. 66. ISBN 978-1457545344. OCLC 985912622.
  8. ^ "Werner Erhard - The Hunger Project Source Document". www.wernererhard.net. Retrieved May 18, 2018.
  9. ^ a b c Steven M. Tipton, Getting Saved from the Sixties: Moral Meaning in Conversion and Cultural Change. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1982, p. 176.
  10. ^ Wakefield, Dan. "Erhard's Life After est Common boundary: March/April 1994". wernererhard.com. Archived from the original on May 12, 2010.
  11. ^ Iaccoca, Lee (1984). Iacocca: An autobiography. New York: Bantam Books. ISBN 0-553-38497-X
  12. ^ Johns, John (May 1976). "Interview with Werner Erhard". PSA Magazine.
  13. ^ The Graphic Designer's Guide to Clients, by Ellen M. Shapiro
  14. ^ a b Erhard, Werner (2013). "Bill Bartley: An Extraordinary Biographer". In Leeson, Robert (ed.). Hayek: A Collaborative Biography: Part 1 Influences from Mises to Bartley. Archival Insights into the Evolution of Economics. Springer. pp. 234–236. ISBN 9781137328564. Retrieved May 28, 2019.
  15. ^ a b c d "Lunch with the FT: Werner Erhard". The Financial Times. April 28, 2012. Erhard is an autodidact… Jensen is an emeritus professor at Harvard Business School… Together they are writing academic articles and touring the world’s best universities.
  16. ^ Bennis, Warren; Biederman, Patricia Ward (2010). Still Surprised: A Memoir of a Life in Leadership. Jossey-Bass. ISBN 978-0470432389.“Thanks to the notoriety of est, everyone seemed to know that Werner had been born John Rosenberg and once worked as a used car salesman. He didn’t have much formal higher education, but the man I came to know in San Francisco was an impressive autodidact. He was especially knowledgeable about theoretical physics, largely as a result of his friendship with such distinguished thinkers as Nobel laureates Richard Feynman and Murray Gell-Mann.”
  17. ^ Hyde, Bruce; Kopp, Drew (2019). Speaking Being: Werner Erhard, Martin Heidegger, and a New Possibility of Being Human. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons. p. 208. ISBN 978-1119549901."According to Hubert Dreyfus, a scholar with whom Werner Erhard consulted while creating the Forum"
  18. ^ Smith, David L. (2012). The Predicament: How Did It Happen? How Bad Is It? The Case For Radical Change Now!. Sic Itur Ad Astra."Werner also credits tutoring by Richard Feynman, Michel Foucault, Humberto Maturana, Sir Karl Popper, and Hilary Putnam"
  19. ^ Brock, Vikki (2018). English, Susan (ed.). Professional Coaching: Principles and Practice. Springer.“Many key pioneers in coaching participated in Erhard's programs and/or were his friends. For example, Tim Gallwey (The Inner Game of Coaching) coached Werner Erhard in tennis. Ken Blanchard (The One Minute Manager) and Peter Senge (The Fifth Discipline) were personal friends, and Warren Bennis (leadership guru and author of On Becoming a Leader) took est in 1979 in London and advised Erhard in the 1980s. Sir John Whitmore (Coaching for Performance, 1992) brought Erhard to the United Kingdom in May 1974. James Flaherty (1985 est training and follow-up book on Coaching: Evoking Excellence in Others, and co-founder of Newfield Network).”
  20. ^ Leeson, Robert (2013). Hayek, A Collaborative Biography. Palgrave Macmillan.“Erhard organized and led Harvard seminars and training sessions in association with Michael Jensen, Professor of Business Administration Emeritus at Harvard Business School who co-founded the Journal of Financial Economics and was the recipient of the 2009 Morgan Stanley-American Finance Association Award for Excellence in Financial Economics.”
  21. ^ Feynman, Richard (2010). "Surely You're Joking, Mr. Feynman!": Adventures of a Curious Character. W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 978-0393355628."I arranged to visit Werner Erhard, whom I had known from participating in some conferences he had organized."
