||This article may require copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone, or spelling. (June 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)|
|This article needs additional citations for verification. (June 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)|
||This article contains wording that promotes the subject in a subjective manner without imparting real information. (May 2013) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)|
|Revised Romanization||Ryu, Gwansun|
Ryu Gwansun (December 16, 1902 – September 28, 1920), also known as Yu Gwansun or Yoo Kwan-soon, was an organizer in what would come to be known as the March 1st Movement against the Imperial Japanese colonial rule of Korea in South Chungcheong. The March 1st Movement was a peaceful proclamation by the Korean people for their freedom from the Imperial Japanese. Ryu Gwansun is one of the best known participants in this movement, and she became the symbol of Korea's fight for independence through peaceful protest.
- 1 Early life and education
- 2 Career
- 3 Legacy
- 4 Controversy
- 5 References
Early life and education
Gwansun was from Chungcheong, Seoul. She had a teacher, Alice Sharp, who was a western missionary. Sharp referred Gwansun to Ewha Woman’s School, which is now known as Ewha University, in Seoul. And she entered Ewha Woman's School as scholarship student. Scholarship students did not have to pay school expense and after graduation, they worked as teacher. In 1919, Gwansun was a student at the University's high school, where she witnessed the beginnings of the March First Movement. Gwansun participated in March First Movement, and also participated in demonstration which was held at seoul March 5. After that, Ewha Woman’s School was temporarily closed by Governor-General of Korea so Gwansun returned at Chun-an.
Gwansun left Seoul after an order by the Japanese government closing all Korean schools because of independence protests. She returned to her home in Jiryeong-ri (now Yongdu-ri) and became involved in the protest movement.
Awunae demonstration and Arrest
Along with her family, she began to arouse public feeling against the Japanese occupation. She visited churches and explained to people about conditions of demonstrations that held in Seoul. She also planned a demonstration with Cho In-won and Kim goo-eung for independence, which included people from some neighboring towns, Yeongi, Chungju, Cheonan and Jincheon, which took place on the first lunar day of March 1919 in Awunae Marketplace, beginning at 9:00 a.m.. About 2,000 demonstrators participated, shouting, "Long live Korean Independence!" ("대한독립만세"). The Japanese police were dispatched at around 1:00 p.m. that same day, and Ryu was arrested with other demonstrators. Both of her parents were killed by Japanese police's gun shot and also Jo in won injured during the demonstration. After arresting, Gwansun refused suggestion that because she was minor so if she admit crime and cooperate with an investigation she will get a light penalty. After that she suffered torture but she did not disclose name of cooperator.
Imprisonment and Utterance
Ryu served a brief detention at Cheonan Japanese Military Police Station. She was transferred to prison of Gongju police station and she stood trial at the Gongju local court on May 9. Gwansun was sentenced to five years of imprisonment by sedition and security law violation. But she appealed against a decision and on June 30, she gave up appeal and then she was tried and sentenced to five years of imprisonment at Seodaemun Prison. During trial, Gwansun made a strong protest against unfair of Japanese colonial administration and law of Governor-General of Korea so she said it is unfair standing trial by Japanese judge. During her sentence, Ryu Gwan-Sun continued to protest for the independence of Korea, for which she received beatings and other forms of torture at the hands of Japanese officers. She died in prison on September 28, 1920(It is 3 months before of expiration), reportedly as the result of the torture. By the data which is discovered on November 2011, Ryu Gwansun was killed in prison. She was one of an estimated 7,500 Korean citizens who died as a result of these protests, of the approximately 45,000 who were arrested in the same period.
The Japanese prison officials initially refused to release her body, but eventually released it, in a Saucony Vacuum Company oil crate, to Lulu Frey and Jeannette Walter, principals of Ewha Womans School after Frey and Walter threatened to publicize the cause of her death. Her body was reported to have been cut into pieces, but in fact according to Walter, who dressed her body for funeral, this allegation was false. On October 14, 1920, her funeral was held at the Jung-dong church by minister Kim jong-wu and her body lied in Itaewon cemetry. After that, her name was forgotten. Because of relocation of Itaewon cemetry, her grave was considered as cemetry without family or friends. After independence, Ryu Gwansun's shrine was built by cooperation of South Chungcheong and Cheonan.
