The Xingu National Park (Parque Nacional Xingu) (pronounced [ʃĩˈɡu]) is a national park created in 1961 in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Its purposes are to protect the environment and the indigenous peoples of the area.
It was created on April 14, 1961, after a campaign by the Villas-Bôas brothers for protection of the region. The decree creating the park was signed by President Jânio Quadros.The area of the park is 2,642,003 ha. (26,420 km²), and it is contained in the municipalities of Mato Grosso; Canarana, Paranatinga, São Félix do Araguaia, São José do Xingu, Gaúcha do Norte, Feliz Natal, Querência, União do Sul, Nova Ubiratã and Marcelândia. The story is documented in the film Xingu.
Pátio da Aldeia Kamaiurá, Alto-Xingu. Indigenous people playing the "Uruá" flute
The Xingu area is of interest among other reasons for the history of early-20th century exploration by Europeans, among whom perhaps Percy Harrison Fawcett is most notable. He sought out a city rumored since early 16th-century European contact. David Grann's book, The Lost City of Z documents not only those early explorations, but more recently found evidence of large-scale civilizations pre-dating Spanish and Portuguese contacts.