  22. ^ Kaiser, David (2012). How the Hippies Saved Physics: Science, Counterculture, and the Quantum Revival. W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 978-0393342314.“By the early 1970s, Murphy was in regular contact with Werner Erhard, the two having come to symbolize the emerging California human potential movement. After donating early to start-up funds to the PCRG, Erhard was also in contact with Sarfatti, Sirag, and several of the other physicists….One prominent participant was Karl Pribram, the famous neurosurgeon and psychiatrist at Stanford University whose early work had clarified the structure and function of the human brain's limbic system and prefrontal cortex. At the time, Pribram was focusing on the question of consciousness from the vantage of neuroscience rather than quantum physics. Writing just days after the Eselen workshop had wrapped up, Pribram enthused to Werner Erhard about how much he had gotten from the experience.”
  23. ^ Susskind, Leonard (2008). The Black Hole War: My Battle with Stephen Hawking to Make the World Safe for Quantum Mechanics. Little, Brown and Company. ISBN 978-0316016414."I liked Werner. He was smart, interesting, and fun. And he was fascinated by physics. He wanted to be part of it, so he spent wads of money bringing groups of elite theoretical physicists to his mansion.. Sometimes just a few of his special physics buddies - Sidney Coleman, David Finkelstein, Dick Feynman, and I - would meet in his home for spectacular dinners catered by celebrity chefs. But more to the point, Werner liked to host small, elite conferences. With a well equipped seminar room in the attic, a staff of volunteers to cater to our every whim, and San Francisco as the venue, the mini-conferences were lots of fun. Some physicists were suspicious of Werner. They thought he would use the physics connection in some devious way to promote himself, but he never did. As far as I can tell, he just liked hearing about the latest ideas from the characters who were hatching them. I think there were three or four EST conferences altogether, but only one left an indelible imprint on me, and on my physics research. The year was 1983. The guests included, among other notables Gerard T'Hooft, Stephan Hawking and myself."
  24. ^ Sklenicka, Carol (2010). Raymond Carver: A Writer's Life. Scribner."By the end of 1962, Erhard was living on the West Coast, working as a sales director for Parents' encyclopedia division, and studying the ideas of Zen master Alan Watts and psychologists Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow."
  25. ^ Veidlinger, Daniel (2014). Buddhism, the Internet, and Digital Media: The Pixel in the Lotus. Routledge.“Werner Erhard, the founder of est, has said, "of all the disciplines that I studied, practiced, learned, Zen was the essential one".”
  26. ^ Symon, Robyn. "Transformation: The Life & Legacy of Werner Erhard: 2005". Symon Productions, Inc. and Eagle Island Films.
  27. ^ a b c d e f g Kay Holzinger (February 1, 2001). "Erhard Seminars Training (est) and The Forum". In James R. Lewis (ed.). Odd gods: new religions & the cult controversy. Prometheus Books. ISBN 978-1-57392-842-7. Retrieved November 18, 2010.
  28. ^ Rawlinson, Andrew (December 31, 1998). The Book of Enlightened Masters: Western Teachers in Eastern Traditions. Open Court. p. 261. ISBN 978-0812693102.
  29. ^ Melton, J. Gordon; Lewis, James R. (1992). Perspectives on the New Age. SUNY Press. pp. 129–132. ISBN 0-7914-1213-X. Retrieved August 5, 2021.
  30. ^ Rhinehart, Luke (1976). The Book of est. Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
  31. ^ Erhard, Werner; Gloscia, Victor (1977). "The est Standard Training". Biosciences Communications. 3: 104–122.
  32. ^ Kettle, James (1976). The est Experience. New York: Kensington Publishing Corporation. pp. 51, 52. ISBN 978-0890831687.
  33. ^ a b c Snider, Susan. "Est, Werner Erhard and The Corporatization of Self-Help". The Believer. Archived from the original on August 6, 2007. Retrieved August 2, 2021. By shedding the overt Erhard association with the program (occasionally Erhard still consults, the Forum admits), the Forum moved toward establishing itself as a common passage for the upwardly mobile young (or even not-so-young) adult, as well as for the fringe element it had always succeeded in catching.
