1991 in spaceflight (July–December)

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This is a list of spaceflights launched between July and December 1991. For launches between January and June, see 1991 in spaceflight (January–June). For an overview of the whole year, see 1991 in spaceflight.


Launches[edit]

Date and time (UTC) Rocket Launch site LSP
Payload Operator Orbit Function Decay (UTC) Outcome
Remarks

July[edit]

1 July
21:53:00
Soviet Union Proton-K / DM-2 Soviet Union Baikonur Site 200/39 Soviet Union RVSN
Soviet Union Gorizont-23 MOM Geostationary Communication In orbit Successful
2 July United States Minuteman III United States Vandenberg LF-10 United States US Air Force
United States GT-143GM US Air Force Sub-orbital Operational test flight 2 July 1991 Successful
Apogee: 1,300 kilometres (810 mi)
4 July
02:32:00
United States Delta II (7925) United States Cape Canaveral SLC-17A United States McDonnell Douglas
United States USA-71 (GPS IIA-2) US Air Force Medium Earth Navigation In orbit Successful
United States Losat-X SDIO Low Earth Navigation 15 November 1991 Failure
Losat-X Command receiver failed nine days after launch
9 July
09:40
Soviet Union Soyuz-U Soviet Union Plesetsk Site 43/4 Soviet Union RVSN
Soviet Union Kosmos 2152 (Zenit-8) MOM Low Earth Reconnaissance 23 July 1991 Successful
10 July
14:00
Soviet Union Soyuz-U Soviet Union Baikonur Site 31/6 Soviet Union RVSN
Soviet Union Kosmos 2153 (Yantar-4KS1M) MOM Low Earth Reconnaissance 13 March 1992 Successful
11 July
17:25
Canada Black Brant IX United States White Sands LC-36 United States NASA
NASA Sub-orbital Solar Ultraviolet Astronomy 11 July 1991 Successful
Apogee: 300 kilometres (190 mi)
17 July
01:46:31
European Union Ariane 4 (40) France Kourou ELA-2 France Arianespace
European Union ERS-1 ESA Low Earth (Sun-synchronous) Remote sensing In orbit Successful
European Union Orbcomm-X Orbcomm Low Earth Technology demonstration In orbit Failure
European Union SARA ESIEESPACE Low Earth Astronomy / Amateur radio In orbit Successful
Germany Tubsat-A TUB Low Earth Technology demonstration In orbit Successful
United Kingdom UoSAT-5 SSTL Low Earth Technology demonstration / Amateur radio In orbit Successful
Orbcomm-X Did not contact ground after separation from carrier rocket
17 July
17:33:53
United States Pegasus / HAPS United States NB-52, Edwards AFB United States Orbital Sciences
United States SCS-1 (Microsat-1) DARPA Low Earth Technology development 23 January 1992 Partial failure
United States SCS-2 (Microsat-2) DARPA Low Earth Technology development 23 January 1992 Partial failure
United States SCS-3 (Microsat-3) DARPA Low Earth Technology development 24 January 1992 Partial failure
United States SCS-4 (Microsat-4) DARPA Low Earth Technology development 23 January 1992 Partial failure
United States SCS-5 (Microsat-5) DARPA Low Earth Technology development 23 January 1992 Partial failure
United States SCS-6 (Microsat-6) DARPA Low Earth Technology development 25 January 1992 Partial failure
United States SCS-7 (Microsat-7) DARPA Low Earth Technology development 23 January 1992 Partial failure
Placed in incorrect orbit due to staging error, most mission objectives still met
23 July
09:05:00
Soviet Union Soyuz-U Soviet Union Plesetsk Site 43/3 Soviet Union RVSN
Soviet Union Resurs-F-12 MOM Low Earth Remote sensing 8 August 1991 Successful
29 July United States UGM-133 Trident II (Trident D-5) United States USS Pennsylvania, ETR United States US Navy
United States CET US Navy Sub-orbital Operational test flight 29 July 1991 Successful
United States CET US Navy Sub-orbital Operational test flight 29 July 1991 Successful
United States CET US Navy Sub-orbital Operational test flight 29 July 1991 Successful
United States CET US Navy Sub-orbital Operational test flight 29 July 1991 Successful
Apogee: 1,000 kilometres (620 mi)
July North Korea Hwasong 6 North Korea Chiha-ri North Korea DPRK
DPRK Sub-orbital Test spacecraft Within an hour of launch Successful
Apogee: 200 kilometres (120 mi)
July Soviet Union MR-20 Soviet Union Professor Zubov, Caribbean Soviet Union MO SSSR
MO SSSR Sub-orbital Aeronomy Within an hour of launch Successful
MO SSSR Sub-orbital Aeronomy Within an hour of launch Successful
MO SSSR Sub-orbital Aeronomy Within an hour of launch Successful
MO SSSR Sub-orbital Aeronomy Within an hour of launch Successful
Apogee: 250 kilometres (160 mi)

