Weta

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Wētā
Male tree weta-orig.jpg
Male Wellington tree wētā
Scientific classification
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Wētā is the common name for a group of about 70 insect species in the families Anostostomatidae and Rhaphidophoridae, endemic to New Zealand. (The word "wētā" is from the Maori language; in English, it is frequently spelled "weta".)

General characteristics[edit]

Many wētā are large by insect standards[1] and some species are among the largest and heaviest in the world. Their physical appearance is like a katydid, long-horned grasshopper, or cricket, but the hind legs are enlarged and usually very spiny. Many are wingless. Because they can cope with variations in temperature, wētā are found in a variety of environments, including alpine, forests, grasslands, caves, shrub lands and urban gardens. They are nocturnal, and all New Zealand species are flightless. Different species have different diets. Most wētā are predators or omnivores preying on other invertebrates, but the tree and giant wētā eat mostly lichens, leaves, flowers, seed-heads, and fruit.[2][3]

Male giant wētā (Deinacrida sp.) are smaller than females and they show scramble competition for mates.[4] Tree wētā (Hemideina sp) males have larger heads than females and a polygynandrous mating system with harem formation and male-male competition for mates.[5] Ground wētā (Hemiandrus sp.) males provide nuptial food gifts when mating and females of some species provide maternal care.[6] Wētā eggs are laid in soil over the autumn and winter months and hatch the following spring. A wētā takes between one and two years to reach adulthood, and over this time will have to shed its skin around ten times as it grows.[7]

Wētā can bite with powerful mandibles. Tree wētā bites are painful but not particularly common. Tree wētā lift their hind legs in a defence displays to look large and spiky, but they will retreat if given a chance. Tree wētā raise their hind legs into the air in warning to foes, and then bring them down to stridulate. Pegs or ridges at the base of the abdomen are struck by a patch of fine pegs at the base (inner surface) of the legs and this action makes a distinctive sound.[8] These actions are also used in defence of a gallery by competing males. The female wētā looks as if she has a stinger, but it is an ovipositor, which enables her to lay eggs inside rotting or mossy wood[9] or soil. Some species of Hemiandrus have very short ovipositors, related perhaps to their burrowing into soil and laying their eggs in a special chamber at the end of the burrow.[10]

Taxonomy and evolution[edit]

Male tree wētā Hemideina thoracica

Fossilized orthopterans have been found in Russia, China, South Africa, Australia, and New Zealand, but the relationships are open to different interpretations by scientists. Most wētā of both families are found in the Southern Hemisphere. Wētā were probably present in ancient Gondwanaland before Zealandia separated from it,[11] although this does not explain their presence in New Zealand. Rhaphidophoridae dispersed over sea to colonise the Chatham Islands. Although they are of an ancient lineage, the present species are quite young, which conflicts with those earlier ideas about dispersal of wētā forebears around the Southern Hemisphere (Wallis et al. 2000).

Giant, tree, ground, and tusked wētā are all members of the family Anostostomatidae (formerly in the Stenopelmatidae, but recently separated).[12] Cave wētā are better referred to as tokoriro, since they are members of the family Rhaphidophoridae, called cave crickets or camel crickets elsewhere, in a different ensiferan superfamily. In New Zealand there were as of 2014 19 genera of tokoriri, and their taxonomy is under review.[13][14]

There are other genera in the same superfamily (Stenopelmatoidea) in the southwest of America. These are Jerusalem crickets belonging to the family Stenopelmatidae.