  34. ^ a b c d e Moreno, Jonathan D. (September 22, 2014). Impromptu Man: J.L. Moreno and the Origins of Psychodrama, Encounter Culture, and the Social Network (1 ed.). New York: Bellevue Literary Press (published 2014). ISBN 9781934137857. Retrieved March 7, 2021.
  35. ^ a b Hargrove, Robert (1976). est: Making Life Work. New York: Dell Books. p. 127. ISBN 978-0440195566.
  36. ^ "hotel to hospital – farewell to S.F. era". San Francisco Chronicle. October 31, 2009.
  37. ^ "Werner Erhard Foundation". Werner Erhard Foundation. Retrieved November 13, 2011.
  38. ^ "Werner Erhard Foundation".
  39. ^ a b Susskind, Leonard (2009). The Black Hole War: My Battle with Stephen Hawking to Make the World Safe for Quantum Mechanics. Back Bay Books. p. 191. ISBN 978-0-316-01641-4.
  40. ^ "Werner Erhard (est) Foundation Sponsored Experimental Physics Conference 1977: Novel Configurations In Quantum Field Theory".
  41. ^ Sourcebook of Coaching History, Vikki G Brock PhD., 2012
  42. ^ Hilton, Ronald (1986). "World Affairs Report". California Institute of International Studies. 16–17.
  43. ^ Haldeman, Peter (November 28, 2015). "The Return of Werner Erhard, Father of Self-Help". The New York Times. For several years before his latest professional reincarnation, Mr. Erhard consulted for businesses and government agencies like the Russian adult-education program the Znaniye Society and a nonprofit organization supporting clergy in Ireland.
  44. ^ "Lunch with the FT: Werner Erhard". The Financial Times. April 28, 2012. Erhard tells me that paramilitaries in Northern Ireland had a bit of trouble too, but when they did get it they disarmed as a result. He also worked with members of the first Russian parliament in 1993.
  45. ^ Locke, Bill (January 31, 2018). "A Conversation with Peter Block". Kolbe Times. Peter Block has also been recognized for his efforts to effect peace and reconciliation in the Northern Ireland Peace Process. In 1999, he and Werner Erhard developed The Ireland Initiative, working with clergy and grassroots leaders to develop new thinking and new conversations.
  46. ^ Haldeman, Peter (November 28, 2015). "The Return of Werner Erhard, Father of Self-Help". The New York Times. In his ninth decade, he is consumed with his latest mission, putting in 10-hour days lecturing and teaching three courses a year in addition to completing the textbook.
  47. ^ Kellaway, Lucy; Hill, Andrew (April 27, 2012). "Lunch with The FT: Werner Erhard". Financial Times. Werner Erhard and Michael Jensen look an unlikely pairing but their leadership teaching fits into a broad stream of business education and research about ethics and integrity.
  48. ^ Leeson, Robert (2013). Hayek, A Collaborative Biography. Palgrave Macmillan. Erhard organized and led Harvard seminars and training sessions in association with Michael Jensen, Professor of Business Administration Emeritus at Harvard Business School
  49. ^ Kerr, James (2013). Legacy. Constable & Robinson. In a paper published at Harvard Business School, Michael C. Jensen, Werner Erhard, and Steve Zaffron explore the relationship between integrity and performance.
  50. ^ Orlitzky, Marc; Monga, Manjit (2017). Integrity in Business and Management. Routledge. Erhard, Jensen, and Zaffron present an eminently well-argued, positive model of integrity, which clearly differentiates integrity from morality and ethics.
  51. ^ a b Madden, Bartley J. (August 28, 2012). "Management's Worldview: Four Critical Points about Reality, Language, and Knowledge Building to Improve Organization Performance". Journal of Organizational Computing and Electronic Commerce. 22 (4): 334–346. doi:10.1080/10919392.2012.723586. Werner Erhard, Michael Jensen, and their Barbados Group colleagues (hereafter EJB) have developed a new paradigm of individual, group, and organizational performance
  52. ^ Oran, Suzan; Conard, Scott (November 2014). The Art of Medical Leadership: Expand Your Influence. Wheatmark Inc. ISBN 978-1627871778.