August[edit]

1 August
01:40:00
United States Nike Orion Sweden Esrange Germany DLR
Germany TURBO-B DLR Sub-orbital Aeronomy 1 August 1991 Successful
Apogee: 130 kilometres (81 mi)
1 August
01:54:00
United States Viper 3A Sweden Esrange United States NASA
United States PMSE NASA Sub-orbital Aeronomy 1 August 1991 Successful
Apogee: 111 kilometres (69 mi)
1 August
02:03:00
United States Viper 3A Sweden Esrange United States NASA
United States PMSE NASA Sub-orbital Aeronomy 1 August 1991 Successful
Apogee: 112 kilometres (70 mi)
1 August
02:39:00
United States Viper 3A Sweden Esrange United States NASA
United States PMSE NASA Sub-orbital Aeronomy 1 August 1991 Successful
Apogee: 112 kilometres (70 mi)
1 August
02:24:00
United States Viper 3A Sweden Esrange United States NASA
United States PMSE DLR Sub-orbital Aeronomy 1 August 1991 Successful
Apogee: 115 kilometres (71 mi)
1 August
11:53
Soviet Union Molniya-M Soviet Union Plesetsk Site 43/4 Soviet Union RVSN
Soviet Union Molniya-1-82 MOM Molniya Communication 9 October 2004 Successful
2 August
15:02:00
United States Space Shuttle Atlantis United States Kennedy LC-39A United States United Space Alliance
United States STS-48 NASA Low Earth Manned orbital flight 11 August 1991 Successful
United States TDRS-5 NASA Low Earth Communication In orbit Successful
5 August
23:32:00
United States Viper 3A Sweden Esrange United States NASA
United States PMSE NASA Sub-orbital Aeronomy 5 August 1991 Successful
Apogee: 113 kilometres (70 mi)
9 August
22:53:00
United States Viper 3A Sweden Esrange United States NASA
United States PMSE NASA Sub-orbital Aeronomy 9 August 1991 Successful
Apogee: 115 kilometres (71 mi)
9 August
22:39:00
United States Viper 3A Sweden Esrange United States NASA
United States PMSE NASA Sub-orbital Aeronomy 9 August 1991 Failure
Apogee: 5 kilometres (3.1 mi)
9 August
23:30:20
Canada Black Brant VB Sweden Esrange United States NASA
United States EFIELD-A NASA Sub-orbital Ionosphere 9 August 1991 Successful
Apogee: 101 kilometres (63 mi)
9 August
23:15:00
United States Nike Orion Sweden Esrange Germany DLR
Germany TURBO-A DLR Sub-orbital Aeronomy 9 August 1991 Successful
Apogee: 117 kilometres (73 mi)
9 August
23:15:15
United States Nike Orion Sweden Esrange Sweden SSC
Sweden DECIMALS-A SSC Sub-orbital Aeronomy 9 August 1991 Successful
Apogee: 117 kilometres (73 mi)
9 August
23:40:00
United States Nike Orion Sweden Esrange United States NASA
Sweden PEP-A NASA Sub-orbital Aeronomy 9 August 1991 Successful
Apogee: 117 kilometres (73 mi)
10 August
00:06:00
United States Viper 3A Sweden Esrange United States NASA
United States PMSE NASA Sub-orbital Aeronomy 10 August 1991 Successful
Apogee: 101 kilometres (63 mi)
10 August
00:24:00
United States Viper 3A Sweden Esrange Germany DLR
United States PMSE Sub-orbital Aeronomy 10 August 1991 Successful
Apogee: 115 kilometres (71 mi)
10 August
01:37:00
United States Nike Orion Sweden Esrange Sweden SSC