Species[edit]

Giant wētā[edit]

Cook Strait giant wētā (Deinacrida rugosa)

The 11 species of giant wētā (Deinacrida spp.) are endemic to New Zealand.[8] Giant wētā are large by insect standards. They are heavy herbivorous Orthoptera with a body length of up to 100 mm (3.9 in) excluding their lengthy legs and antennae, and weigh about 20–30 g. A captive giant wētā (Deinacrida heteracantha) filled with eggs reached a record 70 g, making it one of the heaviest documented insects in the world[15] and heavier than a sparrow. The largest species of giant wētā is the Little Barrier Island wētā, also known as the wētāpunga. Giant wētā tend to be less social and more passive than tree wētā (Hemideina spp.). They are classified in the genus Deinacrida, which is Greek for "terrible grasshopper". They are found primarily on small islands off the coast of the main islands or at high elevation on New Zealand's South Island, and are sometimes considered examples of island gigantism.

Tree wētā[edit]

Male Hemideina crassidens (Wellington tree wētā)

Tree wētā (Hemideina) are commonly encountered in suburban settings in New Zealand's North Island. They are up to 40 mm long and most commonly live in holes in trees formed by beetle and moth larvae or where rot has set in after a twig has broken off. The hole, called a gallery, is maintained by the wētā and any growth of the bark surrounding the opening is chewed away. They readily occupy a preformed gallery in a piece of wood (a "wētā motel") and can be kept in a suburban garden as pets. A gallery might house a harem of up to 10 adult females and one male.[5] Tree wētā are nocturnal. Their diet consists of plants and small insects.[3] The males have much larger jaws than the females, though both sexes will stridulate and bite when threatened.[8]

Harem of 5 adult females and one male Wellington tree wētā (Hemideina crassidens)

The seven species of tree wētā are:

Auckland tree wētā
Auckland tree wētā

The North Island species each have a distinctive set of chromosomes (karyotype).[19] When the territories of species overlap, as with the related species H. femorata and H. ricta on Banks Peninsula, they may interbreed, although offspring are sterile.[20]

Tusked wētā[edit]

Motuwētā isolata, Mercury Islands tusked wētā

Tusked wētā are characterised by long, curved tusks projecting forward from the male's mandibles. The tusks are used in male-to-male combat, not for biting. Female tusked wētā look similar to ground wētā. Tusked wētā are mainly carnivorous, eating worms and insects. There are three known species in two different subfamilies: the Northland tusked wētā Anisoura nicobarica (originally described as a ground wētā, Hemiandrus monstrosus), in the subfamily Deinacridinae; the Mercury Islands tusked wētā Motuwētā isolata; and the most recently discovered, the Raukumara tusked wētā Motuwētā riparia. Motuweta is in the same subfamily as ground wētā, Anostostomatinae.

The Northland tusked wētā lives in tree holes, similar to tree wētā. The Mercury Islands or Middle Island tusked wētā was discovered in 1970. It is a ground-dwelling wētā, entombing itself in shallow burrows during the day, and is critically endangered: a Department of Conservation breeding programme has established new colonies on other islands in the Mercury group. The Raukumara tusked wētā was discovered in 1996, in the Raukumara Range near the Bay of Plenty. It has the unusual habit of diving into streams and hiding underwater for up to three minutes if threatened.

Ground wētā[edit]

A male ground wētā, Hemiandrus pallitarsis

Ground wētā are classified in the genus Hemiandrus. About 40 species of ground wētā occur in New Zealand, and several very similar ones are found in Australia. They are also very like the Californian Cnemotettix—a similarity perhaps due to their very similar habits and habitat. Most of the Hemiandrus species have not been described. They hide in burrows in the ground during the day, and those that live in open ground (e.g., H. focalis) conceal their exit holes with a specially made perforated door. During the night, ground wētā hunt invertebrate prey and eat fruit.

Cave wētā[edit]

The 60 species of cave wētā or tokoriro are only very distant relatives of the other types of wētā, being classified in several genera of subfamily Macropathinae in family Rhaphidophoridae.

They have extra-long antennae, and may have long, slender legs and a passive demeanour. Although they have no hearing organs on their front legs like species of Hemideina and Deinacrida, some (such as Talitropsis) are very sensitive to ground vibrations sensed through pads on their feet. Specialised hairs on the cerci and organs on the antennae are also sensitive to low-frequency vibrations in the air.

