Wheelchair Football (American)
Boy playing on an American Wheelchair Football Team.
|Highest governing body||American Association of Adapted Sports Programs|
|First played||Atlanta, Georgia, USA|
|Team members||6 or more (6 at a time during game)|
|Equipment||Football, manual wheelchair, and power wheelchair|
Wheelchair Football is a fast-paced sport that is best played when athletes are in maximum physical condition, and at the top of their game in teamwork, strategy and wheelchair-handling skills for both manual wheelchair and power wheelchair users. In 2020, the USA Wheelchair Football League was launched by Move United, in partnership with the Bob Woodruff foundation and National Football League, and is launching in Chicago, Los Angeles, Phoenix and Kansas City, Missouri.
The sport of wheelchair football was developed by Professor Tim Nugent in 1948. The sport of wheelchair football was developed for interscholastic competition by the American Association of Adapted Sports Programs (AAASP) of Atlanta, Georgia, USA, to incorporate both the manual and power wheelchair during game play. Wheelchair football is patterned after American football, and is thus different from Powerchair Football or Wheelchair soccer (both adaptations of association football).
A competitive wheelchair football league for adults was developed in 2020 by Move United in partnership with the Bob Woodruff Foundation and National Football League. The USA Wheelchair Football League is open to adults with qualifying disabilities who play in a manual sport wheelchair.
The game of wheelchair football is played on a standard basketball court — 28 metres (92 ft) long by 15 metres (49 ft) wide. The required court markings are a center line and circle, and a key area measuring 8 metres (26 ft 3 in) wide by 1.75 metres (5 ft 9 in) deep at each end of the court. It can be played either indoors or outside, as long as it meets the standard requirements. All athletes must use either a manual or a power wheelchair when competing in the sport.
Specified rules for manual and power wheelchair users
|Players Using Manual Wheelchairs||Players Using Powerchair Wheelchairs|
Players in manual chairs have successfully tackled an opponent when they tag the opponent with two hands on the body and above the knees.
Players in power chairs will have made a successful tackle when they tag the opponent with one hand on the opponent’s body or chair.
Adaptive football players are classified into three different levels, and the rules of play are slightly different for each level.
- Level 1 players: have full use of their arms, hands and eyes.
- Level 2 players: have limited arm and/or hand movement and may have some type of visual impairment.
- Level 3 players: have no arm-movement capability and/or have limited sight.
The rules for Level 1 players are somewhat similar to "touch football," where players touch rather than tackle their opponents. In that adaptive game, the player - and not his or her chair - must be touched to count as a tackle. Players who have limited or no mobility in their arms use chair-to-chair contact for blocks and tackles.
Level 1 players, kick offs, punts, runs, and goals are all scored using the hands. Level 2 and 3 players, points for pass completion are awarded if the ball hits the player in the area between the hands and their elbows.
Although the players cannot grab the football, they still need to maneuver their wheelchairs so they can be in the right position for the ball to hit the right place to score. 
A team has six attempts to score once they receive the ball. Teams may pass or “run” the ball into the end zone. Field goals, kick–offs and punts are thrown. A running game clock (no time–outs for incomplete passes, etc.) is used, as well as a play clock. Scoring is the same as in stand–up football, with one exception. A team that passes for the point–after–touchdown (PAT) will receive two points. Field goals are scored when the ball is thrown through the first two vertical uprights that support the hanging basket.
Basic rundown of the sport
|Team||Number of players||Kick off||Offense||Play clock||Half time|
|Varsity teams||Six players per side||made from behind the goal line||4 downs to reach 1st marker or score||35 seconds||Two 30-minute halves running clock|
|Junior varsity teams||Six players per side||made from behind the first down marker||4 downs to reach 1st marker or score||45 seconds||Two 30-minute halves running clock|
The USA Wheelchair Football League plays on a field that is 60-yards long and 22-yards wide with an additional 8 yards at each end for end zones. The field can be indoor or outdoor, and shall be marked with lines every 15 yards crossing the length of the field, and a mark at the 3 yard line.
The game is played in four quarters of 15 minutes each with a running game clock and a 45 second play clock.
Tackling in the USA Wheelchair Football League is completed by placing one-hand above the waist of the ball carrier.
Players must be 18+ by August 1 of the season, and have a permanent physical disability which consistently reduces the function of the lower limbs to a degree where they cannot run, pivot, block or tackle, at the speed and with the control, safety, stability and endurance required to play running football as an able bodied player.
Players are classified via a functional classification system, and will receive a classification point ranging from 1-4.5. A team consists of seven players on the field. A team may not have more than 21 classification points at the field at one time.
Scoring in the USA Wheelchair Football League is available via the following methods:
Touchdown: 6 points
Point After Touchdown: 1 point (passing play), 2 points (running play)
Safety: 2 points
Note, a field goal is NOT a scoring option in the USA Wheelchair Football League
- Manual Sport Wheelchair
- Football (Official NFL-size)
- Helmet (Approved by NFL/NFLPA)
Move United has a formal coaches and officials program which covers Rules, Concussion and Safety Protocol, Setting up Practice Plans and Officials Roles and Signals.
- "NFL helping launch of wheelchair football league at draft". ABC News. Retrieved 2020-04-23.
- "Wheelchair Football: World's Most Inclusive Sport". Retrieved 2012-09-11.
- "Wheelchair Football". mobility-advisor.com. Sowder Group LLC. Retrieved 2 May 2018.
- "Wheelchair Football". Move United. Retrieved 2020-07-10.
- "USA Wheelchair Football League Training - Registration". Move United. Retrieved 2020-07-10.