Sweden DECIMALS-B SSC Sub-orbital Aeronomy 10 August 1991 Successful
Apogee: 118 kilometres (73 mi)
10 August
01:42:00
United States Viper 3A Sweden Esrange United States NASA
United States PMSE NASA Sub-orbital Aeronomy 10 August 1991 Successful
Apogee: 117 kilometres (73 mi)
14 August
23:15:13
European Union Ariane 4 (44L) France Kourou ELA-2 France Arianespace
European Union Intelsat 605 Intelsat Geostationary Communication In orbit Successful
15 August
09:14:59
Soviet Union Tsyklon-3 Soviet Union Plesetsk Soviet Union RVSN
Soviet Union Meteor-3-5 MOM Low Earth Weather In orbit Successful
15 August
12:05
Soviet Union UR-100NU Soviet Union Baikonur Soviet Union RVSN
RVSN Sub-orbital Operational test flight 15 August 1991 Successful
Apogee: 1,000 kilometres (620 mi)
19 August
22:55
Soviet Union RT-2PM Topol Soviet Union Plesetsk Soviet Union RVSN
RVSN Sub-orbital Test spacecraft 19 August 1991 Successful
Apogee: 1,000 kilometres (620 mi)
20 August
09:45:48
United States Aries United States Cape Canaveral LC-20 United States BMDO
BMDO Sub-orbital Target 20 August 1991 Failure
Apogee: 2 kilometres (1.2 mi)
20 August
22:54:10
Soviet Union Soyuz-U2 Soviet Union Baikonur Site 1/5 Soviet Union RVSN
Soviet Union Progress M-9 MOM Low Earth, docked to Mir Resupply Mir 30 September 1991 Successful
21 August
10:50:00
Soviet Union Soyuz-U Soviet Union Plesetsk Site 43/3 Soviet Union RVSN
Soviet Union Resurs-F-2 MOM Low Earth Remote sensing 20 September 1991 Successful
22 August
12:35:46
Soviet Union Kosmos-3M Soviet Union Plesetsk Site 132/1 Soviet Union RVSN
Soviet Union Kosmos 2154 (Parus) MO SSSR Low Earth Navigation In orbit Successful
25 August
08:40
Japan H-I Japan Tanegashima LA-Y Japan NASDA
Japan BS-3B Geostationary Communication In orbit Successful
29 August
06:48:43
Soviet Union Vostok-2M Soviet Union Baikonur Site 31/6 Soviet Union RVSN
India IRS-1B ISRO Low Earth (Sun-synchronous) Remote sensing In orbit Successful
Final flight of Vostok rocket
30 August
02:30
Soviet Union Mu-3S-II Soviet Union Kagoshima LA-M1 Soviet Union ISAS
Soviet Union Yohkoh (SOLAR-A) ISAS Low Earth Solar research 12 September 2005 Successful
30 August
08:58:01
Soviet Union Zenit-2 Soviet Union Baikonur Site 45/1 Soviet Union RVSN
Soviet Union Tselina-2 MO SSSR Intended: Low Earth ELINT 30 August 1991 Failure
Second stage overheated, resulting in explosion
30 August United States UGM-133 Trident II (Trident D-5) United States USS Kentucky, ETR United States US Navy
United States DASO-7 US Navy Sub-orbital Operational test flight 30 August 1991 Successful
Apogee: 1,000 kilometres (620 mi)
August Soviet Union MR-20 Soviet Union Professor Zubov, Caribbean Soviet Union MO SSSR
MO SSSR Sub-orbital Aeronomy Within an hour of launch Successful
MO SSSR Sub-orbital Aeronomy Within an hour of launch Successful
MO SSSR Sub-orbital Aeronomy Within an hour of launch Successful
MO SSSR Sub-orbital Aeronomy Within an hour of launch Successful
Apogee: 250 kilometres (160 mi)