Although some do live in caves, most species live in the forest among leaf litter, logs, tree holes and amongst broken rocks.[21][22] Cave-dwelling species may be active within the confines of their caves during the daytime, and those individuals close to cave entrances venture outside at night.[22]

Conservation[edit]

Although wētā had native predators in the form of birds (especially the weka and kiwi), reptiles, and bats before the arrival of humans, introduced species such as cats, hedgehogs, rats (including kiore) and mustelids have caused a sharp increase in the rate of predation. They are also vulnerable to habitat destruction caused by humans and modification of their habitat caused by introduced browsers. New Zealand's Department of Conservation considers 16 of the 70 species at risk. Programmes to prevent extinctions have been implemented since the 1970s.

Some examples of especially endangered species are tracked by radio beacons.[23]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Griffin, Melissa J.; Trewick, Steve A.; Wehi, Priscilla M.; Morgan-Richards, Mary (2011). "Exploring the concept of niche convergence in a land without rodents: the case of weta as small mammals". New Zealand Journal of Ecology. 35 (3): 302–307.
  2. ^ Wehi, Priscilla M.; Hicks, Brendan J. (2010). "Isotopic fractionation in a large herbivorous insect, the Auckland tree weta". Journal of Insect Physiology. 56 (12): 1877–1882. doi:10.1016/j.jinsphys.2010.08.005. ISSN 0022-1910.
  3. ^ a b Griffin, Melissa J.; Morgan-Richards, Mary; Trewick, Steve A. (2011). "Is the tree weta Hemideina crassidens an obligate herbivore?" (PDF). New Zealand Natural Sciences. 36: 11–19.
  4. ^ Kelly, Clint D.; Bussière, Luc F.; Gwynne, Darryl T. (2008). "Sexual Selection for Male Mobility in a Giant Insect with Female‐Biased Size Dimorphism". The American Naturalist. 172 (3): 417–423. doi:10.1086/589894. ISSN 0003-0147.
  5. ^ a b Wehi, Priscilla M.; Jorgensen, Murray; Morgan-Richards, Mary (2013). "Sex- and season-dependent behaviour in a flightless insect, the Auckland tree weta (Hemideina thoracica)". New Zealand Journal of Ecology. 37 (1): 75–83.
  6. ^ Taylor Smith, B. L.; Morgan-Richards, Mary; Trewick, Steve A. (2013). "New Zealand ground wētā (Anostostomatidae: Hemiandrus): descriptions of two species with notes on their biology". New Zealand Journal of Zoology. 40 (4): 314–329.
  7. ^ Gibbs, Gibbs (24 Sep 2007). "Story: Wētā, Tree wētā". Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 4 September 2012.
  8. ^ a b c Field, Laurence H. (2001). The biology of wetas, king crickets and their allies. Wallingford, Oxon., UK: CABI Pub. ISBN 9780851994086. OCLC 559432458.
  9. ^ Kleinpaste, Ruud (1997). Scratching for a Living. Auckland: Random House NZ. ISBN 186941327X.
  10. ^ Gwynne, Darryl T. (2005). "The secondary copulatory organ in female ground weta (Hemiandrus pallitarsis, Orthoptera: Anostostomatidae): a sexually selected device in females?". Biological Journal of the Linnean Society. 85 (4): 463–469. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8312.2005.00510.x. ISSN 0024-4066.
  11. ^ Pratt, Renae C.; Morgan-Richards, Mary; Trewick, Steve A. (2008). "Diversification of New Zealand weta (Orthoptera: Ensifera: Anostostomatidae) and their relationships in Australasia". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences. 363 (1508): 3427–3437. doi:10.1098/rstb.2008.0112. ISSN 0962-8436. PMC 2607373. PMID 18782727.