Gwansune has been called Korea’s Joan of Arc.[by whom?] She was posthumously awarded the Order of Independence Merit in 1962. The March 1st Movement did not immediately grant freedom to Korea, but the Japanese colonial government implemented more lenient policies. People in the foreign community living in Korea started to support Korean independence. Because she did not abandon her convictions after her arrest, Gwansun became a symbol of the Korean fight for independence through peaceful protest and passive resistance.
Unfairness problem on deciding the sentence
In may 9th 1919, court sentenced 5years in prison to Ryu-gwan-sun. In that time, trial process was District court-A court of review-High court. There are not enough evidence left for Ryu-gwan-sun's sentenced years in prison. Uh-yoon-hee who was at same prison with Ryu-gwan-sun said Ryu-gwan-sun was sentenced six years in prison, but cho byeong ok said his father was in prison for seven years with Ryu gwan sun.The testimony of witnesses are not unanimous.
controversy on abusing Ryu-gwan-sun's sacrifice
After Rtu-gwan-sun's death,there are controversy and suspicion that some of Christians in korea abused Ryu's death for cover up their crime of committing Anti national behavior."Solidarity of citizens for observe Christians" insisted that Korean protestantist Park-in-duk abused Ryu's sacrifice for instrument of their propaganda.
Controversy on concealment of traitorous behavior from Ehwa-village school
There are suspicion that Park-in-duk abused Ryu-gwan-sun for cover up his treachery. He tried to deify Ryu-gwan-sun so that he can hide behind. Ryu-gwan-sun became well known person as Park-in-duk's project of Ryu-gwan-sun deification started. Also, there are suspicion that Jeon-young-taek who is also traitor tried to make Korean type of "Joan of Arc" There are saying that Ryu-gwan-sun was murdered(A case of torso murder)by the Japanese Government-General of Korea, But this story seems like Park-in-duk made up. Actually Ryu-gwan-sun's cause of death was aftermath by torture.
Back ground of Ryu-gwan-sun's deification
In 1946, principal of Ewha woman's high school,Sin-bong-jo, and Park-in-duk who graduated Ewha-school village make research on people to publicize Ewha-school.Sin-bong-jo asked Park-in-duk to recommend someone who contributed for korea and its race, and Park recommended Ryu-gwan-sun
Sin-bong-jo was typical traitor who worked for Japanese Government-general of Korea. He sent many of Korean student to japan for the preparation of Japanese's pacific war.After the independence of korea, He thought that deification of Ryu-gwan-sun who is from Ewha-school can be a protector for his Anti-national activities.
- Bright Figures in Korean History (한국역사를 빚낸사람들), Kim, Han-ryong Compiler (김한룡 엮음) 대일출판사
- http://www.cheonan.go.kr/yugwansun/sub01_03.do, 천안시 유관순 열사 기념관 어린시절과 학창시절
- Books, L. L. C. (1 May 2010). "Korean People Who Died in Prison Custody: Yu Gwan-Sun, Yun Dong-Ju, Pak Paengnyeon, Kim Jeong-Ho,". General Books LLC – via Google Books.
- Famous Koreans: Six Portraits -Yu, Kwan-Sun (1904–20) - By Mary Connor at aasianst.org
- http://www.cheonan.go.kr/yugwansun/sub01_04.do, 천안시 유관순 열사 기념관 3.1 만세운동
- http://www.cheonan.go.kr/yugwansun/sub01_05.do, 천안시 유관순 열사 기념관 아우내 만세운동
- Lonely Planet; Simon Richmond (1 November 2012). Lonely Planet Seoul. Lonely Planet. pp. 294–. ISBN 978-1-74321-363-6.
- Connor, Mary. "Famous Koreans Six Portratis". Retrieved 5 May 2015.
- http://www.cheonan.go.kr/yugwansun/sub01_06.do, 천안시 유관순 열사 기념관 옥중투쟁
- Interview with Jeanette Walter quoted in Living Dangerously in Korea: The Western Experience 1900-1950, Clark, Donald N. (Norwalk, CT: Eastbridge, 2003). "... when I was in Korea in 1959, I was interviewed by a group from Kwansoon's school, and I assured them on tape that her body was not mutilated. I had dressed her for burial."
- http://www.cheonan.go.kr/yugwansun/sub01_07.do, 천안시 유관순 열사 기념관 열사의 순국
- McMurray, Nathan. "Society: The March 1st Independence Movement and its big sister". 10 Magazine. Retrieved 2015-05-05.