September[edit]

3 September United States Minuteman III United States Vandenberg LF-04 United States US Air Force
United States GT-145GM US Air Force Sub-orbital Operational test flight 3 September 1991 Successful
Apogee: 1,300 kilometres (810 mi)
4 September
05:50
United States Talos-Castor United States Barking Sands United States Sandia
Sandia Sub-orbital Tungsten dust release 4 September 1991 Successful
Apogee: 330 kilometres (210 mi)
6 September
21:50
Canada Black Brant 8C United States White Sands United States NASA
NASA Sub-orbital Plasma research 6 September 1991 Successful
Apogee: 148 kilometres (92 mi)
12 September
05:41
United States Talos-Castor United States Barking Sands United States Sandia
Sandia Sub-orbital Target 12 September 1991 Successful
Apogee: 330 kilometres (210 mi)
12 September
12:45
United States R-36MUTTH (SS-18 Mod 4) Soviet Union Baikonur Soviet Union RVSN
RVSN Sub-orbital Operational test flight 12 September 1991 Successful
Apogee: 1,000 kilometres (620 mi)
12 September
23:11:04
United States Space Shuttle Discovery United States Kennedy LC-39A United States United Space Alliance
United States STS-48 NASA Low Earth Manned orbital flight 18 September 1991 Successful
United States UARS NASA Low Earth Atmospheric research 23 September 2011 Successful
13 September
17:51:02
Soviet Union Proton-K / DM-2 Soviet Union Baikonur Site 81/23 Soviet Union RVSN
Soviet Union Kosmos 2155 (Prognoz) MOM Geostationary Missile defence In orbit Successful
15 September
23:00
Japan TR-1A Japan Tanegashima Japan NASDA
NASDA Sub-orbital Microgravity 15 September 1991 Successful
Apogee: 270 kilometres (170 mi)
17 September
10:20
Soviet Union R-36M2 Voevoda (SS-18 Mod 5) Soviet Union Baikonur Soviet Union RVSN
RVSN Sub-orbital Test spacecraft 17 September 1991 Successful
Apogee: 1,000 kilometres (620 mi)
17 September
20:01:59
Soviet Union Molniya-M Soviet Union Plesetsk Site 43/4 Soviet Union RVSN
Soviet Union Molniya-3-48L MOM Molniya Communication In orbit Successful
17 September
23:43
United States Nike Orion Norway Andøya Germany DLR
Germany Turbo-Metal DLR Sub-orbital Aeronomy 17 September 1991 Successful
Apogee: 140 kilometres (87 mi)
17 September United States LGM-118 Peacekeeper United States Vandenberg LF-02 United States US Air Force
US Air Force Sub-orbital Operational test flight 17 September 1991 Successful
Apogee: 1,000 kilometres (620 mi)
19 September
16:20
Soviet Union Soyuz-U Soviet Union Plesetsk Site 43/3 Soviet Union RVSN
Soviet Union Kosmos 2156 (Yantar-4K2) MOM Low Earth Reconnaissance 17 November 1991 Successful
20 September
20:48
United States Nike Orion Norway Andøya Germany DLR
Germany Turbo-Metal DLR Sub-orbital Aeronomy 20 September 1991 Successful
Apogee: 140 kilometres (87 mi)
20 September
22:40
United States Nike Orion Norway Andøya Germany DLR
Germany Turbo-Metal DLR Sub-orbital Aeronomy 20 September 1991 Successful
Apogee: 140 kilometres (87 mi)
26 September
23:43:00
European Union Ariane 4 (44P) France Kourou ELA-2 France Arianespace
Canada Anik E1 Telesat Geosynchronous Communication In orbit Successful
28 September
07:05
Soviet Union Tsyklon-3 Soviet Union Plesetsk Soviet Union RVSN
Soviet Union Kosmos 2157 (Strela-3) MO SSSR Low Earth Communication In orbit Successful
Soviet Union Kosmos 2158 (Strela-3) MO SSSR Low Earth Communication In orbit Successful
Soviet Union Kosmos 2159 (Strela-3) MO SSSR Low Earth Communication In orbit Successful
Soviet Union Kosmos 2160 (Strela-3) MO SSSR Low Earth Communication In orbit Successful
Soviet Union Kosmos 2161 (Strela-3) MO SSSR Low Earth Communication In orbit Successful
Soviet Union Kosmos 2162 (Strela-3) MO SSSR Low Earth Communication In orbit Successful
30 September
20:55:15
United States Nike Orion Norway Andøya Germany DLR
Germany Turbo-Metal DLR Sub-orbital Aeronomy 30 September 1991 Successful
Apogee: 140 kilometres (87 mi)
September Soviet Union MR-20 Soviet Union Professor Zubov, Caribbean Soviet Union MO SSSR
MO SSSR Sub-orbital Aeronomy Within an hour of launch Successful
MO SSSR Sub-orbital Aeronomy Within an hour of launch Successful
MO SSSR Sub-orbital Aeronomy Within an hour of launch Successful
MO SSSR Sub-orbital Aeronomy Within an hour of launch Successful
Apogee: 250 kilometres (160 mi)