  12. ^ Johns, P. (1997). "The Gondwanaland weta: family Anostostomatidae (formerly in Stenopelmatidae, Henicidae or Mimnermidae): nomenclatural problems, world checklist, new genera and species". Journal of Orthoptera Research. 6: 125–138.
  13. ^ Cook, Lorraine D.; Trewick, Steven A.; Morgan-Richards, Mary; Johns, Peter M. (2010). "Status of the New Zealand cave weta (Rhaphidophoridae) genera Pachyrhamma, Gymnoplectron and Turbottoplectron". Invertebrate Systematics. 24 (2): 131–138. doi:10.1071/IS09047. ISSN 1447-2600.
  14. ^ Trewick, Steve A. "Raphidophoridae". Weta Geta – Massey University. Retrieved 27 July 2018.
  15. ^ "Book of Insect Records".
  16. ^ Morgan-Richards, M (1997). "Intraspecific karyotype variation is not concordant with allozyme variation in the Auckland tree weta of New Zealand, Hemideina thoracica (Orthoptera: Stenopelmatidae)". Biological Journal of the Linnean Society. 60 (4): 423–442. doi:10.1006/bijl.1996.0114.
  17. ^ Bulgarella, Mariana; Trewick, Steven A.; Minards, Niki A.; Jacobson, Melissa J.; Morgan-Richards, Mary (2013). "Shifting ranges of two tree weta species (Hemideina spp.): competitive exclusion and changing climate". Journal of Biogeography. 41 (3): 524–535. doi:10.1111/jbi.12224. ISSN 0305-0270.
  18. ^ Morgan-Richards, M (1995). "A new species of tree weta from the North Island of New Zealand (Hemideina: Stenopelmatidae: Orthoptera)". New Zealand Entomologist. 18: 15–23. doi:10.1080/00779962.1995.9721996.
  19. ^ Mckean, NE; Trewick, SA; Morgan-Richards, M (2015). "Comparative cytogenetics of North Island tree wētā in sympatry". New Zealand Journal of Zoology. 42 (2): 73–84. doi:10.1080/03014223.2015.1032984. ISSN 0301-4223.
  20. ^ Mckean, Natasha E.; Trewick, Steven A.; Morgan-Richards, Mary (2016). "Little or no gene flow despite F1 hybrids at two interspecific contact zones". Ecology and Evolution. 6 (8): 2390–2404. doi:10.1002/ece3.1942. ISSN 2045-7758. PMC 4783458. PMID 27066230.
  21. ^ "Cave Weta Ecology". Weta Geta. Massey University. Retrieved 25 February 2017.
  22. ^ a b Richards, Aola M. (1961). "Some Observations on New Zealand Cave-wetas". Tuatara. 9 (2): 80–83.
  23. ^ "Eel's costly snack". The New Zealand Herald. 16 May 2009. Retrieved 3 December 2011.

Further reading[edit]

  • Wallis, G. P.; Morgan-Richards, M.; Trewick, S.A. (2000). "Phylogeographical pattern correlates with Pliocene mountain building in the alpine scree weta (Orthoptera, Anostostomatidae)". Molecular Ecology. 9 (6): 657–666. doi:10.1046/j.1365-294x.2000.00905.x. PMID 10849282.
  • Sherley, Greg H (1998). "Threatened Weta Recovery Plan" (PDF). Department of Conservation. Retrieved 2007-11-07.
  • Bleakley, Craig; Stringer, Ian; Robertson, Alastair; Hedderley, Duncan (2006). Design and use of artificial refuges for monitoring adult tree weta, Hemideina crassidens and H. thoracica. Wellington, N.Z.: Science & Technical Pub., Dept. of Conservation. ISBN 9780478140620.
  • Salmon, John T. (1956). "A Key to the Tree and Ground Wetas of New Zealand". Tuatara. 6 (1): 19–23.
  • Ramløv, H. (2000) Aspects of cold tolerance in ectothermic animals. Journal of Human Reproduction. 15 (Suppl. 5): 26-46.

External links[edit]