  53. ^ Kellaway, Lucy; Hill, Andrew (April 27, 2012). "Lunch with The FT: Werner Erhard". Financial Times.
  54. ^ Marc Galanter: Cults: faith, healing, and coercion. New York/Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989. ISBN 978-0-19-505631-0, page 80.
  55. ^ Zimmerman, Michael E. "est: A Philosophical Appraisal".
  56. ^ Transformation: The Life and Legacy of Werner Erhard at IMDb
  57. ^ "Documentary, 2006, Directed by Robyn Symon". Transformationfilm.com. Retrieved April 24, 2014.
  58. ^ Carroll, Roberta (2004). The Skeptic's Dictionary: A Collection of Strange Beliefs, Amusing Deceptions, and Dangerous Delusions. John Wiley&Sons. p. 126. ISBN 978-0-471-48088-4.
  59. ^ MacCleary, John Bassett. (2004), The Hippie Dictionary: A Cultural Encyclopedia of the 1960s and 1970s, Page 165., Ten Speed Press, ISBN 1-58008-547-4
  60. ^ Vitz, Paul C. (1994). Psychology As Religion: The Cult of Self-Worship. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. p. 26. ISBN 0-8028-0725-9.
  61. ^ a b Faltermayer, Charlotte (June 24, 2001). "The Best Of Est?". Time. Retrieved September 28, 2007.
  62. ^ Charlotte Faltermayer (June 24, 2001). "The Best of est?". Time. Retrieved November 3, 2012.
  63. ^ San Jose Mercury News staff (April 7, 1992). "Est Founder sues critics: suit names Mercury News writer". San Jose Mercury News. p. 8B.
  64. ^ United Press International staff (March 4, 1992). "EST guru sues CBS, Enquirer, Hustler". United Press International. p. Domestic News.
  65. ^ Werner Erhard vs. Columbia Broadcasting System, (Filed: March 3, 1992) Case Number: 1992-L-002687. Division: Law Division. District: First Municipal. Cook County Circuit Court, Chicago, Illinois.
  66. ^ a b Steve Jackson. "It Happens – Page 8 – News – Denver". Westword. Retrieved November 13, 2011.
  67. ^ a b Grigoriadis, Vanessa (July 9, 2001). "Pay Money, Be Happy". New York. New York Media Holdings. Retrieved November 12, 2010.
  68. ^ Charlotte Faltermayer (June 24, 2001). "The Best Of est". Time.
  69. ^ a b c d Fischer, Jack (August 14, 1993). "$2 million suit against MN dismissed – No harm to Erhard's daughter seen". San Jose Mercury News. California. p. 6B.
  70. ^ "Daughter of est founder sues Mercury News over two articles", San Jose Mercury News, July 16, 1992
  71. ^ "Suit against MN ends in paper's favor". San Jose Mercury News. January 14, 1994. p. 2B.
  72. ^ Jardin, Xeni (August 31, 2009). "Wikileaks re-publishes 60 Minutes piece on est/Landmark cult leader Werner Erhard". Boing Boing. boingboing.net. Retrieved October 27, 2010.
  73. ^ a b Pressman, Steven (1993). Outrageous Betrayal. St Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-09296-2.
  74. ^ Wikisource:Ney v. Landmark Education Corporation and Werner Erhard
  75. ^ a b c d "Leader of est movement wins $200,000 from IRS". Daily News of Los Angeles. Los Angeles, California. September 12, 1996.
  76. ^ "IRS starts liening on Werner Erhard". Chicago Sun-Times. Chicago, Illinois. April 15, 1991.
  77. ^ "IRS Settles Lawsuit brought by Werner Erhard," Business Wire, September 11, 1996.