October[edit]

2 October
05:59:38
Soviet Union Soyuz-U2 Soviet Union Baikonur Site 1/5 Soviet Union RVSN
Soviet Union Soyuz TM-13 MOM Low Earth, docked to Mir Manned orbital flight 25 March 1992 Successful
Last Soviet manned spaceflight
2 October
15:50
Soviet Union RT-2PM Topol Soviet Union Plesetsk Soviet Union RVSN
RVSN Sub-orbital Test spacecraft 2 October 1991 Successful
Apogee: 1,000 kilometres (620 mi)
3 October
22:27:30
United States Nike Orion Norway Andøya Germany DLR
Germany Turbo-Metal DLR Sub-orbital Aeronomy 3 October 1991 Successful
Apogee: 140 kilometres (87 mi)
4 October
00:08
United States Nike Orion Norway Andøya Germany DLR
Germany Turbo-Metal DLR Sub-orbital Aeronomy 4 October 1991 Successful
Apogee: 140 kilometres (87 mi)
4 October
18:10:00
Soviet Union Soyuz-U Soviet Union Plesetsk Site 43/4 Soviet Union RVSN
Soviet Union Foton-4 MOM Low Earth Biological research 20 October 1991 Successful
9 October
13:15
Soviet Union Soyuz-U2 Soviet Union Baikonur Site 1/5 Soviet Union RVSN
Soviet Union Kosmos 2163 (Ortlets) MOM Low Earth Reconnaissance 7 December 1991 Successful
10 October
11:05
Soviet Union R-36M2 Voevoda (SS-18 Mod 5) Soviet Union Baikonur Soviet Union RVSN
RVSN Sub-orbital Test spacecraft 10 October 1991 Successful
Apogee: 1,000 kilometres (620 mi)
10 October
14:00
Soviet Union Kosmos-3M Soviet Union Plesetsk Site 132/1 Soviet Union RVSN
Soviet Union Kosmos 2164 (Taifun-1) MO SSSR Low Earth Radar calibration 12 December 1992 Successful
14 October
10:17:20
United States Aries United States Cape Canaveral LC-20 United States BMDO
BMDO Sub-orbital Target 14 October 1991 Successful
Apogee: 320 kilometres (200 mi)
17 October
00:05:25
Soviet Union Soyuz-U2 Soviet Union Baikonur Site 1/5 Soviet Union RVSN
Soviet Union Progress M-10 MOM Low Earth, docked to Mir Resupply Mir 20 January 1992 Successful
23 October
15:25:00
Soviet Union Proton-K / DM-2 Soviet Union Baikonur Site 200/39 Soviet Union RVSN
Soviet Union Gorizont-24 MOM Geostationary Communication In orbit Successful
29 October
23:08:08
European Union Ariane 4 (44L) France Kourou ELA-2 France Arianespace
Soviet Union Intelsat 601 Intelsat Geostationary Communication In orbit Successful
30 October Israel Jericho I Israel Negev Desert Israel IDF
IDF Sub-orbital Operational test flight 30 October 1991 Successful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
October Soviet Union MR-20 Soviet Union Professor Zubov, Caribbean Soviet Union MO SSSR
MO SSSR Sub-orbital Aeronomy Within an hour of launch Successful
MO SSSR Sub-orbital Aeronomy Within an hour of launch Successful
MO SSSR Sub-orbital Aeronomy Within an hour of launch Successful
MO SSSR Sub-orbital Aeronomy Within an hour of launch Successful
Apogee: 250 kilometres (160 mi)

November[edit]

4 November United States UGM-133 Trident II (Trident D-5) United States USS Kentucky, ETR United States US Navy
United States DASO-8 US Navy Sub-orbital Operational test flight 4 November 1991 Successful
Apogee: 1,000 kilometres (620 mi)
8 November
07:07
United States Titan IVA (403A) United States Vandenberg SLC-4E United States US Air Force
United States USA-72 (SLDCOM-2) NRO Medium Earth Communication In orbit Successful
United States USA-74 (NOSS-2-2-A) NRO Low Earth Naval Reconnaissance In orbit Successful
United States USA-76 (NOSS-2-2-B) NRO Low Earth Naval Reconnaissance In orbit Successful
United States USA-77 (NOSS-2-2-C) NRO Low Earth Naval Reconnaissance In orbit Successful
11 November
10:19
United States Minuteman III United States Vandenberg LF-09 United States US Air Force
United States GT-146GM US Air Force Sub-orbital Operational test flight 11 November 1991 Successful
Apogee: 1,300 kilometres (810 mi)
11 November United States UGM-133 Trident II (Trident D-5) United States USS Pennsylvania, ETR United States US Navy
United States CET US Navy Sub-orbital Operational test flight 11 November 1991 Successful
United States CET US Navy Sub-orbital Operational test flight 11 November 1991 Successful
United States CET US Navy Sub-orbital Operational test flight 11 November 1991 Successful
United States CET US Navy Sub-orbital Operational test flight 11 November 1991 Successful
Apogee: 1,000 kilometres (620 mi)
12 November
20:09
Soviet Union Tsyklon-3 Soviet Union Plesetsk Soviet Union RVSN
Soviet Union Kosmos 2165 (Strela-3) MO SSSR Low Earth Communication In orbit Successful
Soviet Union Kosmos 2166 (Strela-3) MO SSSR Low Earth Communication In orbit Successful
Soviet Union Kosmos 2167 (Strela-3) MO SSSR Low Earth Communication In orbit Successful
Soviet Union Kosmos 2168 (Strela-3) MO SSSR Low Earth Communication In orbit Successful
Soviet Union Kosmos 2169 (Strela-3) MO SSSR Low Earth Communication In orbit Successful
Soviet Union Kosmos 2170 (Strela-3) MO SSSR Low Earth Communication In orbit Successful
16 November
15:30
Canada Black Brant 9CM1 United States White Sands LC-36 United States SSI
United States CONSORT-4 SSI Sub-orbital Microgravity 16 November 1991 Successful
Apogee: 298 kilometres (185 mi)
20 November
08:05
Soviet Union R-36M2 Voevoda (SS-18 Mod 5) Soviet Union Baikonur Soviet Union RVSN
RVSN Sub-orbital Operational test flight 20 November 1991 Successful
Apogee: 1,000 kilometres (620 mi)
20 November
19:15
Soviet Union Soyuz-U Soviet Union Plesetsk Site 43/3 Soviet Union RVSN
Soviet Union Kosmos 2171 (Yantar-4K2) MOM Low Earth Reconnaissance 17 January 1992 Successful
22 November
13:27:00
Soviet Union Proton-K / DM-2 Soviet Union Baikonur Site 81/23 Soviet Union RVSN
Soviet Union Kosmos 2172 (Potok) MOM Geostationary Communication In orbit Successful
23 November
09:40
United Kingdom Skylark 7 Sweden Esrange LA-S Germany MBB
Germany TEXUS-28 MBB Sub-orbital Microgravity 23 November 1991 Successful
Apogee: 239 kilometres (149 mi)
24 November
23:44:00
United States Space Shuttle Atlantis United States Kennedy LC-39A United States United Space Alliance
United States STS-44 NASA Low Earth Manned orbital flight 1 December 1991 Successful
United States DSP-16 US Air Force Low Earth Missile defence In orbit Successful
26 November
02:30
Soviet Union UR-100NU Soviet Union Baikonur Soviet Union RVSN
RVSN Sub-orbital Test spacecraft 26 November 1991 Successful
Apogee: 1,000 kilometres (620 mi)
27 November
03:30:26
Soviet Union Kosmos-3M Soviet Union Plesetsk Site 133/3 Soviet Union RVSN
Soviet Union Kosmos 2173 (Parus) MO SSSR Low Earth Navigation In orbit Successful
28 November
07:10
Soviet Union R-36M2 Voevoda (SS-18 Mod 5) Soviet Union Baikonur Soviet Union RVSN
RVSN Sub-orbital Operational test flight 28 November 1991 Successful
Apogee: 1,000 kilometres (620 mi)
28 November
13:23
United States Atlas-E United States Vandenberg SLC-3W United States US Air Force
United States USA-73 (DMSP-11) US Air Force Low Earth (Sun-synchronous) Weather In orbit Successful