  78. ^ Welkos, Robert W. (December 29, 1991). "Founder of est Targeted in Campaign by Scientologists : Religion: Competition for customers is said to be the motive behind effort to discredit Werner Erhard". Los Angeles Times.
  79. ^ "Distilled Wisdom: Buddy, Can you Paradigm", Fortune Magazine, May 15, 1995.
  80. ^ Block, Peter (2009). Community: The Structure of Belonging. Berrett-Koehler.“Werner has developed programs that have touched millions of lives.”
  81. ^ Wakefield, Dan (2004). Spiritually Incorrect: Finding God In All The Wrong Places. SkyLight Paths.“Erhard's "technology of transformation" drew more than a million people to his est training … Over the past 22 years more than a million people around the globe – including business executives, NASA officials, juvenile delinquents, government bureaucrats, federal prisoners, and mainstream religious leaders have done Erhard’s seminars.”
  82. ^ Kotler, Steven; Wheal, Jamie (2017). Stealing Fire: How Silicon Valley, the Navy SEALs, and Maverick Scientists Are Revolutionizing the Way We Live and Work. Dey Street Books.“While est itself made an impact, with almost one million people going through those original seminars, Landmark, the latest incarnation of Erhard's teachings, boasts corporate clients including Microsoft, NASA, Reebok, and Lululemon.”
  83. ^ Schulman, Bruce (2002). The Seventies: The Great Shift In American Culture, Society, And Politics. Da Capo Press. ISBN 978-0306811265."...in 1971 Werner Erhard established est, the first and most influential self-motivation training seminar… and the seminars became phenomenally successful."
  84. ^ Renton, Jane (2009). Coaching and Mentoring: What They Are and How to Make the Most of Them. Bloomberg Press. ISBN 978-1576603307.“Werner Erhard is widely regarded as the man who gave the human development movement its popular appeal and one of the most significant influences behind coaching"
  85. ^ Wakefield, Dan (1994). "Review of Outrageous Betrayal: The Dark Journey of Werner Erhard from est to Exile". Tricycle: The Buddhist Review.“One of the reasons for the mystery is that nobody in the media bothers to speak to the people who value in his programs—the seminars of “personal growth” called “the est Training” or, more recently, “The Forum”—dismissing anyone a priori as conned or brainwashed who thinks the experience worthwhile. Yet more than a million people worldwide have done what Erhard calls “the work” (a term he borrowed from Gurdjieft), and according to a study by opinion analyst Daniel Yankelovich, seven out of ten participants in The Forum found it to be “one of their life’s most rewarding experiences,” while 94 percent felt the program had “practical” and “enduring” value.”
  86. ^ Ecker, Bruce; Anthony, Dick; Wilber, Ken (1987). Spiritual Choices: The Problems of Recognizing Authentic Paths to Inner Transformation. Paragon House. p. 130. ISBN 9780913729144.
  87. ^ Faltermayer, Charlotte (June 24, 2001). "The Best Of Est?". TIME.
  88. ^ "Landmark Education, media Q&A". Landmarkeducation.com. Archived from the original on September 27, 2007. Retrieved November 13, 2011.
  89. ^ Appendix A. Text of Court Ruling in Ney Case – Source: LEXIS-NEXIS – STEPHANIE NEY, Plaintiff-Appellant, v. LANDMARK EDUCATION CORPORATION; RON ZELLER, Defendants-Appellees, and WERNER ERHARD; WERNER ERHARD AND ASSOCIATES; PETER SIAS, Defendants. – No. 92-1979 – UNITED STATES COURT OF APPEALS FOR THE FOURTH CIRCUIT – 1994 U.S. App. LEXIS 2373
  90. ^ Declaration filed May 5, 2005 at the US District Court of New Jersey, civil action 04-3022 (JCL), pp 3 and 4
  91. ^ Pay Money, Be Happy, New York Magazine, Vanessa Grigoriadis, July 9, 2001.
  92. ^ "Landmark Education website". February 10, 2002. Archived from the original on February 10, 2002. Retrieved November 13, 2011.

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