December[edit]

6 December
00:54
United States Taurus-Nike-Tomahawk United States Wallops Island United States NASA
United States RED AIR 2 NASA Sub-orbital Plasma research 6 December 1991 Successful
Apogee: 346 kilometres (215 mi)
6 December
01:19
United States Taurus-Nike-Tomahawk United States NASA United States Wallops Island
United States RED AIR 2 NASA Sub-orbital Plasma research 6 December 1991 Successful
Apogee: 346 kilometres (215 mi)
7 December
22:47
United States Atlas II United States Cape Canaveral LC-36B United States General Dynamics
France Eutelsat 2F3 France Eutelsat Geostationary Communication In orbit Successful
16 December
23:19:48
European Union Ariane 4 (44L) France Kourou ELA-2 France Arianespace
United Kingdom Inmarsat 2F3 Inmarsat Geostationary Communication In orbit Successful
France Télécom 2A France France Télécom Geostationary Communication In orbit Successful
17 December
11:00
Soviet Union Soyuz-U Soviet Union Baikonur Site 31/6 Soviet Union RVSN
Soviet Union Kosmos 2174 (Yantar-1KFT) MOM Low Earth Reconnaissance 30 January 1992 Successful
18 December
03:54:00
Soviet Union Tsyklon-3 Soviet Union Plesetsk Soviet Union RVSN
Soviet Union Interkosmos-25 MOM Medium Earth Plasma research In orbit Successful
Soviet Union Maigon-3 Medium Earth Magnetosphere research In orbit Successful
Released from Interkosmos-25 on 28 December 1991
19 December
11:41:00
Soviet Union Proton-K / DM-2 Soviet Union Baikonur Site 81/23 Soviet Union RVSN
Soviet Union Raduga-28 MOM Geostationary Communication In orbit Successful
Last Soviet orbital launch
20 December
21:31
Russia Rokot Kazakhstan Baikonur Soviet Union RVSN
RVSN Sub-orbital Test spacecraft 20 December 1991 Successful
Apogee: 1,000 kilometres (620 mi)
28 December
12:00
China Long March 3 China Xichang LA-1 China CALT
China Chinasat-4 Chinasat Intended: Geosynchronous
Achieved: Geostationary transfer
Communication In orbit Failure
Third stage failed to ignite
December Russia Volna Kazakhstan Submarine Russia VMF
VMF Sub-orbital Operational test flight Within an hour of launch Successful
Apogee: 1,000 kilometres (620 mi)
December Russia Zyb Kazakhstan Submarine Soviet Union VMF
Soviet Union Sprint VMF Sub-orbital Technology demonstration Within an hour of launch Successful
Apogee: 500 kilometres (310 mi)

References[edit]

Generic references:

Footnotes[edit]